Telomere Science Library

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about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

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Authors: Yuan Yao, Maria Luz Fernandez Published: 01/27/2017, EC Nutrition Abstract The telomere activator-65 (TA-65), extracted from the Chinese herb Radis astragali, has been shown to have protective effects against a number of chronic conditions including insulin resistance, neural depression, cardiovascular disease and age-related macular degeneration among others. Telomeres are protective nucleotide repeats...
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Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to adulthood morbidities, including type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance have been associated with shortened telomere length. First, we aimed to investigate whether or not maternal obesity influences insulin sensitivity and its relationship with leucocyte telomere length (LTL) in elderly women. Second, we tested whether or not resistance exercise training improves insulin sensitivity in elderly frail women....
Published 03/22/2016    Read More...
Bilirubin (BR) is a natural endogenous compound with a potent bioactivity. Gilbert's Syndrome (GS) is a benign hereditary condition of increased unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in serum and serves as a convenient model for studying the effects of BR in humans. In absence of liver disease, increased UCB levels are inversely associated to all-cause mortality risk, especially from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). On the other hand, telomere malfunction is linked to a higher risk of CVDs. To our...
Published 03/01/2016    Read More...
Insomnia, particularly in later life, may raise the risk for chronic diseases of aging and mortality through its effect on cellular aging. The current study examines the effects of insomnia on telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, and tests whether insomnia interacts with chronological age to increase cellular aging....
Published 03/01/2016    Read More...
Chromothripsis is a recently discovered form of genomic instability, characterized by tens to hundreds of clustered DNA rearrangements resulting from a single dramatic event. Telomere dysfunction has been suggested to play a role in the initiation of this phenomenon, which occurs in a large number of tumor entities. Here, we show that telomere attrition can indeed lead to catastrophic genomic events, and that telomere patterns differ between cells analyzed before and after such genomic...
Published 02/29/2016    Read More...
Declining health in the oldest-old takes an energy toll for the simple maintenance of body functions. The underlying mechanisms, however, differ in males and females. In females, the declines are explained by loss of muscle mass; but this is not the case in males, in whom they are associated with increased levels of circulating creatine kinase. This relationship raises the possibility that muscle damage rather than muscle loss is the cause of the increased energy demands of unhealthy aging in...
Published 02/26/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are crucial in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and genomic stability. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between telomere length and the risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting. We performed literature review and meta-analysis to demonstrate the relationship between telomere length and cancer risk. A total of 23,379 cases and 68,792 controls from 51 publications with 62 population studies were included in this meta-analysis to assess...
Published 02/26/2016    Read More...
The epigenetic clock, in particular epigenetic pre-aging quantified by the so-called DNA methylation age acceleration, has recently been suggested to closely correlate with a variety of disease phenotypes. There remains a dearth of data, however, on its association with telomere length and frailty, which can be considered major correlates of age on the genomic and clinical level, respectively....
Published 02/26/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at distal ends of chromosomes that protect against genomic DNA degradation and chromosomal instability. Excessive telomere shortening leads to cellular senescence and for this reason telomere length is a marker of biological age. Abnormally short telomeres may culminate in the manifestation of a number of cardio-metabolic diseases. Age-related cardio-metabolic diseases attributable to an inactive lifestyle, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes...
Published 02/25/2016    Read More...
The role of telomeres and telomerase in colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established as the major driving force in generating chromosomal instability. However, their potential as prognostic markers remains unclear. We investigated the outcome implications of telomeres and telomerase in this tumour type. We considered telomere length (TL), ratio of telomere length in cancer to non-cancer tissue (T/N ratio), telomerase activity and TERT levels; their relation with clinical variables and their role...
Published 02/25/2016    Read More...
Authors: Chao C. Xing, Christine Kim CK. Garcia Published: 02/23/2016, Journal of medical genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/23/2016    Read More...
End-stage renal disease patients have a prematurely aged T-cell system. Here, we tested whether T-cell ageing parameters are associated with the risk for infections after renal transplantation (RT). We studied 188 patients during one year. Peripheral T cells were analyzed before, and 3 and 6 months after RT, for recent thymic emigrants frequency, the relative telomere length and differentiation status. These parameters were related to the occurrence of opportunistic (OI) and serious infections...
Published 02/23/2016    Read More...
We prospectively examined the relation of relative telomere lengths (RTLs), a marker of biological aging, to phobic anxiety in later-life. RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured among 3194 women in the Nurses' Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989/90. The Crown-Crisp Phobic Index (CCI, range=0–16) was assessed in 1988 and 2004. Only participants with CCI≤3 (consistent with no meaningful anxiety symptoms) in 1988 were included. We related baseline RTLs to odds ratios...
Published 02/23/2016    Read More...
Understanding telomere length maintenance mechanisms is central in cancer biology as their dysregulation is one of the hallmarks for immortalization of cancer cells. Important for this well-balanced control is the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase genes. We integrated Mixed Integer Linear Programming models into a comparative machine learning based approach to identify regulatory interactions that best explain the discrepancy of telomerase transcript levels in yeast mutants with...
Published 02/22/2016    Read More...
In a graying world, there is an increasing interest in correlates of aging, especially those found in early life. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is an emerging marker of aging at the cellular level, but little is known regarding its link with poor decision making that often entails being overly impatient. Here we investigate the relationship between LTL and the degree of impatience, which is measured in the laboratory using an incentivized delay discounting task. In a sample of 1,158 Han...
Published 02/22/2016    Read More...
Aplastic anemia is a fatal bone marrow disorder characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. The disease can be hereditary or acquired and develops at any stage of life. A subgroup of the inherited form is caused by replicative impairment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells due to very short telomeres as a result of mutations in telomerase and other telomere components. Abnormal telomere shortening is also described in cases of acquired aplastic anemia, most likely...
Published 02/22/2016    Read More...
The aim of the study was to examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a long-standing prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were as follows: (i) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion and (ii) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38....
Published 02/19/2016    Read More...
Telomere length shortening is modulated not only by aging, but also by both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between antioxidant nutrient metabolism-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (the genetic factors) and nutrient intake (the environmental factors) in their effects on telomere length shortening....
Published 02/19/2016    Read More...
Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs) are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%), and...
Published 02/18/2016    Read More...
Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation,...
Published 02/18/2016    Read More...
Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Telomere shortening occurs when cells divide, both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, telomerase is able to maintain telomere length in cells by adding TTAGGG repeats to the ends of telomeres. However, the interrelationships existing among telomere length, telomerase activity and growth in vertebrates remain to be clarified. In the present study we measured telomere length (terminal restriction fragment length), telomerase activity and body growth of Oryzias latipes from the embryo stage...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Cellular senescence is the state of permanent proliferation cessation. There are two types of cell senescence. One is replicative senescence, which relies on telomere length-dependent limit of cell divisions. The second is stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is telomere- independent. Cell senescence is a barrier to cancer. Paradoxically senescent cells, which are metabolically active secrete factors which can be procancerogenic. The main culprit of cell senescence is DNA damage and...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is associated with impaired telomere maintenance and with clinical features of premature aging. In this study, we analysed global DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of DKC patients. Age-associated DNAm changes were not generally accelerated in DKC, but there were significant differences to DNAm patterns of healthy controls, particularly in CpG sites related to an internal promoter region of PR domain containing 8 (PRDM8). Notably, the same genomic region was also...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
BRCA1 mutation is associated with carcinogenesis, especially of breast tissue. Telomere maintenance is crucial for malignant transformation. Being a part of the DNA repair machinery, BRCA1 may be implicated in telomere biology. We explored the role of BRCA1 in telomere maintenance in lymphocytes of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and in in vitro system by knocking down its expression in non-malignant breast epithelial cells.The results in both systems were similar. BRCA1/2 mutation caused perturbation...
Published 02/16/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are protective structures at the end of chromosomes, essential for chromosomal integrity. A large number of studies have investigated leukocyte telomere length as a possible risk marker for various cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) included. In contrast, studies investigating leukocyte telomere length in relation to CRC survival are lacking. We previously reported that relative telomere length (RTL) of leukocytes collected at diagnosis predicted survival in patients with breast and...
Published 02/16/2016    Read More...
Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging. This study examined the relationship between body weight status and telomere length in U.S. middle-aged and older adults....
Published 02/16/2016    Read More...
A confounding aspect of biological ageing is the nature and role of senescent cells. It is unclear whether the three major types of cellular senescence, namely replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage-induced senescence are descriptions of the same phenomenon instigated by different sources, or if each of these is distinct, and how they are associated with ageing. Recently, we devised an epigenetic clock with unprecedented accuracy and precision based on very specific...
Published 02/14/2016    Read More...
Short leukocyte telomere length (TL) and accelerated telomere attrition have been associated with various deleterious health outcomes, although their determinants have not been explored collectively in a large-scale study....
Published 02/12/2016    Read More...
Telomere length is hypothesised to be a biological marker of both cognitive and physical ageing. Here we measure telomere length, and cognitive and physical abilities at mean ages 70, 73 and 76 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), and at mean ages 79, 87, 90 and 92 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). We investigate whether telomere length change predicts change in cognitive and physical abilities. In LBC1936 telomere length decreased by an average of 65 base pairs per...
Published 02/10/2016    Read More...
Studies indicate that exercise might delay human biological aging, but the effects of long-term exercise on T cell function are not well known. We tested the hypothesis that moderate or intense exercise lifestyle may attenuate the effects of aging on the telomere length and the survival and composition of T cell subpopulations. Elderly (65-85 years) with intense training lifestyle (IT, n = 15), moderate training lifestyle (MT, n = 16), and who never trained (NT, n = 15) were...
Published 02/10/2016    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction participates in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have explored the associations between telomere length (TL) and cancer susceptibility; however, the findings are inconclusive. The associations between genetic variants and TL have been verified by quite a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Yet, to date, there was no published study on the relationship between TL, related genetic variants and susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma of the...
Published 02/09/2016    Read More...
The aim of the present study was to explore the telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes from a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the expression level of telomere-binding protein in the hippocampal CA1 region....
Published 02/09/2016    Read More...
Longer telomeres in the somatic cells of an individual have been regarded as a marker of youth and biological fitness within a population. Yet, several research groups have reported the surprising findings of longer telomeres in the germ cells of older men, which translated into longer leukocyte telomere length in their offspring. Although all these studies were purely cross-sectional, a longitudinal trend in the aging testes of individual males was taken for granted. Recently, a high-profile...
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Telomeres play an important role in cancer progression. Recently it has been shown that subtelomeric methylation, negatively regulates telomere length in various diseases, including cancers. Here we evaluated the influence of subtelomeric methylation in telomere dysfunction in gallbladder cancer (GBC), and whether this dysfunction is affected by the presence of gallstones....
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Many telomere-binding proteins bind to telomeric repeat sequences and further generate T-loops in animals. However, it is not clear if they regulate telomere organization using epigenetic mechanisms and how the epigenetic molecules are involved in regulating the telomeres. Here, we show direct interactions between the telomere-binding protein, AtTRB2 and histone deacetylases, HDT4 and HDA6, in vitro and in vivo. AtTRB2...
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) exhibit telomerase activation in strong association with shorter patient survival. To understand the background of telomerase activation we quantified TERT copy numbers and TERT promoter methylation in 42 MTCs and normal thyroid references. Gain of TERT was demonstrated by quantitative PCR in 5/39 sporadic MTC. Increased methylation index (MetI) for CpG methylation at the TERT promoter was found in sporadic MTCs (P < 0.0001) and in MEN 2 associated MTCs (P =...
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Reproductive health disparities may be partly explained by the cumulative effects of chronic stress experienced by socially disadvantaged groups. Although, telomere length (TL) and allostatic load score have each been used as biological markers of stress, the relationship between these two measures is unknown....
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Psychological stress contributes to numerous diseases and may do so in part through damage to telomeres, protective non-coding segments on the ends of chromosomes....
Published 02/04/2016    Read More...
Accelerated telomere shortening is associated with stress-related cell damage and aging. Patients with depression have been shown to have shortened life expectancy and to be associated with multiple age-related systemic diseases. Previous studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in patients with depression, but have shown inconsistent results....
Published 02/04/2016    Read More...
Authors: Emma E. Coussens, Lynda L. Grine, Jessica J. Bostoen, Herman H. Mielants, Jo J. Lambert Published: 02/02/2016, Experimental dermatology PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
Authors: Aric A AA. Prather, Frederick M FM. Hecht, Elissa S ES. Epel Published: 02/02/2016, Brain, behavior, and immunity PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
During the last decade it has been demonstrated that multipotent mesenchymal progenitors are present and can be isolated also from cord blood (CB). Recently, we managed to set up a standard protocol allowing the isolation of high proliferative potential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with multiple differentiation capabilities, whereas the generation rate of MSC-initiating colonies could still be further improved. Herein, we strikingly succeeded in defining some simple and basic culture...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular correlations, and provide insights into the progression from low- to high-grade disease. Whole-genome sequencing data analysis determined...
Published 01/30/2016    Read More...
The developmental origin of the health and disease hypothesis is based on the premise that many chronic diseases have their roots in fetal development. Specifically, maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with altered fetal development and many adverse long-term health outcomes. Although the mechanisms underlying this effect are currently unclear, at the cellular level 1 possible mediator is the regulation of telomere length. Telomere dynamics appear to play a role in disease...
Published 01/30/2016    Read More...
Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine (HCY) are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acid precursors and it has been hypothesized that they also influence telomere length, a biomarker of aging. However, previous studies have reported inconsistent findings, and data for older adults are limited. Our study aimed to evaluate associations between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and serum folate, vitamin B12, and HCY levels among adults aged 55 years and over. In a cross-sectional study in 798 men...
Published 01/29/2016    Read More...
Body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and telomere length are phenotypes that modulate the course of aging. Over 40% of their phenotypic variance is determined by genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently uncovered >100 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) association with these traits....
Published 01/29/2016    Read More...
The length of the chromosome ends, telomeres, is widely accepted as a biomarker of aging. However, the dynamic of the relationship between telomere length and hematopoietic parameters in the normal aging process, which is of particular interest with respect to age-related anemia, is not well understood....
Published 01/29/2016    Read More...
Assessing telomere length is of vital importance since telomere length is closely related with several fatal diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Here, we present a strategy to assess/measure telomere length, that is, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based in situ hybridization (SISH). The SISH method uses two kinds of SERS nanoprobes to hybridize in situ with telomeres and centromeres, respectively. The telomere specific SERS nanoprobe is called the Telo-probe, while the...
Published 01/28/2016    Read More...
Telomere length is a biomarker for aging. It is known that oxidative stress can accelerate telomere shortening, whereas antioxidants can delay their shortening. Carotenoids as antioxidants are favorably associated with health- and aging-related diseases caused by oxidative stress, but their association with telomere length is less certain. We investigated the association between blood carotenoid levels and leukocyte telomere length in a representative sample of US adults....
Published 01/27/2016    Read More...
Measuring the length distribution of telomeres can reveal information about biological processes that are otherwise difficult to analyze experimentally....
Published 01/25/2016    Read More...
Growing evidence demonstrates that a number of clinical disorders may be related to genetic defects in telomeres replication and extensions. Overall, these syndromes are referred to as telomeropathies or telomeres disorders or syndromes; they are increasingly being identified. In adulthood, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common symptom of telomeropathy. IPF is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by scarring of the lungs that thickens the interstitium ultimately leading...
Published 01/22/2016    Read More...
Mean telomere length (MTL) is associated with cancers and age-related diseases, which necessitates identification of genomic and environmental factors that impact telomere length dynamics. Here, we present a pilot genome wide association (GWA) study for MTL in South Asian population using publicly available next generation whole genome sequences (WGS), both for MTL and genotype calculations....
Published 01/22/2016    Read More...
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders, with a high heritability of up to 80%. Several studies have reported telomere dysfunction in schizophrenia, and common variants in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. TERT is a key component of the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length by addition of telomere repeats to telomere ends, and has repeatedly shown association with mean lymphocyte telomere length (LTL). Thus, we hypothesized that TERT may be a...
Published 01/22/2016    Read More...
Age induces a progressive decline in functional reserve and impacts cancer treatments. Telomere attrition leads to tissue senescence. We tested the hypothesis that telomere length (TL) could predict patient vulnerability and outcome with cancer treatment....
Published 01/22/2016    Read More...
Stress has been associated with biological aging and numerous age-related diseases. This may be due, in part, to accelerated shortening of telomeres, which are critical genomic structures that cap and protect chromosomal ends. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may indirectly contribute to telomere shortening if an animal reacts too strongly or weakly to a stressor, leading to accelerated biological aging. In this study, outbred Rideau-Arcott sheep were stress challenged with...
Published 01/21/2016    Read More...
Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte...
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
Advancing age is accompanied by an accumulation of ill health and shortening of chromosomal telomeres signifying biological aging. T is metabolized to DHT by 5α-reductase (SRD5A2) and to estradiol (E2) by aromatase (CYP19A1). Telomerase preserves telomeres, and T and E2 regulate telomerase expression and activity in vitro....
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
Telomeres shorten with each cell division and telomere dysfunction is a recognized hallmark of aging. Tissue proliferation is expected to dictate the rate at which telomeres shorten. We set out to test whether proliferative tissues age faster than non-proliferative due to telomere shortening during zebrafish aging. We performed a prospective study linking telomere length to tissue pathology and disease. Contrary to expectations, we show that telomeres shorten to critical lengths only in specific...
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
The risk of cardioembolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) cannot be accurately assessed and novel tools are needed to improve prediction. We hypothesize that telomere shortening constitutes a novel risk factor for cardioembolic stroke in patients with AF....
Published 01/19/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are linear guanine-rich DNA structures at the ends of chromosomes. The length of telomeric DNA is actively regulated by a number of mechanisms in highly proliferative cells such as germ cells, cancer cells, and pluripotent stem cells. Telomeric DNA is synthesized by way of the ribonucleoprotein called telomerase containing a reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit and RNA component (TERC). TERT is highly conserved across species and ubiquitously present in their respective pluripotent...
Published 01/19/2016    Read More...
Social support is associated with better health but it is unknown whether the health advantages of social support depend on the support source. Using a probability sample of older U.S. adults (n=1430) we compared leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, between married adults whose support sources either did or did not include their spouse. Despite having social support from other sources, participants who lacked spousal support had shorter telomeres relative to those with...
Published 01/15/2016    Read More...
To prospectively examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and subsequent rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in women....
Published 01/15/2016    Read More...
Telomerase is activated in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cervical cancer and targeting telomeres offers a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this study, the telomere targeting properties, the cytotoxic as well as the pro-apoptotic effects of hexane (IV-HE) and dichloromethane (IV-DF) fractions from Inula viscosa L. extracts were investigated on human cervical HeLa and SiHa cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that IV-HE and IV-DF extracts were able to inhibit cell growth in HeLa and...
Published 01/15/2016    Read More...
The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Growth-year authentication has extraordinary significance for plant growth, structure and development research, and has a wide range of applications in value assessment of economic crops. Panax ginseng is the most commonly used medicinal plant in Asian countries. The fix number of growth-year is an important quality evaluation which is difficult to be obtained accurately in current technical conditions. Preliminary authentication theory for growth-year has been described in previous studies...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of chromosomes in almost all eukaryotes. The core of telomerase consists of telomerase RNA and the reverse transcriptase that uses a short segment without the RNA to template the addition of telomeric repeats. In addition, one or more accessory proteins are required for telomerase action in vivo. The best-studied accessory protein is Est1, which is conserved from yeasts to humans. In budding yeast, Est1 has two critical in...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Cryopreservation represents an efficient way to preserve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at early culture/passage, and allows pooling of cells to achieve sufficient cells required for off-the-shelf use in clinical applications, e.g. cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. To fully apply cryopreserved hMSCs in a clinical setting, it is necessary to evaluate their biosafety, e.g. chromosomal abnormality and tumourigenic potential. To date, many studies have demonstrated that...
Published 01/12/2016    Read More...
Cells' survival is determined by their ability to adapt to constantly changing environment. Adaptation responses involve global changes in transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications of proteins. In recent years, karyotype changes in adapting populations of single cell organisms have been reported in a number of studies. More recently, we have described aneuploidy as an adaptation mechanism used by populations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive telomerase...
Published 01/12/2016    Read More...
Immunologic dysfunction was recently found to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Thymus involution can contribute to immune disturbance and disequilibrium of T-cell subsets. This study aimed to explore whether recent thymic emigration (RTE) is impaired in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)....
Published 01/12/2016    Read More...
Previous research demonstrates that physical activity participation is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length, with shorter leukocyte telomere length being a hallmark characteristic of cellular aging. What remains under-investigated, however, is whether there is a mode-specific association of physical activity on leukocyte telomere length, which was this study's purpose....
Published 01/12/2016    Read More...
Environmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can modify an individual's phenotype. Studies in captivity have suggested a relationship between glucocorticoids and telomere length in developing individuals, however less is known about that relationship in natural populations....
Published 01/12/2016    Read More...
Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality,...
Published 01/11/2016    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations....
Published 01/11/2016    Read More...
Irisin produced by muscles during exercise and promoting fat burning also exhibits geroprotective effect and induces telomere elongation in normal somatic cells. Special attention is paid to studies of the role of peptides Lys-Glu, Glu-Asp-Arg, and Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly in epigenetic regulation of irisin content. The data suggest that the immunomodulatory peptide Lys-Glu and neuroprotective peptide Glu-Asp-Arg modulate the life span by modulating irisin gene expression....
Published 01/08/2016    Read More...
Telomere integrity is essential to maintain genome stability, and telomeric dysfunctions are associated with cancer and aging pathologies. In human, the shelterin complex binds TTAGGG DNA repeats and provides capping to chromosome ends. Within shelterin, RAP1 is recruited through its interaction with TRF2, and TRF2 is required for telomere protection through a network of nucleic acid and protein interactions. RAP1 is one of the most conserved shelterin proteins although one unresolved question...
Published 01/08/2016    Read More...
The stabilization of telomere length has important roles in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. A systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies was performed to assess the prognostic role of telomere length in colorectal cancer....
Published 01/08/2016    Read More...
Human telomerase is absent in most normal tissues, but is abnormally activated in all major cancer cells. Telomerase enables tumor cells to maintain telomere length, allowing indefinite replicative capacity. Albeit not sufficient in itself to induce neoplasia, telomerase is believed to be necessary for cancer cells to grow without limit. Studies using an antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) to the RNA component of telomerase or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) demonstrate that...
Published 01/08/2016    Read More...
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy at high risk of ventricular arrhythmias (VA). However, the current indication for ICD prescription needs improvement. Telomere and telomerase in leucocytes have been shown to associate with biological ageing and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesised that leucocyte telomere length, load-of-short telomeres and/or telomerase activity are associated with VA occurrence in...
Published 01/07/2016    Read More...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and severe movement disorder. Differences in telomere length (TL) have been reported as possible risk factors for several neuropsychiatric disorders, including PD. Results from published studies for TL in PD are inconsistent, highlighting the need for a meta-analysis. In the current work, a meta-analysis of published studies for TL in PD was carried out. PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were used to identify relevant articles that reported...
Published 01/07/2016    Read More...
Accelerated aging has been proposed as a pathologic mechanism of various chronic diseases, including COPD. This concept has almost exclusively been approached by analyses of individual markers. We investigated whether COPD is associated with accelerated aging using a panel of markers representing various interconnected aspects of the aging process....
Published 01/06/2016    Read More...
Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using...
Published 01/05/2016    Read More...
Proteins that bind to telomeric DNA form the key structural and functional constituents of telomeres. While telomere binding proteins have been described in the majority of organisms, their identity in plants remains unknown. Several protein families containing a telomere binding motif known as the telobox have been previously described in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nonetheless, functional evidence for their involvement at telomeres has not been obtained, likely due to functional redundancy. Here we...
Published 01/05/2016    Read More...
We studied peripheral leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a predictor of antidepressant response to PPAR-γ agonist in patients with unremitted depression. In addition we examined correlation between LTL and the insulin resistance (IR) status in these subjects. Forty-two medically stable men and women ages 23-71 with non-remitted depression participated in double-blind placebo-controlled add-on of Pioglitazone to treatment-as-usual. Oral glucose tolerance tests were administered at baseline and...
Published 01/05/2016    Read More...
Life history theory (LHT) predicts a trade-off between reproductive effort and the pace of biological aging. Energy invested in reproduction is not available for tissue maintenance, thus having more offspring is expected to lead to accelerated senescence. Studies conducted in a variety of non-human species are consistent with this LHT prediction. Here we investigate the relationship between the number of surviving children born to a woman and telomere length (TL, a marker of cellular aging) over...
Published 01/05/2016    Read More...
The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been published in many reports, although almost exclusively in men. In our study we analysed the association between LTL and five selected variants within three candidate genes (TERC rs12696304; TERF2IP rs3784929 and rs8053257; UCP2 rs659366 and rs622064), which are not only involved in telomere-length maintenance but also potentially associated with higher risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Czech...
Published 01/04/2016    Read More...
Germline CDKN2A mutations occur in 40 % of 3-or-more case melanoma families while mutations of CDK4, BAP1, and genes involved in telomere function (ACD, TERF2IP, POT1), have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. Mutation of the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (c.-57 T>G variant) has been reported in one family. We tested for the TERT promoter variant in 675 multicase families wild-type for the known high penetrance familial melanoma genes, 1863 UK...
Published 01/04/2016    Read More...
Previous Studies have mapped putative loci that may probably regulate leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The strongest associations with LTL were reported for SNP rs12696304 and rs16847897 near the non-coding Ribose Nucleic Acid (RNA) molecule component (TERC) of telomerase enzyme on 3q26. It is unclear whether these identified loci coding functional components of telomerase, exert a similar effect on LTL in other populations or influence risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The...
Published 12/31/2015    Read More...
Our aim was to examine whether chronic social stress is associated with telomere length throughout the life course, following our protocol published in 2014. Structured searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey from their start date onwards. Reference lists of retrieved citations were hand searched for relevant studies. Eighteen studies published until May 1, 2015 investigating the association between chronic social...
Published 12/28/2015    Read More...
Telomere maintenance, achieved by the binding of protective shelterin capping proteins to telomeres and by either telomerase or a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism, is critical for cell proliferation and survival. Extensive telomere shortening or loss of telomere integrity activates DNA damage checkpoints, leading to cell senescence or death. Although telomerase upregulation is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy, the lag associated with telomere...
Published 12/25/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of cellular aging associated with longevity and psychosocial stress. We examine here the relationship between religious involvement and TL in 251 stressed female family caregivers recruited into a 2-site study. Religious involvement, perceived stress, caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and social support were measured and correlated with TL in whole blood leukocytes. Results indicated a U-shaped relationship between religiosity and TL. Those scoring in...
Published 12/25/2015    Read More...
Objective - to estimate the possible effects of low dose ionizing radiation on human cognitive function in adult hood and in utero....
Published 12/23/2015    Read More...
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2014 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report.Epidemiological cohort studies found...
Published 12/23/2015    Read More...
Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire....
Published 12/22/2015    Read More...
In addition to its classical role as a regulator of telomere length, recent reports suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression such as β-catenin-responsive pathways. Silencing or over-expression of TERT in cultured NPCs demonstrated that TERT induced glutamatergic neuronal differentiation. During embryonic brain development, expression of transcription factors involved in glutamatergic neuronal differentiation was...
Published 12/22/2015    Read More...
Objective Elevated homocysteine (HC) levels and/or shortened telomere length (TL) are associated with adverse medical conditions. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between HC and TL in cord blood leukocytes of newborns. Study Design This is a nested study from a prospective cohort from 2011 to 2012 in pregnant women admitted for delivery at a university-affiliated hospital. Cord blood was collected at delivery and genomic DNA was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The...
Published 12/21/2015    Read More...
Telomerase catalyzes telomeric DNA synthesis, an essential process to maintain the length of telomere for continuous cell proliferation and genomic stability. Telomerase is activated in gametes, stem cells, and most tumor cells, and its activity is tightly controlled by a catalytic human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) subunit and a collection of associated proteins.In the present work, normal human testis tissue was used for the first time to identify proteins involved in the...
Published 12/19/2015    Read More...
Accumulating evidence indicates a putative association of telomere length and mitochondrial function with antipsychotics response in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, pharmacological findings were limited and no previous work has assessed this in a prospective longitudinal study. This study assessed telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in first-episode antipsychotic-naïve SCZ patients with 8-week risperidone treatment to evaluate the association between these biomarkers and clinical...
Published 12/18/2015    Read More...
Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to...
Published 12/17/2015    Read More...
Telomeres were originally believed to be passive players in cellular replication, but recent research has highlighted their more active role in epigenetic patterning and promotion of cellular growth and survival. Furthermore, literature demonstrates that telomere length (TL) is responsive to environmental manipulations such as prenatal stress and dietary programming. As the search for a prognostic biomarker of concussion has had limited success, this study sought to examine whether or not...
Published 12/17/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system in the majority of eukaryotes. Telomerase displays maximal activity in stem and cancer cells with high proliferative potential. In humans, telomerase activity is regulated by various mechanisms, including the interaction with telomere ssDNA overhangs that contain a repetitive G-rich sequence, and with noncoding RNA, Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), that contains the same sequence. So these nucleic acids can compete...
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
Werner syndrome (WS) is a progeroid or premature aging syndrome characterized by early onset of age-related pathologies and cancer. The average life expectancy of affected people is 52.8 years and tends to increase. The major causes of death are malignancy and myocardial infarction. Increased telomere attrition and decay are thought to play a causative role in the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. Although telomere length, with or without germline mutation, is known to be...
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
Age-related progressive loss of muscle mass is an increasing problem in our aging society, affecting physical ability, risk of falls, and need for health care. Telomere length has been recognized as a marker of biological age on the population level. The relation between muscle mass in advanced age and telomere length, however, has rarely been examined....
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
Telomere regression has been shown to be associated with several complex disorders like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cataract etc. Diabetic retinopathy develops as a complication of chronic hyperglycemia leading to increased oxidative stress that may potentially lead to shortening of telomeres. We sought to determine whether there is any association between telomere mean length (TML) of peripheral blood monocytes with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. The study involved 120...
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
The telomerase is responsible for adding telomeric repeats to chromosomal ends and consists of the reverse transcriptase TERT and the RNA subunit TERC. The expression and activity of the telomerase are tightly regulated, and aberrant activation of the telomerase has been observed in >85% of human cancers. To better understand telomerase regulation, we performed immunoprecipitations coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-MS) and identified cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP or hnRNP A18) as a...
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content are markers of aging and aging-related diseases. There is inconclusive evidence concerning the mechanistic effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure on biomolecular markers of ageing OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the association between short- and long-term PM exposure with telomere length and mtDNA content in elderly and investigates to what extend this association is mediated by expression of genes playing a role in the...
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is essential for maintaining telomere length and structural integrity, but it also exerts other non-telomeric functions. The present study tested the hypothesis that Rap1 is released into the cytoplasm and induces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling in macrophages, a cell type involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Western blotting analysis confirmed that Rap1 was present in...
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
To investigate the promoter methylation of p16, FHIT and RASSF1A gene and telomere damage in the workers exposed to coal tar pitch, and to explore the effective biomarker of occupational exposure to coal tar pitch....
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
Short leucocyte telomere length (LTL) might be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The present study examines the relation between LTL and incident fatal or non-fatal CVD, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in a Danish cohort followed for 29 years....
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
ELG1 is a conserved gene with important roles in the maintenance of genome stability. Elg1's activity prevents gross chromosomal rearrangements, maintains proper telomere length regulation, helps repairing DNA damage created by a number of genotoxins and participates in sister chromatid cohesion. Elg1 is evolutionarily conserved, and its Fanconi Anemia-related mammalian ortholog (also known as ATAD5) is embryonic lethal when lost in mice and acts as a tumor suppressor in mice and humans. Elg1...
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with defective T-cell mediated immunity. A diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ repertoire is central to effective T-cell mediated immune responses to foreign antigens. In this study, the effect of ESRD on TCR Vβ repertoire was assessed....
Published 12/14/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect from DNA degradation and maintain chromosomal stability. Short telomeres have been associated with an increased risk of cancer at several sites. However, there is limited knowledge about the lifestyle determinants of telomere length. We aimed to determine the effect of three factors, known to be important in cancer etiology, on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL): alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity....
Published 12/09/2015    Read More...
Telomerase activity controls telomere length, and this plays an important role in stem cells, aging and tumors. Antioxidant was shown to protect telomerase activity in normal cells but inhibit that in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here we found that 7721 hepatoma cells held a higher redox homeostasis threshold than L02 normal liver cells which caused 7721 cells to have a higher demand for ROS; MnSOD over-expression in 7721 decreased endogenous reactive oxygen species...
Published 12/08/2015    Read More...
Working as hairdressers has been associated with increased risk for cancer, particularly bladder cancer. To evaluate if current hairdressers have elevated risks of adverse health effects, we measured several biomarkers related to cancer-related DNA alterations. We enrolled 295 hairdressers and 92 non-hairdressers (all female non-smokers) from Stockholm and southern Sweden. Questionnaire data were collected for each participant, including work tasks for the hairdressers. We measured telomere...
Published 12/06/2015    Read More...
The low reprogramming efficiency in cells from elderly patients is a challenge that must be overcome. Recently, it has been reported that senescence-associated microRNA (miR)-195 targets Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to advance cellular senescence. Thus, we hypothesized that a blockade of miR-195 expression could improve reprogramming efficiency in old skeletal myoblasts (SkMs). We found that miR-195 expression was significantly higher in old SkMs (24 months) isolated from C57BL/6 mice as compared to young...
Published 12/05/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are located at chromosome ends and their length (TL) has been associated with aging and human diseases such as cancer. Whole blood DNA is frequently used for TL measurements but the influence of preanalytical conditions and DNA isolation methods on TL quantification has not been thoroughly investigated. To evaluate potential preanalytical as well as methodological bias on TL, anonymized leftover EDTA-whole blood samples were pooled according to leukocyte counts and were incubated with...
Published 12/04/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) has important consequences for early disease and lifelong health. However, few studies have examined determinants of TL at birth....
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA...
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
Telomere length, shape and function depend on a complex of six core telomere-associated proteins referred to as the telosome or shelterin complex. We here demonstrate that the isoform β2 of the heregulin family of growth factors (HRGβ2) is a novel interactor of the telosome/shelterin complex in human telomeres. Analysis of protein-protein interactions using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen identified RAP1, the only telomere protein that is conserved from yeasts to mammals, as a...
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for...
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
The growth factor heregulin (HRG) promotes breast cancer (BC) tumorigenesis and metastasis and differentially modulates BC cell responses to DNA-damaging agents via its dual extracellular and nuclear localization. Given the central role of telomere dysfunction to drive carcinogenesis and to alter the chemotherapeutic profile of transformed cells, we hypothesized that an unanticipated nuclear function of HRG might be to regulate telomere length. Engineered overexpression of the HRGβ2 isoform in...
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
Reproductive aging involves declines both in oocyte number and developmental capacity. Declining oocyte number alone cannot explain the manifestations of reproductive aging in women. We have proposed the Telomere Theory of Reproductive Aging to explain the complex phenotype found in oocytes from older women. Telomeres are TTAGGG repeats and associated proteins, which form loops at the ends of chromosomes to provide structural and genomic stability. Studies in mice and women show that telomere...
Published 12/02/2015    Read More...
Physical activity and sports have repeatedly been reported to be associated with telomere length. We studied the association of different types of sports across different stages of life on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in advanced age.815 participants (397 men) from the Berlin Aging Study II aged over 61 years were included in the analysis. rLTL was measured by real time PCR and physical activity was determined retrospectively by questionnaire, assessing type and duration of sports...
Published 12/02/2015    Read More...
Several recent studies have investigated the relationship between telomere length and depression with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis examined whether telomere length and depression are associated and explored factors that might affect this association....
Published 12/02/2015    Read More...
Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating...
Published 12/01/2015    Read More...
Aging is a major factor predisposing for multiple diseases. Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes protect the integrity of chromosomal DNA. A specialized six-protein complex termed shelterin protects the telomere from unwanted interaction with DNA damage pathways. The aim of our study was to evaluate the integrity of telomeres and the stability of telomere protection during aging in endothelial cells (EC). We describe that aging EC can be characterized by an increased cell size (40%, p=0.02) and...
Published 12/01/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing, which might be used to identify individuals at higher risk of age-related diseases. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for several diseases. This study aims to analyse the associations of BMI with TL and the rate of TL change in older adults....
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
With advancing age the left ventricle (LV) undergoes structural and functional changes, thereby creating the substrate for the development of diseases. One possible mechanism of the ageing of the heart is cellular senescence. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of replicative ageing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diastolic function of LV and level of NT-proBNP in people of different ages free of cardiovascular diseases and to assess their relationship with LTL. Our data...
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
Subjects born preterm have an increased risk for age-associated diseases, such as cardiovascular disease in later life, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease....
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
To investigate the associations of placental telomere length with placental abruption (PA) risk and interactions between placental telomere length and placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number on PA risk....
Published 11/26/2015    Read More...
Authors: Brian T BT. Joyce, Lifang L. Hou Published: 11/26/2015, EBioMedicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 11/26/2015    Read More...
DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT....
Published 11/26/2015    Read More...
Obesity contributes to telomere attrition. Studies focusing on short-term effects of weight loss have been unable to identify protection of telomere length. This study investigates long-term effects of pronounced weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on telomere length....
Published 11/26/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks) and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric...
Published 11/24/2015    Read More...
Telomeres consist of exanucleotide tandem repeats and proteins complexes at the end of chromosome ends. Telomeres shorten at each cell division, and as such telomere length is a marker of cellular age. Accelerated telomere shortening and cell senescence have been associated with a number of chronic medical conditions, including psychiatric disorders, where increased prevalence of age-related disorders and shorter telomere length have been reported. Shorter telomeres in psychiatric patients are...
Published 11/24/2015    Read More...
Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered to be a determinant of biological ageing. Normal ageing itself is associated with telomere shortening. Here, critically short telomeres trigger senescence and eventually cell death. This shortening rate may be further increased by inflammation and oxidative stress and thus affect the ageing process. Apart from shortened or dysfunctional telomeres, cells undergoing senescence are...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
Children with congenital heart disease are exposed by repeated imaging to ionizing radiation, which may have important implications for lifetime health risks. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a reliable biomarker of genomic instability, is associated with increased risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We investigated LTL in grown-up patients with CHD (GUCHs) and a positive history of medical radiation exposure as well as the influence of functional polymorphisms of genes involved in DNA...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however...
Published 11/20/2015    Read More...
Mutations in genes encoding proteins required for telomere structure, replication, repair and length maintenance are associated with several debilitating human genetic disorders. These complex telomere biology disorders (TBDs) give rise to critically short telomeres that affect the homeostasis of multiple organs. Furthermore, genome instability is often a hallmark of telomere syndromes, which are associated with increased cancer risk. Here, we summarize the molecular causes and cellular...
Published 11/20/2015    Read More...
Recent progress has greatly increased the understanding of telomere-bound shelterin proteins and the telomerase holoenzyme, predominantly as separate complexes. Pioneering studies have begun to investigate the requirements for shelterin-telomerase interaction. From this vantage point, focusing on human cells, we review and discuss models for how telomerase and shelterin subunits coordinate to achieve balanced telomere-length homeostasis....
Published 11/20/2015    Read More...
Chromosome 5p15.33 has been identified as a lung cancer susceptibility locus, however the underlying causal mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Previous fine-mapping studies of this locus have relied on imputation or investigated a small number of known, common variants. This study represents a significant advance over previous research by investigating a large number of novel, rare variants, as well as their underlying mechanisms through telomere length. Variants for this fine-mapping study...
Published 11/20/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomeres shorten with age, and excessive shortening is associated with age-related cardiometabolic diseases. Exercise training may prevent disease through telomere length maintenance although the optimal amount of exercise that attenuates telomere attrition is unknown. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the enhanced telomere maintenance observed in endurance athletes is poorly understood. We quantified the leukocyte telomere length and analyzed the...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2years,...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
Long noncoding RNA CUDR plays an important role during tumorigenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that SET1A cooperates with CUDR to accelerate hepatocarcinogenesis and promote malignant transformation of hepatocyte-like stem cells. Mechanistically, CUDR enhances the phosphorylation of RB1, C-myc expression, and the interplay between the SET1A and pRB1. Notably, CUDR acts as a sponge cushion that shows a link between SET1A and pRB1, producing a activated pRB1-SET1A complex. On the other hand, the...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc which has a role in cellular growth and proliferation programs. The c-myc up-regulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase which adds the telomeres repeating sequences to the chromosomal ends to compensate for the progressive loss of telomeric sequence. We performed multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran with...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
Telomeres play a critical role in biological ageing by maintaining chromosomal integrity and preventing chromosome ends fusion. Epidemiological studies have suggested that inter-individual differences of telomere length could affect predisposition to multiple cancers, but evidence regarding esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was still uncertain. Several telomere length-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (TLSNPs) in Caucasians have been reported in genome-wide association studies....
Published 11/18/2015    Read More...
The influence of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) at older ages on changes in telomere length (TL)--repetitive DNA sequences that may mark biologic aging--is not well-established. Few prior studies (mainly cross-sectional) have been conducted in older adults, and few studies have evaluated PF....
Published 11/17/2015    Read More...
The Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic stability in humans and yeasts. In this report, we identified and characterized OsKu80 in rice, a model monocot crop. OsKu80 forms a heterodimer with OsKu70 in yeast and plant cells, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid, in vivo co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. RNAi-mediated knock-down T3 transgenic rice plants (Ubi:RNAi-OsKu80) displayed a retarded growth phenotype at the...
Published 11/14/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection...
Published 11/13/2015    Read More...
The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for ATM and ATR in the localization of telomerase to telomeres and telomere elongation in immortal human cells. Stalled replication forks increased telomerase recruitment in an ATR-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased telomerase recruitment was...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Telomerase-reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays an essential catalytic role in maintaining telomeres. However, in animal systems telomerase plays additional non-telomeric functional roles. We previously screened an Arabidopsis cDNA library for proteins that interact with the C-terminal extension (CTE) TERT domain and identified a nuclear-localized protein that contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM). This RRM-protein forms homodimers in both plants and yeast. Mutation of the gene encoding the...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres induce a DNA damage response, senescence, and apoptosis, thus maintaining telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell viability. Telomerase addition of telomere repeats is tightly regulated in cells. To probe pathways that regulate telomere addition, we developed the ADDIT assay to measure new telomere addition at a single telomere in vivo. Sequence analysis showed telomerase-specific addition of repeats onto a new telomere occurred in just 48 hr. Using the ADDIT assay, we...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Vitamin D may reduce telomere shortening through anti-inflammatory and anti-cell proliferation mechanisms. In women, higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to be associated with longer telomere length, but the relationship has not been assessed in men....
Published 11/11/2015    Read More...
Telomeres have emerged as a promising and important factor modulating cellular and organism responses to ionizing radiation (IR). Pin2/TRF1 interacting protein X1 (PinX1) is an intrinsic telomerase inhibitor and a putative tumor suppressor gene in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role PinX1 in osteosarcoma (OS) radioresistance. A telomerase-positive OS cell line Saos-2 and a telomerase-negative OS cell line U2OS were used. PinX1 shRNA lentiviral vetors were...
Published 11/11/2015    Read More...
Peripheral leucocyte telomere length has been suggested to be inversely associated with hypertension risk. Both telomere length and hypertension risk can be modified by certain dietary factors, such as fruit and vegetables. This study was to examine the potential effect of these dietary factors on the association between telomere length and hypertension risk....
Published 11/11/2015    Read More...
Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral...
Published 11/10/2015    Read More...
Increasing evidences have implicated somatic gain-of-function mutations at the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter as one of the major mechanisms that promote transcriptional activation of TERT and subsequently maintain telomere length in human cancers including glioma. To investigate the prognostic value of these mutations and telomere length, individually and their coexistence, in gliomas, we analyzed two somatic mutations C228T and C250T in the TERT promoter, relative telomere...
Published 11/09/2015    Read More...
Replicative senescence, associated with telomere shortening, plays an important role in aging and cardiovascular disease. The relation between telomere length, cardiovascular risk, and renal disease is unknown....
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
Genetic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer, in several GWAS. Results outside this region have varied....
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
Authors: Tiziano T. Moccetti, Annarosa A. Leri, Piero P. Anversa Published: 11/06/2015, Regenerative medicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing restenosis. Previously, we reported the provocative role of Pin1 in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Here we intended to identify whether locally delivered lentivirus-mediated siPin1 via pluronic F127 (PF127) could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore the potential mechanisms thereof. In vitro studies revealed that lentivirus-mediated siPin1 dispersed in PF127 suppressed proliferation...
Published 11/04/2015    Read More...
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) involves homology-directed telomere synthesis. This multistep process is facilitated by loss of the ATRX or DAXX chromatin-remodeling factors and by abnormalities of the telomere nucleoprotein architecture, including altered DNA sequence and decreased TRF2 saturation. Induction of telomere-specific DNA damage triggers homology-directed searches, and NuRD-ZNF827 protein-protein interactions provide a platform for the telomeric recruitment of homologous...
Published 11/04/2015    Read More...
Western societies are aging due to an increasing life span, decreased birth rates, and improving social and health conditions. On the other hand, the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular (CBV) diseases rises with age. Thus, in view of the ongoing aging pandemic, it is appropriate to better understand the molecular pathways of aging as well as age-associated CV and CBV diseases. Oxidative stress contributes to aging of organs and the whole body by an accumulation of reactive...
Published 11/04/2015    Read More...
Exposure to an adverse early-life environment leads to long-term health problems, many of which are recapitulated in subsequent generations. The female reproductive tract is particularly sensitive to early-life influences, and plays a pivotal role in programming the conceptus. We examine the influence of suboptimal grandmaternal diet on reproductive potential of granddaughters in the absence of any further dietary manipulations in the daughters in a rat low-protein diet model. Exposure to...
Published 11/03/2015    Read More...
Telomeres play a fundamental role in the maintenance of genomic integrity at a cellular level, and average leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been proposed as a biomarker of organismal aging. However, studies tracking LTL across the entire life course of individuals are lacking. Here, we examined lifelong patterns of variation in LTL among four birth cohorts of female Soay sheep (Ovis aries) that were longitudinally monitored and sampled from birth to death. Over the first 4 months of life,...
Published 11/02/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect against genome instability and participate in chromosomal movements during gametogenesis, especially in meiosis. Thus, maintaining telomere structure and telomeric length is essential to both cell integrity and the production of germ cells. As a result, alteration of telomere homeostasis in the germ line may result in the generation of aneuploid gametes or gametogenesis disruption, triggering fertility problems. In this work, we provide an overview on fundamental aspects of the...
Published 11/02/2015    Read More...
Elevated mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor but the mechanisms underlying the association are poorly understood. High MD and breast cancer risk may reflect cumulative exposures to factors that promote epithelial cell division. One marker of cellular replicative history is telomere length, but its association with MD is unknown. We investigated the relation of telomere length, a marker of cellular replicative history, with MD and biopsy diagnosis....
Published 10/30/2015    Read More...
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) contributes to tumor progression as well as maintaining telomere length, however, the mechanism by which hTERT promotes invasiveness is not yet completely understood. This study aims to unravel the precise mechanism through which hTERT promotes cancer invasion. We established an hTERT-overexpressed immortalized cell line (IHOK/hTERT). In orthotopic xenograft models, IHOK/hTERT harbors higher tumorigenicity than IHOK/Control. IHOK/hTERT showed much...
Published 10/28/2015    Read More...
Several psychiatric disorders may be characterized by peripheral telomere shortening. However, it is unclear whether telomere shortening is associated with these psychiatric disorders per se or, rather, with underlying dimensional parameters that are often, but not necessarily, associated with them. We explored the association between dimensional psychopathological measures and telomere length (TL) in granulocytes among veterans independent of psychiatric diagnosis....
Published 10/28/2015    Read More...
Authors: Jinghong J. Dai, Qian Q. Gao Published: 10/27/2015, Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Recent studies have suggested polymorphisms in the TERT and CLPTM1L region are associated with carcinogenesis of many distinct cancer types, including gastrointestinal cancers. However, the contribution of polymorphisms in the TERT and CLPTM1L gene region to gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) risk is still unknown. We tested the six tagSNPs on TERT and CLPTM1L region with GIST risk, using a population-based, two-stage, case-control study in 2,000 subjects. Functional validation was...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Activated CD8+ T-cells correlate with viral load and may foretell antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure. HIV infection has been suggested to accelerate immunosenescence through chronic persistent inflammation. Alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are prevalent in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We tested the hypothesis that hazardous alcohol consumption accelerates immune activation and immunosenescence. Immune activation and immunosenescence were examined in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD3+CD4-CD8+)...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we studied cardiomyocyte telomere length at key ages during the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and failure in the hypertrophic heart rat (HHR) and compared these with the normal heart rat (NHR) control strain. Key ages corresponded with the pathophysiological sequence beginning with fewer cardiomyocytes (2 days), leading to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (13 wk) and subsequently progression to heart failure...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Authors: Hiroaki H. Satoh Published: 10/27/2015, Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, DNA-protein structures that cap and protect chromosomes, are thought to shorten more rapidly when exposed to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Diet and nutritional status may be a source of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, relationships between telomere length (TL) and diet or adiposity have primarily been studied cross-sectionally among older, overweight/obese populations and yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about the relationship between diet or body...
Published 10/26/2015    Read More...
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Previous studies demonstrated increased telomerase activity in colorectal cancer tissue and suggested a prognostic value for patients with colorectal carcinoma. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), one of the main functional subunits of the telomerase, is an important factor in modulating telomerase activity, telomere length, and genomic stability. However, there are few studies that have addressed the association...
Published 10/26/2015    Read More...
How does regulation of telomerase activity (TA) in human endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) by ovarian hormones impact on telomere lengths (TL) and cell proliferation?...
Published 10/25/2015    Read More...
Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and...
Published 10/24/2015    Read More...
Stem cells of intensely regenerative tissues are susceptible to cellular damage. Although the response to this process in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is crucial, the mechanisms by which hematopoietic homeostasis is sustained are not completely understood. Aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammation, which contribute to increased proliferation, senescence and/or apoptosis, leading to self-renewal premature exhaustion. In this study, we assessed ROS production, DNA...
Published 10/24/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress can be induced by increased concentrations of iron in the body and consequently can cause shortening of telomeres. Telomeres, called mitotic clocks, are non-coding fragments at the end of chromosomes. During the replication of genetic material they are shortened, playing the role of ageing biomarkers in eukaryotes. In human endothelial cells, oxidative stress causes a decrease in telomerase activity. Shortening of chromosomes in telomeric parts was found in patients with primary...
Published 10/23/2015    Read More...
Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells,...
Published 10/23/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, less is known about telomere length and frailty, which is an indicator of biological age. This study examines the association between telomere length and frailty in a prospective study over five years of 2006 men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community. The frailty status was determined by the Fried's criteria. Telomere length in leukocytes was measured using the...
Published 10/23/2015    Read More...
A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially...
Published 10/22/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase...
Published 10/21/2015    Read More...
To investigate the prevalence of endocrine disturbances in a group of HIV-positive (HIV+) women and to identify factors affecting presence of these disorders. To examine specifically whether cellular ageing, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), is correlated with the presence of endocrine disturbance....
Published 10/20/2015    Read More...
Acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) refractory to immunosuppressive treatment is a serious complication after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The underlying mechanisms of refractory aGVHD of the gut are not fully understood. Although telomere length (TL) reflects the replicative history of a cell, critically short telomeres have been associated with replicative exhaustion and tissue failure. In this study, we demonstrate that enterocytes of patients with...
Published 10/20/2015    Read More...
Reduced telomere length with increasing age in dividing cells has been implicated in contributing to the pathologies of human aging, which include cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, through induction of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening results from the absence of telomerase, an enzyme required to maintain telomere length. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the protein subunit of telomerase, is expressed only transiently in a subset of adult somatic cells, which include stem...
Published 10/20/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that is responsible for telomere length maintenance. As in other organisms, the minimal components required for an active human telomerase are the template-providing telomerase RNA (hTR) and the enzymatic entity telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Here, we explored the structure of hTR and the hTERT-induced conformational changes within hTR in living cells. By employing an in vivo DMS chemical probing technique, we showed that the...
Published 10/19/2015    Read More...
Should all women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes mutations be considered at risk of prematurely impaired fertility, and thus should a fertility preservation systematically be proposed? Women carrying mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at high risk for breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. The treatment of a breast cancer at a young age, unrare in this population, is associated with a risk of infertility, due to the ovarian toxicity of chemotherapy, to the recommended duration of hormonotherapy when indicated,...
Published 10/18/2015    Read More...
Atherosclerosis is associated with reduced mononuclear cell (MNC) telomere length, and senescent cells have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. Rice bran is a source of γ-oryzanol, phytosterols and tocols with potential lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) impacts on apoptosis, telomere length and atherogenesis in mice....
Published 10/17/2015    Read More...
Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has become a hallmark characteristic of aging. Some, but not all, evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) may play an important role in attenuating age-related diseases and may provide a protective effect for telomeres. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between PA and LTL in a national sample of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey....
Published 10/17/2015    Read More...
Excessive telomere shortening is observed in breast cancer lesions when compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, suggesting that telomere length may represent a key biomarker for early cancer detection. Because tumor-derived, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is often released from cancer cells and circulates in the bloodstream, we hypothesized that breast cancer development is associated with changes in the amount of telomeric cfDNA that can be detected in the plasma. To test this hypothesis, we devised...
Published 10/16/2015    Read More...
Offspring telomere length (TL) has been correlated with paternal TL, but the mechanism for this parent of origin-specific inheritance remains unclear. The objective of this study has been to determine the role of spermatozoa TL in embryonic telomere lengthening by using two mouse models showing dimorphism in their spermatozoa TL: Mus musculus vs Mus spretus and old vs young Mus musculus. Mus spretus spermatozoa displayed a shorter TL than Mus musculus. Hybrid offspring exhibited lower TL...
Published 10/16/2015    Read More...
In eukaryotes, the absence of telomerase results in telomere shortening, eventually leading to replicative senescence, an arrested state that prevents further cell divisions. While replicative senescence is mainly controlled by telomere length, the heterogeneity of its onset is not well understood. This study proposes a mathematical model based on the molecular mechanisms of telomere replication and shortening to decipher the causes of this heterogeneity. Using simulations fitted on experimental...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
We investigate the in vivo patterns of stem cell divisions in the human hematopoietic system throughout life. In particular, we analyze the shape of telomere length distributions underlying stem cell behavior within individuals. Our mathematical model shows that these distributions contain a fingerprint of the progressive telomere loss and the fraction of symmetric cell proliferations. Our predictions are tested against measured telomere length distributions in humans across all ages, collected...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
Authors: Charon A CA. Pierson Published: 10/15/2015, Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
Authors: Yiqiang Y. Zhan, Ci C. Song, Robert R. Karlsson, Annika A. Tillander, Chandra A CA. Reynolds, Nancy L NL. Pedersen, Sara S. Hägg Published: 10/13/2015, JAMA neurology PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/13/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repeat (TTAGGG) n sequences that form terminal ends of chromosomes and have several functions, such as protecting the coding DNA from erosion at mitosis. Due to chromosomal rearrangements through evolutionary history (e.g., inversions and fusions), telomeric sequences are also found between the centromere and the terminal ends (i.e., at interstitial telomeric sites, ITSs). ITS telomere sequences have been implicated in heritable disease caused by genomic instability of ITS...
Published 10/12/2015    Read More...
This study investigated the correlation of the extent of chromosomal aberrations including uniparental disomies (UPDs) by SNP-chip analysis and FISH to telomere length in 46 patients with CLL. CLL harboring high risk aberrations, i.e. deletions of 11q22-23 or 17p13, had significantly shorter telomeres (higher ΔTL) compared to patients with CLL without such abnormalities. Patients with high chromosomal aberration rates had a worse overall survival compared to cases with lower aberration rates....
Published 10/12/2015    Read More...
Pulmonary fibrosis is the main cause of severe morbidity and mortality in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). In the past years, there has been major progress in the discovery of genetic factors that contribute to disease. Genes with highly penetrant mutations or strongly predisposing common risk alleles have been identified in familial and sporadic IIP. This review summarizes genes harbouring causative rare mutations and replicated common predisposing alleles. To date, rare mutations in...
Published 10/11/2015    Read More...
Chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is related to worse somatic health. This association applies both to stressors early in life, such as childhood adversities, and more recent life stress, such as stressful life events. This study examined whether accelerated telomere shortening, as an indicator of cellular aging, might be an explanatory mechanism....
Published 10/10/2015    Read More...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may influence leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker associated with chronic disease. In vitro research suggests dioxins may bind to the AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and induce telomerase activity, which elongates LTL. However, few epidemiologic studies have investigated associations between POPs and LTL....
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatments have changed little over many years and do not directly address the underlying cause. Because BPH is characterised by uncontrolled cell growth, the chromosomal telomeres should be eroded in the reported absence or low levels of telomerase activity, but this is not observed. We investigated the telomere biology of cell subpopulations from BPH patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Measurement of TERC, TERT, and telomerase...
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
hTERT is the key component of telomerase and its overactivation contributes to maintaining telomere length and cell immortalization. Previously, we identified RFPL3 as a new transcription activator of hTERT in lung cancers. However, the exact mechanism of RFPL3 in mediating hTERT activation and its associated signal regulatory network remain unclear. In this study, we found that RFPL3 colocalized and interacted directly with CBP in the nucleus of lung cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis...
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases....
Published 10/08/2015    Read More...
Mitochondrial diabetes is a kind of rare diabetes caused by monogenic mutation in mitochondria. The study aimed to summarize the clinical phenotype profiles in mitochondrial diabetes with m.3243 A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation and to investigate the mechanism in this kind of diabetes by analyzing the relationship among clinical phenotypes and peripheral leukocyte DNA telomere length....
Published 10/08/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48-1.85) relative TL units. In...
Published 10/07/2015    Read More...
We have previously demonstrated a relationship between children born with Down syndrome and maternal telomere length. Similarly, exposure to tobacco and oral contraceptives has been explored in one of our earlier studies as a risk factor for Down syndrome....
Published 10/07/2015    Read More...
Subtelomeric regions dynamically change their epigenetic pattern during development and progression of several malignancies and degenerative disorders. However, DNA methylation of human subtelomeres and their correlation to telomere length (TL) remain undetermined in glioma....
Published 10/07/2015    Read More...
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide spectrum of sporadic and familial cohorts of ILD and compare TL between patient cohorts and control subjects....
Published 10/06/2015    Read More...
The current research is aimed at finding potential non-invasive bio-markers that will help us learn more about the mechanisms at play in failed assisted reproduction treatment. This exploratory pilot study examined the relationship between cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma and telomere length in lymphocytes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and compared telomere length and CFD levels to a healthy control group....
Published 10/05/2015    Read More...
Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
Aberrant MSC function was shown to contribute to the pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndromSe (MDS). In comparison to adult MDS, pediatric MDS displayed different features both in biologically and clinically. The mechanisms for adult MDS may not be applicable in pediatric MDS. However, understanding of the MSCs in pediatric MDS is lacking. In this study, we investigated the proliferation capacity of MSCs from pediatric MDS patients at clone cell level....
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
We analyzed chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres in the progeny of mammalian cells exposed to the methylating agent and antineoplastic/diabetogenic drug streptozotocin (STZ), to test whether it induces long-term telomere instability (by chromosome end loss and/or telomere dysfunction). Rat cells (ADIPO-P2 cell line, derived from Sprague-Dawley rat adipose cells) were treated with a single concentration of STZ (2mM). Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed 18h, 10 days, and 15 days after...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
Supernumerary chromosomes have been found in many organisms. In fungi, these "accessory" or "dispensable" chromosomes are present at different frequencies in populations and are usually characterized by higher repetitive DNA content and lower gene density when compared to the core chromosomes. In the reference strain of the wheat pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici, eight discrete accessory chromosomes have been found. So far, no functional role has been assigned to these chromosomes; however, they...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
Replicative senescence, associated with telomere shortening, plays an important role in aging and cardiovascular disease. The relation between telomere length, cardiovascular risk, and renal disease is unknown....
Published 09/30/2015    Read More...
The chronological age of an individual animal predicts many of its biological characteristics, and these in turn influence population-level ecological processes. Animal age information can therefore be valuable in ecological research, but many species have no external features that allow age to be reliably determined. Molecular age biomarkers provide a potential solution to this problem. Research in this area of molecular ecology has so far focused on a limited range of age biomarkers. The most...
Published 09/30/2015    Read More...
Studies investigating the association between telomere length and diabetes have been inconsistent, and there are few data available investigating the associations of telomere length with diabetes duration and control. We evaluated the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with diabetes, and the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with diabetes duration and poor glucose control among people with diabetes....
Published 09/29/2015    Read More...
The effect of age on telomere length heterogeneity in men has not been studied previously. Our aims were to determine the relationship between variation in sperm telomere length (STL), men's age, and semen parameters in spermatozoa from men undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment....
Published 09/28/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a...
Published 09/28/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that maintains telomere length. Telomerase activity is primarily attributed to the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). It has been reported that introduction of an intact human chromosome 3 into the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC3 suppresses the tumorigenicity of these cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate tumorigenicity have not been elucidated. To determine whether this reduction in tumorigenicity was...
Published 09/26/2015    Read More...
The main objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of obesity on telomere length....
Published 09/26/2015    Read More...
Synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates through activation of Kcs1 plays an important role in the signalling response required for cell cycle progression after mating pheromone arrest. Overexpression of Kcs1 doubled the level of inositol pyrophosphates when compared to wild type cells and 30 min following the release from α-factor block further increase in inositol pyrophosphates was observed, which resulted that cells overexpressing Kcs1 reached G2/M phase earlier than wild type cells. Similar...
Published 09/26/2015    Read More...
Chromosome 21 nondisjunction in oocytes is the most common cause of trisomy 21, the primary chromosomal abnormality responsible for Down syndrome (DS). This specific type of error is estimated to account for over 90 % of live births with DS, with maternal age being the best known risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction. The loss of telomere length and the concomitant shortening of chromosomes are considered a biological marker for aging. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mothers who had a...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Recently, the newly identified embryonic stem cell marker, Zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 gene (ZSCAN4), which plays a key role in genomic stability by regulating telomere elongation, was shown to co-localize with TRF1 foci. This suggests that the interaction of ZSCAN4 with TRF1 functions in regulation of telomere elongation in ESC. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that ZSCAN4 binds to TRF1 in cancer cells to function in regulating telomere length. The purpose of this study was...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
In vitro expansion changes replication and differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), increasing challenges and risks, while limiting the sufficient number of MSCs required for cytotherapy. Here, we characterized and compared proliferation, differentiation, telomere length and pluripotency marker expression in MSCs of various origins....
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Photoageing represents the addition of extrinsic chronic ultraviolet radiation-induced damage on intrinsic ageing and accounts for most age-associated changes in skin appearance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 38% BPF, a highly concentrated extract of the bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia) on UVB-induced photoageing by examining inflammatory cytokine expression, telomere length/telomerase alterations and cellular viability in human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results suggest...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Age and short leukocyte telomeres have been associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inflammation is involved in AD and it is suggested that anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) may partly antagonize these processes....
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Authors: Carmen M CM. Martin-Ruiz, Duncan D. Baird, Laureline L. Roger, Petra P. Boukamp, Damir D. Krunic, Richard R. Cawthon, Martin M MM. Dokter, Pim P. Van Der Harst, Sofie S. Bekaert, Tim T. De Meyer, Goran G. Roos, Ulrika U. Svenson, Veryan V. Codd, Nilesh J NJ. Samani, Liane...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Authors: Damjan D. Krstajic, Ljubomir L. Buturovic Published: 09/24/2015, International journal of epidemiology PubMed Full Text...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Authors: Carmen M CM. Martin-Ruiz, Duncan D. Baird, Laureline L. Roger, Petra P. Boukamp, Damir D. Krunic, Richard R. Cawthon, Martin M MM. Dokter, Pim P. Van Der Harst, Sofie S. Bekaert, Tim T. De Meyer, Goran G. Roos, Ulrika U. Svenson, Veryan V. Codd, Nilesh J NJ. Samani, Liane...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Reduced telomere length is a measure of biological aging that is predictive of cardiac events in adults, and has been mechanistically implicated in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe the early life factors associated with leukocyte telomere length in early childhood, and to determine whether telomere length measured during early childhood is associated with arterial wall thickening later in childhood....
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Authors: Simon S. Verhulst, Ezra E. Susser, Pam R PR. Factor-Litvak, Mirre J P MJ. Simons, Athanase A. Benetos, Troels T. Steenstrup, Jeremy D JD. Kark, Abraham A. Aviv Published: 09/24/2015, International journal of epidemiology PubMed Full Text...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, which protect the ends of chromosomes, are shortened in several hematologic malignancies, often with adverse prognostic implications, but their effect on prognosis of classic and variant hairy cell leukemia (HCL and HCLv) has not been reported. HCL/HCLv genomic DNA from 46 patients was studied by PCR to determine the ratio of telomere to single copy gene number (T/S). T/S was unrelated to diagnosis of HCL or HCLv (p=0.27), but shorter T/S was associated with unmutated immunoglobulin...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Authors: Carmen M CM. Martin-Ruiz, Duncan D. Baird, Laureline L. Roger, Petra P. Boukamp, Damir D. Krunic, Richard R. Cawthon, Martin M MM. Dokter, Pim P. van der Harst, Sofie S. Bekaert, Tim T. de Meyer, Goran G. Roos, Ulrika U. Svenson, Veryan V. Codd, Nilesh J NJ. Samani, Liane...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Most tumors circumvent telomere-length imposed replicative limits through expression of telomerase, the reverse transcriptase that maintains telomere length. Substantial evidence that AKT activity is required for telomerase activity exists, indicating that AKT inhibitors may also function as telomerase inhibitors. This possibility has not been investigated in a clinical context despite many clinical trials evaluating AKT inhibitors. We tested if Perifosine, an AKT inhibitor in clinical trials,...
Published 09/22/2015    Read More...
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with an acquired, isolated deletion of chromosome 5q (del (5q) MDS), represent a clonal disorder of hematopoiesis and a clinically distinct entity of MDS. Treatment of del (5q) MDS with the drug lenalidomide has significantly improved quality of life leading to transfusion independence and complete cytogenetic response rates (CCR) in the majority of patients. Telomeres are located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are linked to replicative...
Published 09/21/2015    Read More...
In a consistently urbanizing world, anthropogenic noise has become almost omnipresent, and there are increasing evidence that high noise levels can have major impacts on wildlife. While the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure on adult animals have been widely studied, surprisingly, there has been little consideration of the effects of noise pollution on developing organisms. Yet, environmental conditions experienced in early life can have dramatic lifelong consequences for fitness. Here, we...
Published 09/19/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects...
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the change in thymocyte telomere length of rats exposed to different hypoxic conditions for different periods of time, as well as its effect on the immune system. A total of 110 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the three following groups: i) Sea level (SL) group, in which 10 rats were maintained at an altitude of 10 m; ii) moderate altitude (MA) group, in which 50 rats were maintained at an altitude of 2,260 m and then...
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period....
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence has been associated with the structural and functional decline observed during physiological lung aging and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense in the lungs and are important to COPD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying airway epithelial cell senescence, and particularly the role of telomere dysfunction in this process, are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate telomere dysfunction in airway...
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
The negative health effects caused by lead (Pb) exposure are widely recognized; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational Pb exposure on telomere length and to investigate the potential mechanisms leading to telomere shortening. A cohort of 334 male Pb smelters (exposed group) and 60 age-adjusted males unexposed to Pb (control group) were examined. Assessments of relative telomere length (rTL) and telomerase reverse...
Published 09/17/2015    Read More...
Unlike the telomerase-dependent mammalian telomeres, HeT-A, TART, and TAHRE (HTT) retroposon arrays regulate Drosophila telomere length. Cap prevents telomeric associations (TAs) and telomeric fusions (TFs). Our results suggest important roles of Hrb87F in telomeric HTT array and cap maintenance in Drosophila. All chromosome arms, except 2L, in Df(3R)Hrb87F homozygotes (Hrb87F-null) displayed significantly elongated telomeres with amplified HTT arrays and high TAs, all of which resolved without...
Published 09/16/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes forming the chromosome ends. TL differs between tissues. Shorter telomere length (TL) in blood leukocytes (LTL) has been associated with major depression, and with previous exposure to childhood adversity. TL studies on non-invasively sampled salivary DNA are less common. Telomerase, with its catalytic subunit hTERT, counteracts telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity associates with depression-like behavior in mice. Recently, the minor...
Published 09/16/2015    Read More...
Stress can be a predisposing factor to psychiatric disorders and has been associated with decreased neurogenesis and reduced hippocampal volume especially in depression. Similarly, in white blood cells chronic psychological stress has been associated with telomere shortening and with mood disorders and schizophrenia (SZ). However, in previous post-mortem brain studies from occipital cortex and cerebellum, no difference in telomere length was observed in depression. We hypothesized that in...
Published 09/15/2015    Read More...
Authors: K K. Wenn, L L. Tomala, S S. Wilop, L L. Vankann, C C. Hasenbank, O O. Frank, A A. Hochhaus, F J FJ. Giles, T T. Lange, M C MC. Müller, S S. Koschmieder, F F. Beier, P P. Ziegler, T H TH. Brümmendorf Published: 09/15/2015, ...
Published 09/15/2015    Read More...
Telomerase, shelterin proteins and various interacting factors, named non-shelterin proteins, are involved in the regulation of telomere length (TL). Altered expression of any of these telomere-associated genes can lead to telomere dysfunction, causing genomic instability and disease development. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of a set of non-shelterin genes involved in essential processes such as replication (RPA1), DNA damage repair pathways (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) and...
Published 09/14/2015    Read More...
Almost 400 genes affect yeast telomere length, including Est1, which is critical for recruitment and activation of telomerase. Here we use mass spectrometry to identify novel telomerase regulators by their co-purification with the telomerase holoenzyme. In addition to all known subunits, over 100 proteins are telomerase associated, including all three subunits of the essential Cdc48-Npl4-Ufd1 complex as well as three E3 ubiquitin ligases. The Cdc48 complex is evolutionarily conserved and targets...
Published 09/14/2015    Read More...
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of chromosomal regions associated with the risk of lung cancer. Of these regions, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially rs2736100 located in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene show unique and significant association with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a few subpopulations including women, nonsmokers, East Asians and those with adenocarcinoma. Recent studies have also linked rs2736100 with a...
Published 09/14/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of...
Published 09/12/2015    Read More...
Biomagnifying organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) may have adverse effects on the health of birds, especially marine avian top predators that accumulate high OHC loads. Contaminants may impair the humoral immunity and also influence the antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e. oxidative stress). Moreover, physical conditions and oxidative stress during development may reduce telomere lengths, one of the main mechanisms explaining cell senescence. To examine the potential effects of environmental...
Published 09/11/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening is associated with increasing age, male gender and lifestyle factors such as obesity and smoking. Inflammation has also been implicated in cellular senescence and may promote telomere shortening in chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the relationship between markers of obesity and inflammation, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)....
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Efficient oligonucleotide probe design and synthesis based on polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) is demonstrated for detection of telomeres in human monocyte and Leishmania major, a protozoan pathogenic parasite. The highly photoluminescent polymer-coated QDs conjugated with various length of telomere probe sequences were prepared via carbodiimide chemistry and characterized. Specific detection of telomere was observed when DNA sequence was (CCCAAT)n (n = 5 or 3) probe sequence, rather...
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Preterm birth is associated with abnormal respiratory functions throughout life. The mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences are still unclear. Shortening of telomeres was associated with many conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to search for an association between telomere length and lung function in adolescents born preterm. Lung function and telomere length were measured in 236 adolescents born preterm and 38 born full-term from the longitudinal...
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
DNA is organized into complex three-dimensional chromatin structures, but how this spatial organization regulates gene expression remains a central question. These DNA/chromatin looping structures can range in size from 10-20 kb (enhancers/repressors) to many megabases during intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions. Recently, the influence of telomere length on chromatin organization prior to senescence has revealed the existence of long-distance chromatin loops that dictate the expression of...
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. A Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) could help to understand the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on telomere shortening....
Published 09/09/2015    Read More...
The identification of oncogenic driver mutations has largely relied on the assumption that genes that exhibit more mutations than expected by chance are more likely to play an active role in tumorigenesis. Major cancer sequencing initiatives have therefore focused on recurrent mutations that are more likely to be drivers. However, in specific genetic contexts, low frequency mutations may also be capable of participating in oncogenic processes. Reliable strategies for identifying these rare or...
Published 09/07/2015    Read More...
Although it is widely recognized that telomere dysfunction plays an important role in cancer, the relationship between telomere function and bladder cancer risk is not well defined. In a case-control study of bladder cancer in Egypt, we examined relationships between two telomere features and bladder cancer risk. Telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to measure telomere features using short-term cultured blood lymphocytes. Logistic regression was used to estimate the strength of...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
African American men in the US experience disparities across multiple health outcomes. A common mechanism underlying premature declines in health may be accelerated biological aging, as reflected by leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of social stress reported by African American men, in tandem with poor mental health, may negatively impact LTL in this population. The current study examined cross-sectional associations between LTL, self-reported...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
In viral hepatitis, inflammation is correlated with chronic oxidative stress, one of the biological events leading to DNA damage and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Aim of this study was to investigate the complex molecular network linking oxidative damage to telomere length and telomerase activity and regulation in hepatitis C and B virus-related liver carcinogenesis. We investigated 142 patients: 21 with HCC (in both tumor and peritumor tissues) and 121 with chronic viral hepatitis...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes. Chromosomal and genomic instability due to telomere dysfunction has been known to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of some organs....
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with age-related health outcomes, but only few longitudinal studies have assessed changes in LTL in an ageing population....
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Aged and degenerated intervertebral discs are characterised by a significant increase in the number of senescent cells, which may be associated with the deterioration of this tissue due to their catabolic phenotype. On the other hand, carboxymethyl-lysine has been found to be accumulated with ageing in the proteins of the disc, evidencing the existence of oxidative stress in this tissue. Accordingly, here we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on the physiology of human nucleus pulposus...
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Current drugs for myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis, including Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, do not induce complete or partial remissions. Imetelstat is a 13-mer lipid-conjugated oligonucleotide that targets the RNA template of human telomerase reverse transcriptase....
Published 09/03/2015    Read More...
PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells...
Published 09/02/2015    Read More...
Tankyrase 1 (TNKS1), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, regulates telomere length and apoptosis in cells, overexpression of which occurred in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study investigated TNKS1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with a risk in NSCLC development in a Chinese population....
Published 09/01/2015    Read More...
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have a remarkable capacity to maintain normal genome stability and karyotype in culture. We previously showed that infrequent bursts of Zscan4 expression (Z4 events) are important for the maintenance of telomere length and genome stability in mESCs. However, the molecular details of Z4 events remain unclear. Here we show that Z4 events involve unexpected transcriptional derepression in heterochromatin regions that usually remain silent. During a Z4 event, we...
Published 08/31/2015    Read More...
Reductions in DNA integrity, genome stability, and telomere length are strongly associated with the aging process, age-related diseases as well as the age-related loss of muscle mass. However, in people reaching an age far beyond their statistical life expectancy the prevalence of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or dementia, is much lower compared to "averagely" aged humans. These inverse observations in nonagenarians (90-99 years), centenarians (100-109 years) and...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures, essential for chromosome stability and cell survival. Telomeres are progressively shortened with each cell division and by environmental factors. Telomere loss has been linked to age and stress-induced premature senescence. Dysfunctional telomeres tend to form aggregates, which consist of the end-to-end fusion of telomeres. Telomere elongation is carried out by telomerase, which is a specific reverse transcriptase capable of adding telomeric repeats to...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
A trade-off between resource investment into growth rate and body self-maintenance is likely to occur, but the underlying molecular mediators of such a trade-off remain to be determined. In many altricial birds, hatching asynchrony creates a sibling competitive hierarchy within the brood, with first-hatched nestlings enjoying substantial advantages compared to last-hatched nestlings. We used this opportunity to test for a trade-off between growth and self-maintenance processes (oxidative stress,...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
To investigate the functional consequences of rs2736100 polymorphism in telomere length and examine its link to gastric cancer risk....
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
A number of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in Caucasian populations. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of 17 polymorphisms identified in Caucasians on telomere length in a Korean population....
Published 08/27/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is characteristic of aging and is associated with morbidity and mortality, independent of age. Research demonstrates that lower extremity muscular strength is associated with mobility, morbidity and mortality; however, no study, to our knowledge, had examined the association between lower extremity muscular strength and LTL, which was the purpose of this brief study....
Published 08/27/2015    Read More...
Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The...
Published 08/27/2015    Read More...
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress might be considered the key mechanisms of aging. Insulin resistance (IR) is a phenomenon related to inflammatory and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that IR may be associated with cellular senescence, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and arterial stiffness (core feature of arterial aging), as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)....
Published 08/26/2015    Read More...
Authors: Xia X. Shen, Yiqiang Y. Zhan Published: 08/26/2015, Journal of the National Cancer Institute PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/26/2015    Read More...
It has been shown that severe stress in childhood is harmful to later health. New research aims to ascertain whether – and if so, how – the telomeres, the protective caps at the end of our chromosomes, may be one of the links between this type of experience and later morbidity. Here we present an overview of studies which have examined the association between stress in childhood and length of telomeres....
Published 08/25/2015    Read More...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has remarkably improved quality of life of HIV-1-infected patients. However, this treatment has been associated with the so-called lipodystrophic syndrome, which conveys a number of adverse metabolic effects and morphological alterations. Among them, lipoatrophy of subcutaneous fat in certain anatomical areas and hypertrophy of visceral depots are the most common. Less frequently, lipomatous enlargements of subcutaneous fat at distinct anatomic areas occur....
Published 08/25/2015    Read More...
Existing evidence on the association of telomere length with life expectancy and the risk of various age related diseases is discordant. This inconsistency in the data may be due to methodological factors, e.g., the differences in the techniques for measuring telomere length, cell harvesting, DNA isolation, and material. One of the general requirements to experiments concerned with the measurement of telomere length is the high quality of DNA samples under study. The current review considers the...
Published 08/24/2015    Read More...
In addition to being a hallmark at active genes, histone variant H3.3 is deposited by ATRX at repressive chromatin regions, including the telomeres. It is unclear how H3.3 promotes heterochromatin assembly. We show that H3.3 is targeted for K9 trimethylation to establish a heterochromatic state enriched in trimethylated H3.3K9 at telomeres. In H3f3a(-/-) and H3f3b(-/-) mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 deficiency results in reduced levels of H3K9me3, H4K20me3 and ATRX at telomeres. The...
Published 08/24/2015    Read More...
There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and...
Published 08/22/2015    Read More...
to investigate p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF) tumor suppressor gene methylation status, determine telomere length and assess the importance of these epigenetic and genetic parameters in the development of pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary glands....
Published 08/22/2015    Read More...
Multiple studies have demonstrated that telomere length predicts mortality and that telomeres shorten with age. Although rarely acknowledged these associations do not dictate causality. I review telomerase knockout and overexpression studies and find little support that telomeres cause aging. In addition, the causality hypothesis assumes that there is a critical telomere length at which senescence is induced. This generates the prediction that variance in telomere length decreases with age. In...
Published 08/21/2015    Read More...
Deficiencies of folate, vitamins B12 and D are common age-related conditions. Vitamin B12 and folate are necessary for DNA methylation. Telomeres appear to be regulated by DNA methylation. Here, we study the effect of B vitamins supplementation on telomere length and global DNA methylation in a prospective study....
Published 08/21/2015    Read More...
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase and plays a key role in telomere restitution and gene regulation. Evidence suggests that hTERT is linked with the risk and progression of several malignancies, but there are no comprehensive data in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this case-control study, we assessed seven polymorphic hTERT gene variants (MNS16A, rs2736100, rs2736098, rs7726159, rs2853677, rs13172201, and rs10069690), hTERT serum...
Published 08/21/2015    Read More...
The regulation of telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell growth and survival since critically short telomeres signal DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. While the broad principles of length regulation are well established, the molecular mechanism of how these steps occur is not fully understood. We mutagenized the RIF2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand how this protein blocks excess telomere elongation. We identified an N-terminal domain in Rif2 that is essential for length...
Published 08/20/2015    Read More...
Gaining access to sequence and structure information of telomere-binding proteins helps in understanding the essential biological processes involve in conserved sequence-specific interaction between DNA and the proteins. Rice telomere-binding protein (RTBP1) and Nicotiana glutinosa telomere repeat binding factor (NgTRF1) are helix-turn-helix motif type of proteins that plays role in telomeric DNA protection and length regulation. Both the proteins share same type of domain, but till now there is...
Published 08/20/2015    Read More...
Immunosenescence, characterized by complex modifications of immunity with age, could be related to frailty syndrome in elderly individuals, leading to an inadequate response to minimal aggression. Functional decline (i.e., the loss of ability to perform activities of daily living) is related to frailty and decreased physiological reserves and is a frequent outcome of hospitalization in older patients. Links between immunosenescence and frailty have been explored and 20 immunological parameters,...
Published 08/18/2015    Read More...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10-15% of the general population and affected individuals are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since telomere length is considered to be involved in biological aging, we tested whether relative telomere length (RTL) might be a marker for these two diseases....
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
With advancing age the left ventricle (LV) undergoes structural and functional changes, thereby creating the substrate for the development of diseases. One possible mechanism of the ageing heart is a cellular senescence. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of replicative ageing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structure and function of the LV in people of different ages free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and regular drug medication and to assess their relationship with...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Accumulated data indicate that wound-care products should have a composition equivalent to that of the skin: a combination of particular growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins endogenous to the skin, together with viable epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Strategies consisting of bioengineered dressings and cell-based products have emerged for widespread clinical use; however, their performance is not optimal because chronic wounds persist as a...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Individuals rarely grow as fast as their physiologies permit despite the fitness advantages of being large. One reason may be that rapid growth is costly, resulting for example in somatic damage. The chromosomal ends, the telomeres, are particularly vulnerable to such damage, and telomere attrition thus influences the rate of ageing. Here, we used a transgenic salmon model with an artificially increased growth rate to test the hypothesis that rapid growth is traded off against the ability to...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Psychosocial stress has been associated with an increased risk for mental and somatic health problems across the life span. Some studies in younger adults linked this to accelerated cellular aging, indexed by shortened telomere length (TL). In older adults, the impact of psychosocial stress on TL may be different due to the lifetime exposure to competing causes of TL-shortening. This study aims to assess whether early and recent psychosocial stressors (childhood abuse, childhood adverse events,...
Published 08/12/2015    Read More...
Real time qPCR has become the method of choice for rapid large-scale telomere length measurements. Large samples sizes are critical for clinical trials, and epidemiological studies. QPCR has become such routine procedure that it is often used with little critical analysis. With proper controls, the mean telomere size can be derived from the data and even the size can be estimated. But there is a need for more consistent and reliable controls that will provide closer to the actual mean size can...
Published 08/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, have a specialized chromatin structure that provides a stable chromosomal terminus. In budding yeast Rap1 protein binds to telomeric TG repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Here we show that binding of multiple Rap1 proteins stimulates DNA double-stranded break (DSB) induction at both telomeric and non-telomeric regions. Consistent with the role of DSB induction, Rap1 stimulates nearby recombination events in a dosage-dependent...
Published 08/11/2015    Read More...
A longitudinal study was conducted to examine sex-specific associations between changes in adiposity over a 10-year period, the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)....
Published 08/11/2015    Read More...
Several previous studies proposed a link between particulate matter (PM) pollution and mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn) and telomere length (TL). However, this evidence is quite limited and inconsistent, especially on how the particle size affects the associations and on whether there exists such an association with gaseous pollutants....
Published 08/10/2015    Read More...
Several previous studies proposed a link between particulate matter (PM) pollution and mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn) and telomere length (TL). However, this evidence is quite limited and inconsistent, especially on how the particle size affects the associations and on whether there exists such an association with gaseous pollutants....
Published 08/10/2015    Read More...
Telomerase activation has very important implications for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the regulatory mechanisms of telomerase in HNSCC remain unclear. In our present study, we found that miR-512-5P was markedly downregulated in telomerase-positive HNSCC cell lines. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-512-5P mimic attenuated HNSCC cell proliferation, and tumor growth in nude mice, which exerts its tumor suppressor function through elevated apoptosis,...
Published 08/10/2015    Read More...
Authors: J C JC. Strefford, L L. Kadalayil, J J. Forster, M J J MJ. Rose-Zerilli, A A. Parker, T T TT. Lin, N N. Heppel, K K. Norris, A A. Gardiner, Z Z. Davies, D D. Gonzalez de Castro, M M. Else, A J AJ. Steele, H H. Parker,...
Published 08/10/2015    Read More...
Authors: Brittany B. Fair, Synthia H SH. Mellon, Elissa S ES. Epel, Dóra D. Révész, Josine E JE. Verhoeven, Brenda W BW. Penninx, Victor I VI. Reus, Laura L. Mahan, Christina C. Hough, Rebecca R. Rosser, Heather M HM. Burke, Jue J. Lin, Elizabeth H EH. Blackburn, Owen M OM....
Published 08/08/2015    Read More...
Considering previous data and the need to incorporate new biomarkers for the prognosis of solid tumours into the clinic, our aim in this work consists of evaluating the potential clinical use of telomeres and telomerase in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)....
Published 08/07/2015    Read More...
Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), suppressing oxidative stress, and...
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults....
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are regions at the ends of chromosomes that maintain chromosomal structural integrity and genomic stability. In studies of mainly older, white populations, shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and increased risks of mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD). On average, African Americans (AfAm) have longer LTL than whites, but the LTL-CHD relationship in AfAm is unknown. We investigated the relationship of LTL with CHD and mortality...
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
To assess the cardiovascular health, markers of cardiovascular aging and telomere length in survivors of the siege of Leningrad, who were either born during the siege or lived in the besieged city in their early childhood....
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
Authors: Francis F. de Zegher, Marta M. Díaz, Lourdes L. Ibáñez Published: 08/04/2015, JAMA pediatrics PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
In humans, the cause of arrested migration of the median thyroid anlage resulting in an ectopic sublingual gland is unknown. These ectopic glands have a normal follicular architecture but their thyrotropin-induced growth is insufficient, leading to congenital hypothyroidism in the vast majority of affected subjects. We hypothesized that arrested migration is due to premature differentiation [reflected by decreased telomere length (TL)], as observed in neural tube defects in mice....
Published 08/03/2015    Read More...
University of Stanford, California Telomere extension has been proposed as a means to improve cell culture and tissue engineering and to treat disease. However, telomere extension by nonviral, nonintegrating methods remains inefficient. Here we report that delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT to human fibroblasts and myoblasts increases telomerase...
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Pauline Abdallah, Pierre Luciano, Kurt W. Runge, Michael Lisby, Vincent Géli, Eric Gilson and M. Teresa Teixeira Telomeres protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. In the absence of a specific telomere elongation mechanism, their DNA shortens progressively with every round of replication, leading to replicative senescence. Here,...
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ScienceDirect Abstract Background It has recently been hypothesized that bipolar disorders are associated with accelerated aging. Telomere dysfunction, a biomarker of aging, is determined by the load of short telomeres, rather than by the mean telomere length. To our knowledge, the load of short telomeres has not been reported in any psychiatric...
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Background The development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is heterogeneous even in the presence of similar risk factors. Our aim was to determine whether inter-individual differences in leukocyte telomere length contribute to the susceptibility of PAD. Methods A total of 485 patients with PAD (defined by the ankle-brachial index) and...
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Ilaria Chiodi and Chiara Mondello* Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia, Italy Telomerase canonical activity at telomeres prevents telomere shortening, allowing chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. To perform this task, the catalytic subunit (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT) of the enzyme works as a reverse transcriptase together...
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Nature.com Telomeres are specialized structures providing chromosome integrity during cellular division along with protection against premature senescence and apoptosis. Accelerated telomere attrition in patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) occurs by an undefined mechanism. Although the MDS clone originates within the myeloid compartment, T-lymphocytes display repertoire contraction and...
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Telomeres, the body's own cellular clocks, may be a crucial factor underlying the development of emphysema, according to research from Johns Hopkins University. "We found that in mice that have short telomeres, there was a significant increased risk of developing emphysema after exposure to cigarette smoke," said Mary...
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Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) A team of researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), headed by CNIO Director Mar-a Blasco, has demonstrated in a pioneering study on mammals that longevity is defined at a molecular level by the length of telomeres. The work-which is published...
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US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Background: Telomere attrition is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies of telomere length in relation to kidney function are limited. We explored the association of kidney function with telomere length and telomere shortening. Methods: The Heart...
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Abstract: Telomere length (TL) in circulating leukocytes relates to the chronological age of the individual but it is believed to reflect also the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and inflammation over the life-time. Shortening of TL has been reported in several chronic conditions characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Because...
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The shorter the DNA sequences found at the end of a person's chromosomes -- known as telomeres -- the higher the risk for death, a large investigation into the microscopic underpinnings of mortality contends. The finding stems from a fresh look at the role of telomeres, and the...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the severity of biliary atresia (BA)....
Published 07/31/2015    Read More...
Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) is a heritable multi-system disorder caused by abnormally short telomeres. Clinically diagnosed by the mucocutaneous symptoms, DC patients are at high risk for bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, and multiple types of cancers. We have recapitulated the most common DC-causing mutation in the shelterin component TIN2 by introducing a TIN2-R282H mutation into cultured telomerase-positive human cells via a knock-in approach. The resulting heterozygous TIN2-R282H...
Published 07/31/2015    Read More...
Authors: Pao-Yen PY. Lin Published: 07/29/2015, Schizophrenia research PubMed Full Text...
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
A schizophrenia phenotype for paternal and maternal age effects on illness risk could benefit etiological research. As odor sensitivity is associated with variability in symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia, we examined if it was related to parental ages in patients and healthy controls. We tested Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL) as an explanatory factor, as LTL is associated with paternal age and schizophrenia risk. Seventy-five DSM-IV patients and 46 controls were assessed for detection of...
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) diminishes quality of life and accounts for approximately one-third of all strokes. Studies have associated mitochondrial dysfunction with both AF and telomere length (TL)....
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe...
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Telomere attrition might be one of the mechanisms through which psychosocial stress leads to somatic disease. To date it is unknown if exposure to adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere shortening prospectively. In the current study we investigated whether life events are associated with shortening of telomere length (TL)....
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not completely reversible by administration of inhaled bronchodilators. Many studies propose that telomere length shortening might have occurred in COPD patients. We aimed to determine the telomere length in COPD patients and compare the results of non-smoking and smoking control subjects....
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Recent advances have defined a role for abnormally short telomeres in a broad spectrum of genetic disorders. They include rare conditions such as dyskeratosis congenita as well pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Now, there is new evidence that some familial cancers, such as melanoma, are caused by mutations that lengthen telomeres. Here, we examine the significance of these short and long telomere length extremes for understanding the molecular basis of age-related disease and cancer....
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Authors: Phaedra M PM. Tachtatzis, Aileen A. Marshall, Aloysious A. Aravinthan, Suman S. Verma, Sue S. Penrhyn-Lowe, Marianna M. Mela, Cinzia C. Scarpini, Susan E SE. Davies, Nicholas N. Coleman, Graeme J M GJ. Alexander Published: 07/28/2015, PloS one PubMed Full Text...
Published 07/28/2015    Read More...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans, the telomerase RNA subunit is bound by Ku, a ring-shaped protein heterodimer best known for its function in DNA repair. Ku binding to yeast telomerase RNA promotes telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Using telomere-length analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that Sir4 - a previously identified Ku-binding protein that is a component of telomeric silent chromatin - is...
Published 07/28/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality,...
Published 07/28/2015    Read More...
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with a reduced life expectancy compared to the general population mainly due to a high prevalence of comorbid somatic illnesses. A model of accelerated aging has been proposed as a potential explanation to these epidemiological findings. Nevertheless, studies measuring telomere length (TL) in patients with BD compared to healthy controls have provided mixed results....
Published 07/26/2015    Read More...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection profoundly affects the T cell compartment and is associated with alterations in T cell aging parameters and generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) CD28null T cells. Hence, the effect of a primary CMV infection post-kidney transplantation (KT) on the peripheral T cell compartment was examined. As aging parameters, we determined the T cell differentiation status, T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) content, CD31(+) naïve T cell numbers and relative telomere length (RTL)...
Published 07/24/2015    Read More...
For many years, the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to treat some diseases of the hematopoietic system. For a very long time, only bone marrow was used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for this method of treatment. However, to comply with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, an antigenically compatible donor is necessary. Transplantations from unrelated donors are associated with increased risk of a graft-versus-host reaction, transplant rejection and,...
Published 07/24/2015    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomere ends during DNA replication by catalyzing the addition of short telomere repeats. The expression of telomerase is normally repressed in somatic cells leading to a gradual shortening of telomeres and cellular senescence with aging. Interindividual variation in leukocyte telomere length has been previously associated with susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether six variants in the...
Published 07/23/2015    Read More...
Age-at-menopause and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) are both associated with biologic aging. Therefore, it would be reasonable to hypothesize that LTL may also serve as a marker for reproductive aging as shorter LTL may be associated with earlier age-at-menopause....
Published 07/22/2015    Read More...
Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected...
Published 07/21/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are protective heterochromatic structures that cap the end of linear chromosomes and play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Telomere length represents a balance between processes that shorten telomeres during cell divisions with incomplete DNA replication and the ones that lengthen telomeres by the action of telomerase, an RNA-protein complex with reverse transcriptase activity which adds telomeric repeats to DNA molecule ends. Telomerase activity and telomere length have a...
Published 07/20/2015    Read More...
Authors: César A CA. Speck-Hernández, Diego A DA. Ojeda, Luis J LJ. Castro-Vega, Diego A DA. Forero Published: 07/16/2015, Journal of genetics PubMed...
Published 07/16/2015    Read More...
Energy restriction in prenatal life has detrimental effects on later life health and longevity. Studies in rats have shown that the shortening of telomeres in key tissues plays an important role in this association....
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
Proper replication of the telomeric DNA at chromosome ends is critical for preserving genome integrity. Yet, telomeres present challenges for the replication machinery, such as their repetitive and heterochromatic nature and their potential to form non-Watson-Crick structures as well as the fact that they are transcribed. Numerous telomere-bound proteins are required to facilitate progression of the replication fork throughout telomeric DNA. In particular, shelterin plays crucial functions in...
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterized by symptom profiles consisting of positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and a plethora of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic biomarkers. Assorted animal models of these disorders and clinical neurodevelopmental indicators have implicated neurodegeneration as an element in the underlying pathophysiology. Physical exercise or activity regimes--whether aerobic, resistance, or endurance--ameliorate regional brain and functional...
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are essential for chromosomal integrity and stability. Shortened telomere length (TL) has been associated with risk of cancers and aging-related diseases. Several studies have explored associations between TL and cancer prognosis, but the results are conflicting....
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used as seed cells in studies of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; however, their clinical application is limited due to replicative senescence. It has been demonstrated that telomerase expression extends the lifespan and maintains the bone-forming ability of MSCs; however, the detailed role and the underlying molecular mechanisms in MSCs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that senescence was associated with...
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
Although little is known on the impact of environment on telomere length dynamics, it has been suggested to be affected by stress, lifestyle and/or life-history strategies of animals. We here compared telomere dynamics in erythrocytes of hatchlings and fledglings of the brood parasite great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) and of magpies (Pica pica), their main host in Europe. In magpie chicks, telomere length decreased from hatching to fledging, whereas no significant change in telomere...
Published 07/14/2015    Read More...
The aging kidney undergoes profound changes that lead to a reduction in stress resistance and impaired repair capacity. In order to improve the outcome of acute and chronic kidney damage, it is instrumental to understand the mechanisms that cause these changes. Cellular senescence has emerged as an important cellular process that contributes to age-associated kidney changes and chronic kidney disease progression....
Published 07/13/2015    Read More...
This review aims to clarify the relationship between telomeres and essential hypertension....
Published 07/11/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is highly heritable, and a shorter telomere at birth may increase the risk of age-related problems. Additionally, a shorter TL may represent a biomarker of chronic stress and has been associated with psychiatric disorders. However, no study has explored whether there is an association between TL and the symptoms of one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood: Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). We evaluated 61 (range, 6-16 years) ADHD children...
Published 07/10/2015    Read More...
In eukaryotes, telomeres cap chromosome ends to maintain genomic stability. Failure to maintain telomeres leads to their progressive erosion and eventually triggers replicative senescence, a pathway that protects against unrestricted cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms underlying the variability and dynamics of this pathway are still elusive. Here we use a microfluidics-based live-cell imaging assay to investigate replicative senescence in individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell...
Published 07/09/2015    Read More...
Older cancer patients are a highly heterogeneous population in terms of global health and physiological reserves, and it is often difficult to determine the best treatment. Moreover, clinical tools currently used to assess global health require dedicated time and lack a standardized end score. Circulating markers of biological age and/or fitness could complement or partially substitute the existing screening tools. In this study we explored the relationship of potential ageing/frailty biomarkers...
Published 07/09/2015    Read More...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n = 166) and the CRISIS-Study (n = 889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage...
Published 07/07/2015    Read More...
Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has become a hallmark characteristic of aging and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Physical activity (PA) has been implicated in attenuating age-induced diseases by, for example, preserving LTL. Results from studies of the relationship between PA and LTL have been mixed, which might be because PA was assessed over a short period of time. There have been few studies in which investigators have examined the association between LTL and...
Published 07/07/2015    Read More...
Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in...
Published 07/06/2015    Read More...
EGF receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive (EGFRmut(+)) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be a unique orphan disease. Previous studies suggested that the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene polymorphism is associated with demographic and clinical features strongly associated with EGFR mutations, for example, adenocarcinoma histology, never-smoking history, and female gender. We aim to test the association between TERT polymorphism and EGFRmut(+) NSCLC....
Published 07/06/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening is common in bone marrow failure syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita (DC), aplastic anemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, improved knowledge of the lineage-specific consequences of telomere erosion and restoration of telomere length in hematopoietic progenitors is required to advance therapeutic approaches. We have employed a reversible murine model of telomerase deficiency to compare the dependence of erythroid and myeloid lineage differentiation on...
Published 07/02/2015    Read More...
Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between telomere length (TL) and risk for various cancers. These inconsistencies are likely attributable, in part, to biases that arise due to post-diagnostic and post-treatment TL measurement. To avoid such biases, we used a Mendelian randomization approach and estimated associations between nine TL-associated SNPs and risk for five common cancer types (breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancer, including subtypes)...
Published 07/02/2015    Read More...
In cancer cells, telomere length maintenance occurs largely via the direct synthesis of TTAGGG repeats at chromosome ends by telomerase, or less frequently by the recombination-dependent alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. The latter is characterized by the atypical clustering of telomeres within promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, which harbor proteins that are linked with DNA repair and recombination activity. For this reason, it is speculated that these associated PML...
Published 07/01/2015    Read More...
Deterioration of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with short telomere length (TL). Large-scale longitudinal studies with repeated measures of MetS and TL are lacking....
Published 07/01/2015    Read More...
Multiple previous reports have provided compelling support for the premise that spontaneous parturition is mediated by activation of inflammation-related signaling pathways leading to increased secretion of cytokines and chemokines, the influx of neutrophils and macrophages into the pregnant uterus, increased production of uterine activation proteins (eg, connexin-43, cyclo-oxygenase-2, oxytocin receptors, etc), activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and the release of uterotonins leading to...
Published 06/30/2015    Read More...
We sought to determine the location, expression, and characterization of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in children with end-stage heart failure (ESHF). We hypothesized ESHF myocardium would contain an increased number of CSCs relative to age-matched healthy myocardium, and ESHF-derived CSCs would have diminished functional capacity as evidenced by reduced telomere length....
Published 06/30/2015    Read More...
Telomeres interact with numerous proteins, including components of the shelterin complex, whose alteration, similarly to proliferation-induced telomere shortening, initiates cellular senescence. In tumors, telomere length is maintained by Telomerase activity or by the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres mechanism, whose hallmark is the telomeric localization of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. Whether PML contributes to telomeres maintenance in normal cells is unknown. We show that in...
Published 06/29/2015    Read More...
Chromosomes in human cells are protected by telomeres. Telomere shortens during each round of cell division because of the DNA end-replication problem. Cancer cells maintain telomere length homeostasis by either telomerase or/and the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism to sustain their division potential. Telomeric DNA tends to form G-quadruplex preferentially at the extreme 3' end. This unique feature prevents the 3' end from being used as a substrate of telomerase and as a...
Published 06/29/2015    Read More...
Authors: Daniel C DC. Chambers Published: 06/25/2015, Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/25/2015    Read More...
Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerosis in adults and diminished survival in the elderly. The prevailing view is that LTL is associated with accelerated aging since it serves as a biomarker of the cumulative burden of inflammation and oxidative stress during adult life. However LTL dynamics are mainly defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age-dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined whether...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Mammalian telomeres and subtelomeres are marked by heterochromatic epigenetic modifications, including repressive DNA methylation and histone methylation (e.g., H3K9me3 and H4K20me3). Loss of these epigenetic marks results in increased rates of telomere recombination and elongation. Other than these repressive epigenetic marks, telomeric and subtelomeric H3 and H4 are underacetylated. Yet, whether histone acetylation also regulates telomere length has not been directly addressed. We thought to...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
The elevation of circulating LPS has been associated with obesity and aging. However, whether and how LPS contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on the adipogenic capacity and cellular senescence of adipocyte progenitors. Stromal-vascular cells were isolated from inguinal adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice and treated with LPS during the different time periods of adipocyte differentiation. We found that LPS treatment for 24 h prior to...
Published 06/23/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening is strongly associated with higher mortality rates and has been shown in a number of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress is known to induce DNA breaks and genome instability. Telomeric DNA rich in guanosine is particularly sensitive to such oxidative damages. Psychosis is associated with a disequilibrium between free radical production and antioxidative defense. Although...
Published 06/22/2015    Read More...
The aim of this work was to determine whether ethanol-associated myocardial apoptosis and cardiac dilation are related to myocardial telomere shortening in rats....
Published 06/21/2015    Read More...
The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system...
Published 06/19/2015    Read More...
Chromosomal telomere length shortens with repeated cell divisions. Human leukocyte DNA telomere length (LTL) has been shown to shorten during aging. LTL shortening has correlated with decreased longevity, dementia, and other age-associated processes. Because LTL varies widely between individuals in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have...
Published 06/18/2015    Read More...
Strong evidence supports that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct unfavorable impact on mental and physical health. However, whether it also has direct impact on cellular health is largely unknown. Thus we examined whether neighborhood quality was associated with leukocyte telomere length, an indicator of cellular aging....
Published 06/17/2015    Read More...
Cellular DNA is organized into chromosomes and capped by a unique nucleoprotein structure, the telomere. Both oxidative stress and telomere shortening/dysfunction cause aging-related degenerative pathologies and increase cancer risk. However, a direct connection between oxidative damage to telomeric DNA, comprising <1% of the genome, and telomere dysfunction has not been established. By fusing the KillerRed chromophore with the telomere repeat binding factor 1, TRF1, we developed a novel...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
What is the relationship between telomere length in sperm and early embryonic development in in vitro fertilization (IVF)?...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
Evidence for an association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with cognitive function, predominantly in older adults, is inconsistent. No report has examined the association of LTL dynamics (age-specific LTL and its attrition rate) with cognitive function. We aimed to examine the association of LTL dynamics over 13 years in young adulthood with cognitive function in midlife. 497 individuals who had LTL measured at ages 28-32 and 41-46 years were assessed at ages 48-52 for global cognitive...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. Telomere alteration has been observed in most human cancer types, and is known to be a feature of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the telomere length of breast cancer cells correlates with TNM stage and several pathological features. We investigated a total of 44 breast cancers, including 17 scirrhous, 15 papillotubular and 12 solid-tubular carcinomas. Telomere lengths were determined by tissue...
Published 06/15/2015    Read More...
Short telomere is a crucial risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, little is known about the association between baseline telomere length and survival in IPF. We aimed to determine whether telomere length is associated with survival of IPF....
Published 06/14/2015    Read More...
The substantially large bread wheat genome, organized into highly similar three sub-genomes, renders genomic research challenging. The construction of BAC-based physical maps of individual chromosomes reduces the complexity of this allohexaploid genome, enables elucidation of gene space and evolutionary relationships, provides tools for map-based cloning, and serves as a framework for reference sequencing efforts. In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive physical map of wheat...
Published 06/13/2015    Read More...
Telomere length and telomerase activity are important indicators of cellular senescence and replicative ability. Loss of telomerase is associated with ageing and the development of osteoarthritis. Implantation of telomerase-positive cells, chondrocytes, or stem cells expressing a normal chondrocyte phenotype is desired for cartilage repair procedures. The objective of this study was to identify at what age chondrocytes and at what passage bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become...
Published 06/13/2015    Read More...
Drosophila telomeres constitute a remarkable exception to the telomerase mechanism. Although maintaining the same cytological and functional properties as telomerase maintain telomeres, Drosophila telomeres embed the telomere retrotransposons whose specific and highly regulated terminal transposition maintains the appropriate telomere length in this organism. Nevertheless, our current understanding of how the mechanism of the retrotransposon telomere works and which features are shared with the...
Published 06/12/2015    Read More...
The ERCC1 and ERCC4 genes encode the two subunits of the ERCC1-XPF nuclease. This enzyme plays an important role in repair of DNA damage and in maintaining genomic stability. ERCC1-XPF nuclease nicks DNA specifically at junctions between double-stranded and single-stranded DNA, when the single-strand is oriented 5' to 3' away from a junction. ERCC1-XPF is a core component of nucleotide excision repair and also plays a role in interstrand crosslink repair, some pathways of double-strand break...
Published 06/12/2015    Read More...
The conserved shelterin complex is critical for chromosome capping and maintaining telomere length homeostasis. In fission yeast, shelterin is comprised of five proteins. Taz1, Rap1, and Poz1 function as negative regulators of telomere elongation, whereas Pot1 and Tpz1 are critical for end capping and telomerase recruitment. How the five proteins work together to safeguard chromosome ends and promote telomere length homeostasis is a matter of great interest. Using a combination of deletions,...
Published 06/11/2015    Read More...
Acrylamide (AAM) has been recently discovered in food as a Maillard reaction product. AAM and glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, have been described as probably carcinogenic to humans. It is widely established that senescence and carcinogenicity are closely related. In vitro, endothelial aging is characterized by replicative senescence in which primary cells in culture lose their ability to divide. Our objective was to assess the effects of AAM and GA on human endothelial cell senescence. Human...
Published 06/10/2015    Read More...
Telomere biology plays a fundamental role in genomic integrity and cell physiology. The newborn setting of telomere length (TL) likely has important implications for telomere dynamics over the lifespan; however, its determinants are poorly understood. Folate is essential for DNA integrity. The maternal compartment is the only source of folate for the developing fetus. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that variation in maternal folate during pregnancy is associated with newborn TL....
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effects of this type of electromagnetic radiation and the reported results, using different genetic or cellular assays, are quite discordant. This multidisciplinary study focuses on potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, evaluated by several end-points, associated with THz radiation. For this...
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle....
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for tendon disease. Energy-storing tendons [e.g., human Achilles, equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)] are particularly vulnerable and it is thought that injury occurs following an accumulation of micro-damage in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several authors suggest that age-related micro-damage accumulates due to a failure of the aging cell population to maintain the ECM or an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways. We...
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
The TERT-CLPTM1L region of chromosome 5p15.33 is a multi-cancer susceptibility locus that encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, of the telomerase enzyme. Numerous cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs10069690, have been identified within the hTERT gene. The minor allele (A) at rs10069690 creates an additional splice donor site in intron 4 of hTERT, and is associated with an elevated risk of multiple cancers including breast and ovarian carcinomas. We...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
Alterations in telomere dynamics have emerged as having a causative role in carcinogenesis. Both the telomere attrition contribute to tumor initiation via increasing chromosomal instability and that the telomere elongation induces cell immortalization and leads to tumor progression. The objectives of this study are to investigate the dynamics of telomere length in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the clinicopathological parameters implicated. We measured the relative telomere length (RTL) in...
Published 06/06/2015    Read More...
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a mechanism using homologous recombination to maintain telomere length and sustain limitless replicability of cancer cells. Recently, ALT has been found to be associated with inactivation of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein. In this study, 119 tumors (88 angiosarcomas, 11 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, and 20 Kaposi sarcomas) were analyzed to determine the ALT status, its...
Published 06/05/2015    Read More...
The close association between telomere length and radiosensitivity has been established by several studies. There is also a hypothesis that telomere length may be regulated by human protection of telomere 1 (hPOT1) in human carcinoma cells. In the present study, the hPOT1 level between the radioresistant Hep-2R cells and the wild-type were compared, and the results showed that the hPOT1 gene was upregulated in the radioresistant Hep-2R cell lines compared with the wild-type. This suggested that...
Published 06/05/2015    Read More...
Telomeres located at the ends of chromosomes are involved in genomic stability and play a key role in various cancers and age-related diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disease, which includes the geographic atrophy (GA) subtype and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype. To better understand how leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is related to AMD, we conducted an association study in 197 AMD patients and 259...
Published 06/04/2015    Read More...
This study examined the association between leukocyte telomere length--a marker of cell aging--and mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults ages 50-84 years. We also examined moderating effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education....
Published 06/04/2015    Read More...
A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions,...
Published 06/03/2015    Read More...
The detection of individual telomere lengths of human chromosomes can provide crucial information on genome stability, cancer, and telomere-related diseases. However, current methods to measure telomere length entail shortcomings that have limited their use. Recently, we have developed a method for detection of individual telomere lengths (DITL) that uses a chemistry-based DNA-cutting approach. The most beneficial feature of the DITL approach is to cleave the sequence adjacent to the telomere...
Published 06/02/2015    Read More...
The belief that beekeepers live longer than anyone else is present since ages. However, no research has been done to explore the longevity of life in beekeepers. Here, we investigated the telomere length in 30 male beekeepers and 30 male non-beekeepers and associated them with the longevity of life using Southern analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) generated by Hinf I/Rsa I digestion of human genomic DNA using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay. Interestingly, we found that the...
Published 06/02/2015    Read More...
Although every organism shares some common features of replication, this process varies greatly among eukaryotic species. Current data show that mathematical models of the organization of origins based on possibility theory may be applied (and remain accurate) in every model organism i.e. from yeast to humans. The major differences lie within the dynamics of origin firing and the regulation mechanisms that have evolved to meet new challenges throughout the evolution of the organism. This article...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
The structure of telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n was determined and the length of telomeric DNA (tDNA) was measured in three species of gastropods from the family Benedictiidae that are endemic to Lake Baikal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the localization of a telomeric repeat at the chromosome ends. The sizes of tDNA in "giant" eurybathic, psammo-pelobiontic species Benedictia fragilis and shallow water litho-psammobiontic species B. baicalensis with medium shell sizes were...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
Development and validation of robust molecular biomarkers has so far been limited in melanoma research. In this paper we used a large population-based cohort to replicate two published gene signatures for melanoma classification. We assessed the signatures prognostic value and explored their biological significance by correlating them with factors known to be associated with survival (vitamin D) or etiological routes (nevi, sun sensitivity and telomere length). Genomewide microarray gene...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
This article summarizes research prior to 2010 and more recent research on religion, spirituality, and health, including some of the latest work being done by research teams at Columbia University, Harvard University, Duke University, and other academic medical centers. First, terms such as religion, humanism, and spirituality are defined. Second, based on his research team's previous systematic review of quantitative studies published in the peer-reviewed literature prior to 2010, the author...
Published 05/31/2015    Read More...
Telomere lengths in normal human cells are tightly regulated within a narrow range. Telomere length abnormalities are prevalent genetic alterations in malignant transformation. We studied telomere length abnormalities, telomerase RNA component (TERC) expression, alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATRX) expression, and death domain-associated protein (DAXX) expression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). We used tissue microarrays to perform telomere fluorescent...
Published 05/30/2015    Read More...
The telomeric 3'-overhang (G-tail) length is essential for the biological effects of telomere dysfunction in vitro, but the association of length with aging and cardiovascular risk is unclear in humans. We investigated the association between the telomere G-tail length of leukocytes and cardiovascular risk, age-related white matter changes (ARWMCs), and endothelial function....
Published 05/30/2015    Read More...
Telomerase activation and alternative lengthening of telomeres are two major mechanisms of telomere length maintenance. Soft tissue sarcomas appear to use the alternative lengthening of telomeres more frequently. Loss of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alternative telomere lengthening in pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and glioma. The mechanism leading to the alternative...
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
Aging is a process that depends on a variety of both external and internal factors. The biological age of a person determines body deterioration and the risk of age-related diseases. Currently, as indicators of biological age are considered different characteristics including average length of telomeres in cells and the level DNA methylation. We propose to combine the two approaches to create a model to assess the biological age of the person. Application of qPCR to determina the length of...
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
Rif1, identified as a regulator of telomerase in yeast, is an evolutionarily conserved protein and functions in diverse processes including telomere length regulation, epigenetic gene regulation, anti-checkpoint activity, DNA repair and establishing timing of firing at replication origins. Previously we had identified that all Rif1 homologues have PP1 interacting SILK-RVxF motif. In the present study, we show that Drosophila Rif1 is essential for normal fly development and loss of dRif1 impairs...
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that HBV might accelerate hepatocyte ageing and investigated the effect of HBV on hepatocyte cell cycle state and biological age. We also investigated the relation between inflammation, fibrosis and cell cycle phase....
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
Telomeres maintain chromosomal stability and integrity and are crucial in carcinogenesis. Telomere length is implicated in multiple cancer risk, but the results are conflicting. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci associated with telomere length in Caucasians. However, the roles of telomere length and related variants on gastric cancer development are largely unknown. We conducted a case-control study including 1136 gastric cancer cases and 1012 controls to...
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
A recent genome-wide association study has identified an association between rs1920116 near TERC and high-grade glioma in populations of European ancestry. In order to evaluate the effect of the SNP rs1920116 near TERC in the Chinese population, we examined associations of this candidate SNP with glioma in a sample of 1970 Chinese Han individuals. SNP genotype data were available for 980 Chinese glioma patients and 990 healthy controls. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the...
Published 05/28/2015    Read More...
Authors: Min M. Li, Yram Y. Foli, Nana Y NY. Amakye, Taline T. Klein, Shanmugapriya S. Selvaraj, Lingeng L. Lu, Elijah E. Paintsil Published: 05/28/2015, Journal of clinical pharmacology PubMed Full Text...
Published 05/28/2015    Read More...
Evidence suggests that exposure to welding fumes is a risk factor for lung cancer. We examined relationships between low-to-moderate occupational exposure to particles from welding fumes and cancer-related biomarkers for oxidative stress, changes in telomere length, and alterations in DNA methylation. We enrolled 101 welders and 127 controls (all currently nonsmoking men) from southern Sweden. We performed personal sampling of respirable dust and measured 8-oxodG concentrations in urine using a...
Published 05/27/2015    Read More...
The researches in the dynamic changes of the progress of HSCs aging are very limited and necessary. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups by age. We found that the superoxide damage of HSPCs started to increase from the middle age (6 months old), with notably reduced antioxidation ability. In accordance with that, the senescence of HSPCs also started from the middle age, since the self-renewal and differentiation ability remarkably decreased, and senescence-associated...
Published 05/27/2015    Read More...
Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease....
Published 05/26/2015    Read More...
Telomeric dysfunction has been proposed as an emerging prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have explored the relationship between telomere length (TL) and chromosome alterations studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytogenetics in 107 newly diagnosed CLL patients; 61 normal controls were also evaluated. Results were correlated with clinical parameters and outcome. Absolute TL measurement was carried out on DNA samples by real-time...
Published 05/26/2015    Read More...
A growing body of epidemiologic and tumor genomic research has identified an important role for telomere maintenance in glioma susceptibility, initiation, and prognosis. Telomere length has long been investigated in relation to cancer, but whether longer or shorter telomere length might be associated with glioma risk has remained elusive. Recent data address this question and are reviewed here. Common inherited variants near the telomerase-component genes TERC and TERT are associated both with...
Published 05/25/2015    Read More...
The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence....
Published 05/25/2015    Read More...
The pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in various tumor cell types have been widely investigated. The underlying mechanisms were suggested to include cell cycle arrest, cell signaling inhibition and downregulation of the androgen receptor. The present study demonstrated that DIM induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by downregulating the activity of telomerase. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5‑8F was...
Published 05/25/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening is considered a cellular marker of health status and biological ageing. Exercise may influence the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length (TL). However, it is unclear whether different endurance exercise levels may have beneficial or detrimental effects on biological aging. The aims of the study were to assess both chronic and acute effects of endurance training on TL after an exceptional and extreme trail race. TL was assessed in 20 endurance...
Published 05/22/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the extreme ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and protect chromosomal ends from degradation and recombination. Dysfunctional telomeres contribute to genomic instability, promote tumorigenesis, and, in breast cancer, have been associated with increased cancer risk and poor prognosis. Short telomere lengths have been previously associated with triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2)--positive ductal carcinomas. However, these...
Published 05/22/2015    Read More...
In this report on 303 gliomas we show the highest frequency of TERT promoter mutations in gliobastomas (80%) followed by oligodendrogliomas (70%) and astrocytomas (39%). We observed positive association between TERT promoter and IDH mutations in oligodendroglial tumors (OR = 26.3; 95% CI 2.5-250.2) and inverse association in primary glioblastomas (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.58). Tumors with TERT promoter mutations compared to those without showed increased TERT transcription; we also showed...
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Psychiatric diseases are associated with an increased rate of somatic age-related illness. A new study sheds light on putative mediating cellular mechanisms by linking increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and decreased telomere length to childhood stress and major depression....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Reduced telomere length in placental mesenchymal core cells has been reported during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. To estimate telomere length, a precise, accurate and reproducible technique must be used....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and plasma homocysteine (HCY) have been independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have investigated the association between LTL and HCY levels....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Telomeres usually shorten during an organism's lifespan and have thus been used as an aging and health marker. When telomeres become sufficiently short, senescence is induced. The most common method of restoring telomere length is via telomerase reverse transcriptase activity, highly expressed during embryogenesis. However, although asexual reproduction from adult tissues has an important role in the life cycles of certain species, its effect on the aging and fitness of wild populations, as well...
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Obesity and inactivity have been associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine whether telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity, and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically...
Published 05/19/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, the repetitive sequences that protect the ends of chromosomes, help to maintain genomic integrity and are of key importance to human health. The aim here is to give an overview of the evidence for the importance of telomere length (TL) to the risk of common disease, considering the strengths and weaknesses of different epidemiological study designs. Methods for measuring TL are described, all of which are subject to considerable measurement error. TL declines with age and varies in...
Published 05/19/2015    Read More...
Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Studies of the effects of smoking on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using cigarettes smoked per day or pack years smoked (PYS) present limitations. Reported high levels of smoking may not increase toxin exposure levels proportionally. Nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) predicts total cigarette puff volume and overall exposure based on total N-nitrosamines, is highly reproducible and independent of time since the last cigarette. We hypothesized that smokers with higher NMRs will exhibit increased...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Smoking implies exposure to carcinogenic agents that causes DNA damage, which could be suspected to enhance telomere attrition. To protect and deal with DNA damage, cells possess mechanisms that repair and neutralize harmful substances. Polymorphisms altering DNA repair capacity or carcinogen metabolism may lead to synergistic effects with tobacco carcinogen-induced shorter telomere length independently of cancer interaction. The aim of this study was to explore the association between leukocyte...
Published 05/17/2015    Read More...
Transplantation is the preferred method of end stage renal insufficiency treatment due to better quality of life and extended life of transplanted patients. Currently a non-invasive test, which evaluates the risk of acute or chronic rejection or deterioration of the transplanted organ's function, is being sought. An increase of the transrenal DNA concentration in the urine of urinary tract infection patients and in renal graft recipients during an episode of acute rejection was observed. There...
Published 05/17/2015    Read More...
Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007-2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
Estrogens and antioxidants indirectly alleviate telomere attrition. However, available clinical data on the association between hormone exposure and telomere length are inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous estrogen use and of some genetic factors implicated in estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress response on mean leukocyte telomere length. We studied 259 postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695),...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
Both short telomere length and mitochondrial dysfunction have been associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers of oxidative stress, during pregnancy, is unknown. This study investigated the association of leukocyte telomere length with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, an indicator of mitochondrial density and possible mitochondrial dysfunction, using maternal blood samples...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
Maintenance of telomere length is a critical hallmark of malignant transformation. While silenced in somatic cells, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is frequently overexpressed in malignant cells thereby maintaining their telomere length. Specific point mutations in the TERT promoter region have recently been identified in melanoma and other tumor entities resulting in high TERT expression. Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumor of...
Published 05/13/2015    Read More...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease are two associated, chronic inflammatory, pre-malignant conditions. We hypothesized that patients with these disorders may harbour telomere dysfunction as a marker of chromosomal instability. The aim of our study was to compare parameters of the telomere-telomerase system in these cohorts....
Published 05/13/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are considered anti-cancer targets, as telomere maintenance above a minimum length is necessary for cancer growth. Telomerase abrogation in cancer-prone mouse models, however, only decreased tumor growth after several mouse generations when telomeres reach a critically short length, and this effect was lost upon p53 mutation. Here, we address whether induction of telomere uncapping by inhibition of the TRF1 shelterin protein can effectively block cancer growth independently of telomere...
Published 05/13/2015    Read More...
Schizophrenia has been suggested as a syndrome of accelerated aging. Telomere length (TL) decrease is considered one biological marker associated with age and can be accelerated by pathological characteristics present in schizophrenia. Several studies evaluated TL in schizophrenia, but the results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the existing results of TL in leukocytes of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. A search was...
Published 05/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and...
Published 05/11/2015    Read More...
Authors: Sanjay S. Tanday Published: 05/10/2015, The Lancet. Oncology PubMed Full Text...
Published 05/10/2015    Read More...
Genotoxic stress causes a reduced stability of the plant genome and has a detrimental effect on plant growth and productivity. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most harmful of all DNA lesions because they cause the loss of genetic information on both strands of the DNA helix. In the presented study the coding and genomic sequences of the HvKu80 gene were determined. A mutational analysis of two fragments of HvKu80 using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) allowed 12 mutations...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Detailed genetic profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has revealed genomic regions commonly affected by structural changes and a general genetic heterogeneity. VHL and PBRM1, both located at chromosome 3p, are 2 major genes mutated at high frequency but apart from these aberrations, the mutational landscape in ccRCC is largely undefined. Potential prognostic information given by the genomic changes appears to depend on the particular cohort studied. We analyzed a Swedish ccRCC...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Many adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), including spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), are associated with placental dysfunction. Recent clinical and experimental evidences suggest that premature aging of the placenta may be involved in these events. Although placental aging is a well-known concept, the mechanisms of aging during normal pregnancy and premature aging in APOs are still unclear. This review was conducted to assess the knowledge on placental aging related biochemical changes leading to...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Authors: Jian J. Gu Published: 05/09/2015, EBioMedicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction and telomerase activation underlie cancer transformation. This study aims to investigate the contribution of telomere biology to pituitary tumor behavior....
Published 05/08/2015    Read More...
A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392)...
Published 05/08/2015    Read More...
Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB),...
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres...
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has major public health significance. Evidence that PTSD may be associated with premature senescence (early or accelerated aging) would have major implications for quality of life and healthcare policy. We conducted a comprehensive review of published empirical studies relevant to early aging in PTSD....
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of exercise on telomeres length. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Scopus, LILACS, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from inception to August 2014. All articles that assessed the effects of exercise in telomere length were included in this review. The search strategy used the following combinations of terms: telomere AND "motor activity" OR...
Published 05/05/2015    Read More...
Maintenance of chromosomal ends (telomeres) directly contributes to cancer cell immortalization. The telomere protection enzymes belonging to the tankyrase (Tnks) subfamily of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) have recently been shown to also control transcriptional response to secreted Wnt signaling molecules. Whereas Tnks inhibitors are currently being developed as therapeutic agents for targeting Wnt-related cancers and as modulators of Wnt signaling in tissue-engineering agendas, their...
Published 05/04/2015    Read More...
Given finite resources, intense investment in one life history trait is expected to reduce investment in others. Although telomere length appears to be strongly tied to age in many taxa, telomere maintenance requires energy. We therefore hypothesize that telomere maintenance may trade off against other life history characters. We used natural variation in laboratory populations of Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) to study the relationship between growth, fecundity, life expectancy, and...
Published 05/04/2015    Read More...
The field of sedentary behavior epidemiology is emerging. Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a hallmark characteristic of aging, but LTL is also associated with morbidity and mortality independent of age. To my knowledge, only one study has examined the association between sedentary behavior and LTL. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and LTL. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used...
Published 05/02/2015    Read More...
The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) have a conserved role in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin and gene silencing. Using a transgenic mouse model system we demonstrate that elevated expression of Suv39h1 increases global H3K9me3 levels in vivo. More specifically, Suv39h1 overexpression enhances the imposition of H3K9me3 levels at constitutive heterochromatin at telomeric and major satellite repeats in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chromatin...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors that can be divided into specific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (SRTSs) and nonspecific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (NRTSs). Telomeres play a key role in maintaining chromosomal stability; pathological telomere elongation is found in a number of cancers. In this study, we aimed to assess telomere lengths in the two types of sarcomas. Twenty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
The purpose of the work was to investigate telomere length (TL) and mechanisms involved in TL maintenance in individual neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Primary NB tumors from 102 patients, ninety Italian and twelve Spanish, diagnosed from 2000 to 2008 were studied. TL was investigated by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (IQ-FISH) that allows to analyze individual cells in paraffin-embedded tissues. Fluorescence intensity of chromosome 2 centromere was used as internal control to...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Shortened telomeres have been linked to poorer health outcomes. Exposure to psychological stress is associated with accelerated telomere shortening, and a well-established body of evidence indicates that families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience heightened levels of psychological stress. Also, alterations in a number of biological processes implicated in telomere length dynamics (i.e., oxidative stress, DNA methylation) have been linked to ASD susceptibility. We...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein caps that protect chromosome ends assuring cell division. Single-cell telomere quantification in animals established a critical role for telomerase in stem cells, yet, in plants, telomere-length quantification has been reported only at the organ level. Here, a quantitative analysis of telomere length of single cells in Arabidopsis root apex uncovered a heterogeneous telomere-length distribution of different cell lineages showing the longest telomeres at...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consisting of consecutive short repeats that protect chromosome ends from degradation. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, leading to replicative cell senescence. Deregulation of telomere length homeostasis is associated with the development of various age-related diseases and cancers. A number of experimental techniques exist for telomere length measurement; however, until recently, the absence of tools for extracting telomere lengths...
Published 04/29/2015    Read More...
Personality traits have been associated with cardiometabolic diseases and mental disorders as well as with longevity. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Accelerated cellular aging may play a role in this process. We studied whether personality traits in late adulthood, as defined in the five-factor model (FFM), were associated with a biomarker of cellular vitality, leukocyte telomere length (LTL)....
Published 04/28/2015    Read More...
Genetic studies have bestowed insight into the biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in susceptibility to (or resistance to) organisms’ aging. Recent advances in molecular and genetic epidemiology provide tools to explore the genetic sources of the variability in biological aging in humans. To be successful, the genetic study of a complex condition such as aging requires the clear definition of essential traits that can characterize the aging process phenotypically....
Published 04/28/2015    Read More...
Hand-grip strength is strongly correlated with measures of muscle mass and can be taken to predict morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hand-grip strength and other markers associated with immune ageing, such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, leukocyte telomere length and serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in the elderly. We have assessed grip strength with the Smedley Dynamometer in younger (22-37 years) and older...
Published 04/24/2015    Read More...
This study sought to assess the association between long-term radiation exposure in the catheterization laboratory (cath lab) and early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis....
Published 04/24/2015    Read More...
Telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, preferentially lengthens short telomeres. The S. cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase inhibits both telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening and de novo telomere addition at double strand breaks (DSB). Here, we report that the association of the telomerase subunits Est2 and Est1 at a DSB was increased in the absence of Pif1, as it is at telomeres, suggesting that Pif1 suppresses de novo telomere addition by removing telomerase from the break. To determine...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p =...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length has been shown to predict life-history parameters in various species. Although this suggests that telomere length is subject to natural selection, its evolutionary dynamics crucially depends on its heritability. Using pedigree data for a population of white-throated dippers (Cinclus cinclus), we test whether and how variation in early-life relative telomere length (RTL, measured as the...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
By maintaining genome integrity, controlling cell proliferation, and regulating tissue homeostasis, telomerase plays a critical role in the pathology of aging and cancer. Telomerase is composed of telomerase RNA, or telomerase RNA component (TERC), which serves as a template for telomeric DNA synthesis, and a catalytic subunit, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). The canonical function of TERT is the synthesis of telomeric DNA repeats and the maintenance of telomere length. Recent studies...
Published 04/22/2015    Read More...
Reactivation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is found in more than 85% of human cancers. The remaining cancers rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a recombination-based mechanism for telomere-length maintenance. Prevalence of TERT reactivation over the ALT mechanism was linked to secondary TERT function unrelated to telomere length maintenance. To characterize this non-canonical function, we created a panel of ALT cells with recombinant expression of...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening to a critical limit is associated with replicative senescence. This process is prevented by the enzyme telomerase. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are factors accelerating telomere loss. Chronic hemodialysis, typically accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation, may be also associated with replicative senescence. To test this hypothesis, we determined telomere length and telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a cross-sectional...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive nucleoproteins that help maintain chromosomal stability by inhibiting exonucleolytic degradation, prohibiting inappropriate homologous recombination, and preventing chromosomal fusions by suppressing double-strand break signals. We recently observed that men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer with shorter telomeres in their cancer-associated stromal cells, in combination with greater variation in cancer cell telomere lengths, were significantly more likely...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
G-quadruplex is a stable, four-stranded DNA or RNA structure formed from guanine-rich regions and implicated in telomere maintenance, replication, gene regulation at transcription level or translation level, etc. Based on bioinformatics methods, we analyzed different putative G-quadruplex motifs (PGQMs) patterns in various genomic regions of two subspecies (indica and japonica) of Oryza sativa and the whole genomes of other 8 species. In total, in the 10 species we discussed, the PGQMs densities...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Patients with histories of myocardial infarction display shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), but conflicting findings have been reported on the relation between LTL and subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis, as expressed by coronary artery calcium (CAC). The aim of this study was to examine the relation between LTL, measured by Southern blots, and CAC in 3,169 participants in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Participants consisted of 2,556 whites,...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL) in...
Published 04/17/2015    Read More...
Ex vivo expansion of natural killer (NK) cells is a strategy to produce large numbers of these effector cells for immunotherapy. However, the transfer of bench-top expansion protocols to clinically applicable methods is challenging for NK cell-based therapy because of regulatory aspects and scale-up issues. Therefore, we developed an automated, large-scale NK cell expansion process....
Published 04/17/2015    Read More...
Werner Syndrome (WS) is a rare inherited disease characterized by premature aging and increased propensity for cancer. Mutations in the WRN gene can be of several types, including nonsense mutations, leading to a truncated protein form. WRN is a RecQ family member with both helicase and exonuclease activities, and it participates in several cell metabolic pathways, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reported a novel homozygous WS mutation (c.3767 C > G) in...
Published 04/17/2015    Read More...
Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPC) improve heart function after autologous transfer in heart failure patients. Regenerative potential of hCPCs is severely limited with age, requiring genetic modification to enhance therapeutic potential. A legacy of work from our laboratory with Pim1 kinase reveals effects on proliferation, survival, metabolism, and rejuvenation of hCPCs in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that subcellular targeting of Pim1 bolsters the distinct cardioprotective effects of...
Published 04/16/2015    Read More...
Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated...
Published 04/16/2015    Read More...
Typical telomeres of linear chromosomes and plasmids of soil bacteria Streptomyces consist of tightly packed palindromic sequences with a terminal protein ('TP') covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA. Replication of these linear replicons is initiated internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the telomeres, which leaves single-strand overhangs at the 3' ends. These overhangs are filled by DNA synthesis using the TPs as the primers ('end patching'). The gene encoding for typical TP,...
Published 04/16/2015    Read More...
There are limited data on the association between dietary information and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which is considered an indicator of biological aging. In this study, we aimed at determining the association between dietary patterns or consumption of specific foods and LTL in Korean adults....
Published 04/15/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening has an important role in cellular aging. However, the impact of high sodium intake, an important risk factor of age-related diseases, on telomere shortening remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between high dietary sodium intake and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), particularly in the context of obesity, as obesity increases salt sensitivity....
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere erosion leading to replicative senescence has been well documented in human and anthropoid primates, and provides a clue against tumorigenesis. In contrast, other mammals, such as laboratory mice, with short lifespan and low body weight mass have different telomere biology without replicative senescence. We analyzed telomere biology in the grey mouse lemur, a small prosimian model with a relative long lifespan currently used in ageing research. We report an average telomere length by...
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) shortened occurs in colorectal carcinogenetic process. Our objective is to determine if it is only a local fact or there are alterations in normal colon cells and in other body cells....
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are dynamic nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of chromosomes from degradation and activation of DNA damage response. For this reason, telomeres are essential to genome integrity. Chromosome ends are enriched in heterochromatic marks and proper organization of telomeric chromatin is important to telomere stability. Despite their heterochromatic state, telomeres are transcribed giving rise to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) called TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA). TERRA...
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of cellular turnover and oxidative stress. Studies suggest major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with oxidative stress, but examinations of MDD and LTL have yielded mixed results, likely because of differences in measurement methods and unmeasured confounding. This study examined LTL and telomerase activity in 166 individuals with MDD compared to 166 age- and gender-matched matched controls free of any psychiatric disorder, using well-validated...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are an appealing source of cells for therapeutic intervention; however, the environment from which ASCs are isolated may impact their usefulness. Using a range of functional assays, we have evaluated whether ASCs isolated from an obese environment are comparable to cells from non-obese adipose tissue. Results showed that ASCs isolated from obese tissue have a reduced proliferative ability and a loss of viability together with changes in telomerase activity and DNA...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Accelerated telomere shortening may cause cancer via chromosomal instability, making it a potentially useful biomarker. However, publications on blood telomere length (BTL) and cancer are inconsistent. We prospectively examined BTL measures over time and cancer incidence....
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with health and mortality. Because osteoporosis is an age-related condition and LTL is considered to be a biomarker of aging, we hypothesized that shorter LTL could predict lower BMD. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is an association of LTL with BMD and to determine whether this possible association is independent of age. The BMDs of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were...
Published 04/11/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with older age and age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that short telomeres are associated with both increased cancer mortality and all-cause mortality....
Published 04/10/2015    Read More...
Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans. Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers,...
Published 04/10/2015    Read More...
Cord blood (CB) leukocytes have inherent telomere length (TL) variation, and CB hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can maintain high telomerase levels preventing telomere attrition in vitro. We evaluated TL changes in 13 adult double-unit CB transplant (CBT) recipients. In the 26 units, we observed a marked variation in CB TL at thaw (median, 9.99 kilobases [kb]; range, 6.85 to 13.5). All 13 patients engrafted. Of 11 engrafting with 1 unit, there was no correlation between unit dominance and TL...
Published 04/10/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is closely associated with cellular radiosensitivity and WRAP53 is required for telomere addition by telomerase. In this research we assessed radiosensitivity of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 cell lines after WRAP53 inhibition, and analyzed the molecular mechanisms....
Published 04/09/2015    Read More...
Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
Neurodegenerative disease is common and frequently occurs in elderly patients. Previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 was able to inhibit senescent of brain, but the mechanism on the brain during the treatment remains elucidated. To study the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in the process of anti-aging of brain, forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Rg1 normal group, brain aging model group and Rg1 brain aging model group, each group with 10 rats (brain aging model...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
There are two basic mechanisms that are associated with the maintenance of the telomere length, which endows cancer cells with unlimited proliferative potential. One mechanism, referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), accounts for approximately 10-15% of all human cancers. Tumours engaged in the ALT pathway are characterised by the presence of the single stranded 5'-C-rich telomeric overhang (C-overhang). This recently identified hallmark of ALT cancers distinguishes them from...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
Mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes constitute the most recurrent somatic alterations in urothelial carcinoma of bladder. In this study, we screened DNA from 327 urothelial bladder carcinomas from well-documented patients, with different stages and grades and known TERT promoter mutational status, for FGFR3 alterations and measured relative telomere length (RTL). Although, the frequency of the TERT...
Published 04/07/2015    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with coronary artery disease and heart failure. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length is associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)....
Published 04/04/2015    Read More...
Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were...
Published 04/03/2015    Read More...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial disorder that arises from interactions between genetic, environmental and intra-uterine factors. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies and the daughters of mothers with PCOS represent possible postnatal clinical targets for developmental programming by steroid excess. The presence of excess glucocorticoids and/or androgens during foetal organogenesis and growth might promote changes in gene expression, and these changes might be related to an...
Published 04/02/2015    Read More...
The Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) is a highly sensitive PCR-based assay and prove to be an important tool for understanding the role of telomerase in cancer and various tissues that harbors telomerase positive stem cells. This assay measures telomerase activity where the amount of target is dependent upon the activity of the enzyme. This protocol consists of two steps: first, telomeric repeats are added to the substrate by telomerase present in the cell and second, the extended...
Published 04/01/2015    Read More...
Authors: Leila M LM. Vaez-Azizi, Eugene E. Ruby, Roberta R. Dracxler, Karen K. Rothman, Mary M. Perrin, Julie J. Walsh-Messinger, Daniel D. Antonius, Raymond R RR. Goetz, Deborah M DM. Goetz, David L DL. Keefe, Dolores D. Malaspina Published: 04/01/2015, Schizophrenia research ...
Published 04/01/2015    Read More...
Our investigation aims to assess the impact of symptoms of maternal sleep-disordered breathing, specifically sleep apnea risk and daytime sleepiness, on fetal leukocyte telomere length....
Published 04/01/2015    Read More...
The psychosomatic approach arose in antiquity as mankind looked for explanations for illness and death. With the rise of modern medicine, the links between emotions and medical conditions, such as cardiac disease and diabetes, were described by astute clinical observers, but the mechanisms for these conditions were based on correlation from observations rather than on experimental design. Psychoanalytic theory was often utilized to explain many common diseases. For example, peptic ulcer disease...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Mature adipocytes have shown dynamic plasticity to be converted into fibroblast-like and lipid-free cells. After the dedifferentiation process, these cells re-entered the cell cycle and acquired a high proliferation potential, becoming a valid source of stem cells. However, many aspects of the cellular biosafety about dedifferentiated fat cells remained unclear. This study aimed to elucidate their potential susceptibility to malignant transformation and to ascertain the safety of these cells for...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt....
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Reproduction is inherently costly. Environmental stressors, such as infection and limited food resources, can compromise investment at each breeding attempt. For example, recent data on captive birds showed that increased reproductive effort accelerates ageing. However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing. To...
Published 03/28/2015    Read More...
The causal role of aneuploidy in cancer initiation remains under debate since mutations of euploidy-controlling genes reduce cell fitness but aneuploidy strongly associates with human cancers. Telomerase activation allows immortal growth by stabilizing telomere length, but its role in aneuploidy survival has not been characterized. Here, we analyze the response of primary human cells and murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to aneuploidy induction and the role of telomeres and the telomerase...
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes contain specialized chromatin structures called telomeres, the length of which plays a key role in early human embryonic development. Although the effect of sperm preparation techniques on major sperm characteristics, such as concentration, motility and morphology have been previously documented, the possible status of telomere length and its relation with sperm preparation techniques is not well-known for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the...
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
Tumorigenesis is often associated with loss of tumor suppressor genes (such as TP53), genomic instability and telomere lengthening. Previously, we generated and characterized a rat p53 knockout model in which the homozygous rats predominantly develop hemangiosarcomas whereas the heterozygous rats mainly develop osteosarcomas. Using genome-wide analyses, we find that the tumors that arise in the heterozygous and homozygous Tp53C273X mutant animals are also different in their genomic instability...
Published 03/26/2015    Read More...
Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and its consequences, including accelerated ageing and mortality. The underlying factor could be accumulation of certain lipid moieties, such as ceramides (CER) and diacylgycerol (DAG) within muscle tissue, which are known to promote insulin resistance (IR), induce inflammation and oxidative injury, ultimately altering muscle function....
Published 03/26/2015    Read More...
Here, we set out to establish whether endogenous γ-H2AX is a biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer....
Published 03/26/2015    Read More...
To study the impact of simulated climatic conditions of the 2010 summer in Moscow on the telomere repeats of chromosomes in human blood cells....
Published 03/25/2015    Read More...
Prediabetes increases cardiovascular risk and is associated with excess mortality. In preclinical models, metformin has been shown to exert anti-ageing effects. In this study, we sought to assess whether metformin modulates putative effector longevity programs in prediabetic subjects....
Published 03/24/2015    Read More...
A hallmark of cancer cells is an activated telomere maintenance mechanism, which allows prolonged survival of the malignant cells. In more than 80% of tumours, telomeres are elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which adds de novo telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Cancer cells are also characterized by expression of active LINE-1 elements (L1s, long interspersed nuclear elements-1). L1 elements are abundant retrotransposons in the eukaryotic genome that are primarily known for...
Published 03/23/2015    Read More...
Cushing's syndrome (CS) increases cardiovascular risk (CVR) and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL) shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging....
Published 03/23/2015    Read More...
The main Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia are Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi and B. bavariensis. This is in contrast to the United States, where infections are exclusively caused by B. burgdorferi. Until to date the genome sequences of four B. afzelii strains, of which only two include the numerous plasmids, are available. In order to further assess the genetic diversity of B. afzelii, the most common species in Europe, responsible for the large variety...
Published 03/23/2015    Read More...
Protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) is a telomere-binding protein, which binds to the single-stranded DNA extensions of telomeres and regulates telomere length. Different POT1 mRNA variants were examined and compared with telomere length and radiosensitivity in colon and gastric adenocarcinoma cells. POT1 production and telomere lengths were assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). POT1 mRNA levels, which were relatively stable, were significantly...
Published 03/20/2015    Read More...
In this report the associations between telomere length variation (TLV), mean telomere length in blood lymphocytes and lung cancer risk were examined....
Published 03/20/2015    Read More...
Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate...
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear....
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs can act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we identified the role of miR-34a in regulating telomerase activity, with subsequent effect on cellular senescence and viability. We found the higher expression of miR-34a was significantly correlated with the advanced clinicopathologic parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, tumor tissues of 75 HCC patients demonstrated an inverse correlation between...
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common aneuploidy. In general population, its prevalence is 1:600-1:800 live births. It is caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21. DS is phenotypically manifested by premature aging, upward slant to the eyes, epicanthus, flattened face, and poor muscle tone. In addition to physical changes, this syndrome is characterized by early onset of diseases specific to old age, such as Alzheimer's disease, vision and hearing problems, and precocious menopause. Since DS...
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
It has been confirmed that telomere length (TL) correlates with chronological donor age and that telomere shortening is accelerated in allografts. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between graft rs2735940 hTERT and rs2630578 BICD1 gene polymorphisms and rs7235755/rs2162440 chromosome 18 polymorphisms, relative TL and kidney function after transplantation....
Published 03/14/2015    Read More...
Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition....
Published 03/13/2015    Read More...
This article describes progress to date in the characterization of the salivary epigenome and considers the importance of previous work in the salivary microbiome, proteome, endocrine analytes, genome, and transcriptome....
Published 03/13/2015    Read More...
In general, nanoparticle-based materials are promising candidates for use in biological systems for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, these materials' actions at the molecular level remain poorly understood. Nanoparticle (silica, silver and diamond)-induced oxidative stress and activation of the NF-κB pathway lead to the depletion of lamin B1 pools, which, in turn, results in upregulation of telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) protein expression and maintenance of telomere...
Published 03/12/2015    Read More...
The aged population suffers increased morbidity and higher mortality in response to episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Aging is associated with telomere shortening, and both telomerase reverse transcriptase (TerT) and RNA (TerC) are essential to maintain telomere length. To define a role of telomerase deficiency in susceptibility to AKI, we used ischemia/reperfusion injury in wild-type mice or mice with either TerC or TerT deletion. Injury induced similar renal impairment at day 1 in each...
Published 03/11/2015    Read More...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of telomere length and telomerase expression in cancer tissues and the surrounding mucosa (SM), as markers of field cancerization and clinical outcome in patients successfully treated for with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)....
Published 03/11/2015    Read More...
In this study, we analyzed 100 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for telomerase activity, telomere length and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) using the TRAP assay, TeloTTAGGG assay kit and immunohistochemical analysis of ALT associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies respectively. A significantly higher (P=0.000) telomerase activity was observed in 81 cases of RCC which was correlated with clinicopathological features of tumor for instance, stage (P=0.008) and grades (P=0.000)...
Published 03/11/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Antigen-specific multifunctional T cells that secrete interferon-γ, interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α simultaneously after activation are important for the control of many infections. It is unclear if these CD8(+) T cells are at an early or late stage of differentiation and whether telomere erosion restricts their replicative capacity. We developed a multi-parameter flow cytometric method for investigating the relationship between differentiation (CD45RA and CD27 surface phenotype),...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Persistent ATG-induced CD4(+) T cell lymphopenia is associated with serious clinical complications. We tested the hypothesis that ATG induces accelerated immune senescence in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Immune senescence biomarkers were analyzed at transplant and one-year later in 97 incident RTR -62 patients receiving ATG and 35 receiving anti-CD25 mAb (α-CD25). This consisted in: (i) thymic output; (ii) bone marrow renewal of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34(+) HPC) and...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is commonly measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although, easier than the southern blot of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) TL measurement method, one drawback of qPCR is that it introduces greater measurement error and thus reduces the statistical power of analyses. To address a potential source of measurement error, we consider the effect of well position on qPCR TL measurements....
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Hispanic Americans comprise the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in the USA. In Houston, Texas, 44% of the population is of Hispanic descent, with the majority being Mexican Americans (78%). This population is under-represented in health-related research despite their high prevalence of obesity and diabetes, which may predispose them to cancer and other chronic conditions. Recognizing the need for a greater research effort into the health risks of Hispanic Americans, the...
Published 03/08/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered as the marker of biological aging and may be related to environmental factors. The current study aimed to examine the relation between Mediterranean-type diet and LTL. We used a cross-sectional study of 1743 multi-ethnic community residents of New York aged 65 years or older. Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) was calculated from dietary information collected using a food frequency questionnaire. LTL was measured from leukocyte DNA using a real-time PCR...
Published 03/08/2015    Read More...
High variation in telomere length between individuals is already present before birth and is as wide among newborns as in adults. Environmental exposures likely have an impact on this observation, but remain largely unidentified. We hypothesize that placental telomere length in twins is associated with residential traffic exposure, an important environmental source of free radicals that might accelerate aging. Next, we intend to unravel the nature-nurture contribution to placental telomere...
Published 03/07/2015    Read More...
Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Shorter telomere length (TL) has found to be associated with lower birth weight and with lower cognitive ability and psychiatric disorders. However, the direction of causation of these associations and the extent to which they are genetically or environmentally mediated are unclear. Within-pair comparisons of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins can throw light on these questions. We investigated correlations of within pair differences in telomere length, IQ, and anxiety/depression in an...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, and telomere length (TL) may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. Hormone-brain-aging behavior-modulated telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state, and these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Cells of different organs at different ages have an intrinsic set of kinetics that dictates their behavior. Transformation into cancer cells will inherit these kinetics that determine initial cell and tumor population progression dynamics. Subject to genetic mutation and epigenetic alterations, cancer cell kinetics can change, and favorable alterations that increase cellular fitness will manifest themselves and accelerate tumor progression. We set out to investigate the emerging intratumoral...
Published 03/05/2015    Read More...
Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging...
Published 03/04/2015    Read More...
The aim of the present study was to explore whether the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [log (TG)/HDL-C] and peripheral blood leukocytes DNA telomere length could predict future islet beta cell function decreased in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during a 6-year cohort....
Published 03/04/2015    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), encoded by the TERT gene, is an essential component of telomerase, essential for the maintenance of telomere DNA length, chromosomal stability and cellular immortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between common genetic variations across the TERT gene region and prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness in a Chinese population. A total of 12 TERT tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped on the Sequenom...
Published 03/04/2015    Read More...
The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin...
Published 03/01/2015    Read More...
Telomere attrition has been linked to accelerate vascular ageing and seems to predispose for vascular disease. Our aim was to study the telomere length dynamics over time and in subsets of leukocytes from 15 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The mean telomere length in subsets of leukocytes of patients with PAD was in the normal range of age-related telomere length values from healthy individuals. However, we found significant higher telomere attrition for T-cells from patients...
Published 03/01/2015    Read More...
Yoga is a mind-body modulation technique that has been shown to have beneficial effects on various diseases related to various systems in the body. However, the molecular basis of mechanism of action is not clear. Hence, this study was designed to study the leukocyte telomere biology and its relation with homocysteine and oxidative stress in yoga practitioners....
Published 03/01/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is required for long-term telomere maintenance and protection. Using single budding yeast mother cell analyses we found that, even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast mother cells show transient DNA damage response (DDR) episodes, stochastically altered cell-cycle dynamics, and accelerated mother cell aging. The acceleration of ETI mother cell aging was not explained by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sir protein perturbation, or deprotected telomeres. ETI...
Published 02/28/2015    Read More...
Experimental evidence shows that telomere shortening induces mitochondrial damage but so far studies in humans are scarce. Here, we investigated the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in elderly and explored possible intermediate mechanisms by determining the gene expression profile of candidate genes in the telomere-mitochondrial axis of ageing. Among 166 non-smoking elderly, LTL, leukocyte mtDNA content and expression of candidate genes:...
Published 02/28/2015    Read More...
Genome integrity is constantly challenged by endo- and exogenous DNA-damaging factors. The influence of genotoxic agents causes an accumulation of DNA lesions, which if not repaired, become mutations that can cause various abnormalities in a cell metabolism. The main pathway of DSB repair, which is based on non-homologous recombination, is canonical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). It has been shown that this mechanism is highly conserved in both Pro- and Eukaryotes. The mechanisms that...
Published 02/27/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are regarded as important biomarkers of ageing and serve as useful tools in revealing how stress acts at the cellular level. However, the effects of social and ecological factors on telomere length remain poorly understood, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated the influences of within-group dominance rank and group membership on telomere length in wild adult spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We found large effects of both factors; high-ranking hyenas exhibited...
Published 02/26/2015    Read More...
Authors: Johann J. Steurer Published: 02/25/2015, Praxis PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/25/2015    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction and fusion can drive genomic instability and clonal evolution in human tumours, including breast cancer. Telomere length is a critical determinant of telomere function and has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in several tumour types, but it has yet to be used in the clinical setting. Here we show that high-resolution telomere length analysis, together with a specific telomere fusion threshold, is highly prognostic for overall survival in a cohort of patients diagnosed...
Published 02/25/2015    Read More...
Authors: Alessandro A. Lugli Published: 02/25/2015, Frontiers in oncology PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/25/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with poor health. Depression may be associated with the shortening of leukocyte telomeres. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of depression and telomere length and to identify moderators of the relationship between depression and telomere length....
Published 02/24/2015    Read More...
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that leukocyte telomere length is associated with the developing risk of various malignancies, including glioma. However, its prognostic value in glioma patients has never been investigated....
Published 02/22/2015    Read More...
A comparative approach in biology is needed to assess the universality of rules governing this discipline. In plant telomere research, most of the key principles were established based on studies in only single model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. These principles include the absence of telomere shortening during plant development and the corresponding activity of telomerase in dividing (meristem) plant cells. Here we examine these principles in Physcomitrella patens as a representative of lower...
Published 02/21/2015    Read More...
After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived...
Published 02/20/2015    Read More...
Authors: Tomas L TL. Griebling Published: 02/18/2015, The Journal of urology PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
The outcome of kidney allograft transplantation is associated with numerous donor-dependent and recipient-dependent immunological and non-immunological factors. Studies on genetic factors affecting the non-immunological aspects, like ageing of the kidney allograft and patient outcome are still lacking. The aim of this study was the analysis of relative telomere length (RTL; T/S ratio) in the biopsy specimens of the transplanted kidney allograft and its correlation with the delayed graft function...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
Authors: Steven C SC. Hunt, Jeremy D JD. Kark, Abraham A. Aviv Published: 02/18/2015, Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
To analysze genotype and measure telomere length in two Chinese patients with dyskeratosis congenita(DC)....
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
Sodium metaarsenite (NaAs2O3: code name KML001) is an orally bioavailable arsenic compound with potential anti-cancer activity. However, the effect of KML001 has not been studied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the anti-leukemic effect of KML001 in AML, and determined the mode of action of KML001. KML001 inhibited the cellular proliferation in all AML cell lines and primary AML blasts as well as HL-60R (cytosine arabinoside-resistant HL-60) cells, while As2O3 was not effective...
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called "WEIRD" societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-Western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people--the Sahariya--who...
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
To investigate the possible occurrence of early thymic failure and premature senescence of naïve and memory T-cells in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (aSpA)....
Published 02/15/2015    Read More...
Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely...
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Asymptomatic relatives of patients with familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP), the inherited form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, carry increased risk for developing interstitial lung disease....
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not always result in complete CD4 T-cell recovery despite the effective control of HIV replication. Because telomere dysregulation can lead to an abnormal cell proliferation, we hypothesized that the lack of CD4 recovery may be related to telomere defects; We thus evaluated the association between telomere length (TL) and CD4 T-cell recovery 48 weeks after cART initiation in virologically suppressed patients, and its possible relationship to...
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
The identification of biological markers that allow the early diagnosis, or even the prevention of age-related diseases, is an important goal that is being actively pursued in the research community. Sleep is one of the physiological processes that is most affected by aging, and there is a strong relationship between age-related sleep alterations and diseases. Changes in cellular senescence and the linked changes in telomere length might be potential markers of age-related sleep changes. In this...
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
More than two decades of genetic research have identified and assigned main biological functions of shelterin proteins that safeguard telomeres. However, a molecular mechanism of how each protein subunit contributes to the protecting function of the whole shelterin complex remains elusive. Human Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) forms a multifunctional complex with Telomeric Repeat binding Factor 2 (TRF2). Rap1-TRF2 complex is a critical part of shelterin as it suppresses homology-directed...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for TL analyses....
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Authors: Ayman A. Saad, Shin S. Mineishi, Racquel R. Innis-Shelton Published: 02/11/2015, JAMA PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect chromosome ends and are markers of cellular aging and replicative capacity....
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Increasing evidence suggests that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from placenta of fetal origin (fPMSCs) are superior to MSCs of other sources for cell therapy. Since the initial number of isolated MSCs is limited, in vitro propagation is often required to reach sufficient numbers of cells for therapeutic applications, during which MSCs may undergo genetic and/or epigenetic alterations that subsequently increase the probability of spontaneous malignant transformation. Thus, factors...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Radiotherapy plays a key role in cancer treatments, but tumor cell death differs from one tumor to another. The response of patients to radiotherapy varies considerably and adverse side effects are difficult to prevent. The mechanisms involved in the heterogeneity of this response are not well understood. In order to enhance the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy, it is important to identify subpopulations most at risk of developing a late adverse response to radiotherapy. Telomeres are...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Coats plus syndrome is an autosomal recessive, pleiotropic, multisystem disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudates, intracranial calcification with leukoencephalopathy and brain cysts, osteopenia with predisposition to fractures, bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal bleeding and portal hypertension. It is caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the CTC1 gene....
Published 02/10/2015    Read More...
Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres...
Published 02/08/2015    Read More...
Population studies have demonstrated that telomere length (TL) displays great diversity among different populations. Previously described controversial findings associated longevity with specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (hgs) (e.g., J and U). These observations may be influenced by population diversity, geographic location, and/or specific historic background. The aims of this study were to identify a specific hg which correlates with aging in a Latvian populating and to evaluate the...
Published 02/07/2015    Read More...
The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of caloric restriction (CR) on cardiac telomere biology in an animal model of diabetes and to examine the signal transduction involved in cell senescence as well as cardiac function. Male 8-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) diabetic rats were divided into two groups: a group fed ad libitum (OLETF-AL) and a group fed with CR (OLETF-CR: 30% energy reduction). Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) non-diabetic rats were used as...
Published 02/07/2015    Read More...
Gaining access to sequence and structure information of telomere binding proteins helps in understanding the essential biological processes involve in conserved sequence specific interaction between DNA and the proteins. Rice telomere binding protein (RTBP1) and Nicotiana glutinosa telomere repeat binding factor (NgTRF1) are helix turn helix motif type of proteins that plays role in telomeric DNA protection and length regulation. Both the proteins share same type of domain but till now there is...
Published 02/06/2015    Read More...
A large body of evidence supports a key role for telomere dysfunction in carcinogenesis due to the induction of chromosomal instability. To study telomere shortening in precancerous pancreatic lesions, we measured telomere lengths using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), and cancers. The materials employed included surgically resected pancreatic specimens without cancer (n = 33) and with...
Published 02/06/2015    Read More...
Anxiety disorders increase the risk of onset of several ageing-related somatic conditions, which might be the consequence of accelerated cellular ageing....
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The...
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic...
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research has made minimal progress diagnosing who will suffer from lingering symptomology or generating effective treatment strategies. Research demonstrates that dietary intake affects many biological systems including brain and neurological health. This study determined if exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) or caloric restriction (CR) altered post-concussion susceptibility or resiliency using a rodent model of pediatric concussion. Rats were...
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
Despite successful treatment and CD4+ T-cell recovery, HIV-infected individuals often experience a profound immune dysregulation characterized by a persistently low CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio. This residual immune dysregulation is reminiscent of the Immune Risk Phenotype (IRP) previously associated with morbidity and mortality in the uninfected elderly (>85 years). The IRP consists of laboratory markers that include: a low CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio, an expansion of CD8+CD28- T-cells and cytomegalovirus...
Published 02/03/2015    Read More...
Leucocyte telomere length is considered a marker of biological ageing and has been suggested to be shorter in patients with CAD and heart failure compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to determine whether telomere length is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart failure and whether this association is superior to chronological age as defined by date of birth....
Published 02/02/2015    Read More...
The current study aimed to investigate the association between telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function in various age groups of a healthy population. A total of 139 healthy individuals were divided into five groups according to their age: 35‑44, 45‑54, 55‑64, 65‑74 and >75 years old. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and the telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length was assayed using a digoxigenin‑labeled hybridization probe in Southern blot assays....
Published 02/02/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is associated with a large range of human diseases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that are associated with leucocyte telomere length (LTL). However, these studies are limited to adult populations. Nevertheless, childhood is a crucial period for the determination of LTL, and the assessment of age-specific genetic determinants, although neglected, could be of great importance. Our aim was to provide insights and preliminary results on...
Published 02/01/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed to be hereditable and correlated with longevity. However, contrasting results have been reported in different populations on the value of LTL heritability and on how biology of telomeres influences longevity. We investigated whether the variability of genes correlated to telomere maintenance is associated with telomere length and affects longevity in a population from Southern Italy (20-106 years). For this purpose we analyzed thirty-one...
Published 01/29/2015    Read More...
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, and recurrence. HER2 overexpression is associated with increased CSCs, which may explain the aggressive phenotype and increased likelihood of recurrence for HER2(+) breast cancers. Telomerase is reactivated in tumor cells, including CSCs, but has limited activity in normal tissues, providing potential for telomerase inhibition in anti-cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects...
Published 01/28/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with diminished TL associated with several chronic diseases of aging and with heightened mortality risk. Research has begun to focus on the ways in which stress contributes to telomere attrition. The purposes of this study were (a) to establish whether exposure to nonsupportive parenting, defined as high levels of conflict and rancor with low levels of warmth and emotional support, at age 17 would forecast TL 5 years later; and (b)...
Published 01/28/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG)n located at the ends of chromosomes that function to preserve chromosomal integrity and prevent terminal end-to-end fusions. Telomere loss or dysfunction results in breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, aneuploidy, gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to genomic instability and promote carcinogenesis. Evaluating the hypothesis that changes in telomeres contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
Published 01/27/2015    Read More...
Leucocyte telomere length (LTL), which is fashioned by multiple genes, has been linked to a host of human diseases, including sporadic melanoma. A number of genes associated with LTL have already been identified through genome-wide association studies. The main aim of this study was to establish whether DCAF4 (DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor 4) is associated with LTL. In addition, using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), we examined whether LTL-associated genes in the general population might...
Published 01/26/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of each chromosome, maintained primarily by the enzyme telomerase. Shortening of the blood leukocyte telomeres is associated with aging, several chronic diseases, and stress, eg, major depression. Hippocampus is pivotal in the regulation of cognition and mood and the main brain region of telomerase activity. Whether there is telomere dysfunction in the hippocampus of depressed subjects is unknown. Lithium, used in the treatment and...
Published 01/24/2015    Read More...
Few available data on the genomic-somatic evolution in breast cancer create limitation to provide the appropriate clinical managements. As an example, human subtelomeres (ST) are diverse-prone and variable targets. STs, as hot spots, have positive and negative impacts on the status of health and malady. We showed higher subtelomere signal copy number (SCN) of specific chromosomes in genomics than in auxiliary lymph node (ALN). Dissimilarity of signal intensity (SI) is found for all chromosomes....
Published 01/24/2015    Read More...
We hypothesized that telomere length in peripheral blood would have significant predictive value for risk of recurrence after curative resection in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)....
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length....
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic) microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia), has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
To investigate the effects of TRF2 depletion on radiosensitivity in both the telomerase-positive cell lines (A549) and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) cell lines (U2OS)....
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
The helicase RTEL1 promotes t-loop unwinding and suppresses telomere fragility to maintain the integrity of vertebrate telomeres. An interaction between RTEL1 and PCNA is important to prevent telomere fragility, but how RTEL1 engages with the telomere to promote t-loop unwinding is unclear. Here, we establish that the shelterin protein TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase, which is required to prevent catastrophic t-loop processing by structure-specific nucleases. We show that the...
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
Naevus count is the strongest risk factor for melanoma. Body Mass Index (BMI) has been linked to melanoma risk. In this study, we investigate the link between naevus count and height, weight and bone mineral density (BMD) in the TwinsUK cohort (N = 2119). In addition we adjusted for leucocyte telomere length (LTL) as LTL is linked to both BMD and naevus count. Naevus count was positively associated with height (p = 0.001) but not with weight (p = 0.187) despite adjusting for age and twin...
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
We sought to develop and validate a risk index for prospective cognitive decline in older adults based on blood-derived markers....
Published 01/21/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is currently used as an emerging biomarker in understanding the development/progression of hematological malignancies. The absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology has allowed the study of TL from a variety of mammalian tissues, but it has not been tested for bone marrow (BM) samples. In this study, we have examined the relationship between TL data generated by absolute qPCR versus those obtained by terminal restriction fragments (TRF) in 102 BM samples from patients...
Published 01/20/2015    Read More...
We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with birth weight in both extremes of abnormal fetal growth: small (SGA) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA). Clinical and laboratory variables of the mothers and the neonates were explored; 45 newborns with appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA), 12 SGA and 12 LGA were included. Whether the differences might be explained by variation in OBFC1 (rs9419958) and CTC1 (rs3027234) genes associated with LTL was...
Published 01/19/2015    Read More...
Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic...
Published 01/19/2015    Read More...
β-Thalassemia/HbE disease is caused by a defective β-globin synthesis that leads to accumulation of excess unbound α-globins, and consequently oxidative stress, ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia. Cell replication and oxidative stress are factors contributing to erosion of telomeres responsible for maintaining genomic stability and cell replication capability. In this study, the rate of telomere shortening in β-thalassemia/HbE patients was compared to the rate of telomere...
Published 01/17/2015    Read More...
Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy in elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency....
Published 01/16/2015    Read More...
To maintain genome integrity, DNA replication is executed and regulated by a complex molecular network of numerous proteins, including helicases and cell cycle checkpoint regulators. Through a systematic screening for putative replication mutants, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of human Regulator of Telomere Length 1 (RTEL1), which functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, and recombination. RTEL1 deficiency retards plant growth, a phenotype including a prolonged S-phase duration...
Published 01/16/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening and alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in cellular aging. Childhood adversity is associated with telomere shortening, and several investigations have shown short telomeres in psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have examined whether mitochondria might be involved in neuropsychiatric conditions; findings are limited and no prior work has examined this in relation to stress exposure....
Published 01/15/2015    Read More...
Tumorigenesis is a complex process of accumulated alteration in function of multiple genes and pathways. Wnt signalling pathway is involved in various differentiation events during embryonic development and is conserved in various species....
Published 01/15/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk. The black South African population is witnessing a tremendous increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, part of which might be explained through urbanization. We compared telomere length between black South Africans and white South Africans and examined which biological and psychosocial variables played a role in ethnic difference in telomere length....
Published 01/14/2015    Read More...
Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal...
Published 01/13/2015    Read More...
Telomere attrition has been noted in many neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative syndromes, and may indicate a shared molecular pathology across conditions. We evaluated telomere length in subjects with remitted and unremitted schizophrenia and in control subjects....
Published 01/12/2015    Read More...
To determine associations between circulating markers of immune activation, immune cell senescence, and inflammation with HIV-associated abnormalities of pulmonary function....
Published 01/10/2015    Read More...
Authors: Partha P. Haldar, Viviktha V. Ramesh, Shashi S. Kant Published: 01/08/2015, British journal of sports medicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 01/08/2015    Read More...
Acne reflects hormone imbalance and is a key component of several systemic diseases. We hypothesized that diagnosis of acne as a teenager might predict subsequent risk of hormone-related cancers....
Published 01/08/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are located at the outermost ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes and provide for the maintenance of genomic stability and integrity during the life span of organisms. The length of telomeres shortens due to each round of DNA replication, genotoxic insults, and/or reactive oxygen species. To counteract this shortening, certain types of cells, including stem cells, male/female germline cells, granulosa cells, early embryos, and most cancerous cells, express an enzyme known as telomerase,...
Published 01/07/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers....
Published 01/07/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening, a biomarker of cellular aging, has been associated with aging-related diseases. While psychological stress has been implicated in the process of telomere shortening, associations with activity of physiological stress systems have remained elusive. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychosocial stress in elderly adults....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Recent large-scale prospective studies suggest that long telomeres are associated with an increase cancer risk, counter to conventional wisdom....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Telomere biology plays a fundamental role in genomic integrity, cellular regeneration, physiology, aging, disease risk, and mortality. The initial setting of telomere length (TL) in early life has important implications for telomere maintenance and related disorders throughout the life span. However, little is known about the predictors of this initial setting....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Keloids, which possess invasive tumor-like behavior, have been clinically challenging to clinicians especially surgeons. Excessive extracellular matrix secreted from fibroblasts is the main histo-pathological feature of keloids. In this study, we transfected hTERT-siRNA into scar fibroblasts by liposome-adenoviral transduction in order to disrupt telomere length homeostasis and influence the cell cycle of fibroblasts. Our results showed that liposome hTERT-siRNA was able to knock down hTERT gene...
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
The role of telomere shortening to explain the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, as well as the importance of the average telomere length vs. the proportion of short telomeres, especially in nature populations, is largely unexplored. In this study, we have analysed telomere shortening in nine wild house mice from the Barcelona Rb system with diploid numbers ranging from 29 to 40 chromosomes. We also included two standard (2n=40) laboratory mice for comparison. Our data showed that the...
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that protect them from degradation, end-to-end fusions, and fragility. In mammals, telomeres are composed of TTAGGG tandem repeats bound by a protein complex called shelterin, which has fundamental roles in the regulation of telomere protection and length. The telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TERF1 or TRF1) is one of the components of shelterin and has been shown to be essential for telomere protection. Telomeric...
Published 01/01/2015    Read More...
Cells exhibiting dysregulated growth may express telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the dual function of which consists of maintaining telomere length, in association with the RNA template molecule TERC, and controlling cell growth. Here, we investigated lung TERT in human and experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its role in controlling pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) proliferation....
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
Apart from therapeutic discovery, the study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been focused on two challenges: why do a majority of individuals recover with little concern, while a considerable proportion suffer with persistent and often debilitating symptomology; and, how do mild injuries significantly increase risk for an early-onset neurodegeneration? Owing to a lack of observable damage following mTBI, this study was designed to determine if there were changes in neuronal morphology,...
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from...
Published 12/29/2014    Read More...
Early cell death is a feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Telomere shortening is related to premature cellular senescence and could be a marker for cellular pathology in neurological diseases. Relative telomere length in dementia (N=70), Huntington's disease (N=35), ataxia telangiectasia (N=9), and age-group matched control samples (N=105) was measured as relative telomere copy/single copy gene ratios. Individuals with Huntington's disease had the lowest relative telomere copy/single copy...
Published 12/26/2014    Read More...
This nested case-control study sought to determine whether an accelerated rate of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening over 6 years was associated with chronic periodontitis....
Published 12/26/2014    Read More...
To identify molecular markers that may be useful in the selection of gastric cancer patients with different prognoses, we investigated telomere function in gastric cancers with and without microsatellite instability (MSI)....
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Purpose - to explore the role of radiation dose on gene regulation of telomere length and its influence on the patho-genesis of cerebrovascular neurocognitive deficit at the remote period of low-dose irradiation as a result of the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. We performed a study of TERF1, TERF2 and TERT genes expression (GE) by RT-PCR, and relative telomere length (RTL) by flow-FISH in 258 clean-up workers of Chornobyl accident divided by radiation dose groups (range 22-2800 mSv)...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a simple and inexpensive parameter, which reflects the degree of heterogeneity of erythrocyte volume (conventionally known as anisocytosis), and is traditionally used in laboratory hematology for differential diagnosis of anemias. Nonetheless, recent evidence attests that anisocytosis is commonplace in human disorders such as cardiovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, cancer, diabetes, community-acquired pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
The average length of telomeres as measured in genomic DNA from human peripheral blood leukocytes is proving to be a potential biomarker of great interest, particularly with respect to studies of aging, specific diseases, and the effects of various stresses on overall health....
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2013 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. Key points include the research results of...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Recently, we observed that telomeres of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were shorter than those of controls or sporadic breast cancer patients, suggesting that mutations in these genes might be responsible for this event. Given the contradictory results reported in the literature, we tested whether other parameters, such as chemotherapy, could be modifying telomere length (TL). We performed a cross-sectional study measuring leukocyte TL of 266 sporadic breasts cancer patients treated with first-line...
Published 12/21/2014    Read More...
Atherosclerosis is a complex disease which can be described as an excessive fibrofatty, proliferative, inflammatory response to damage to the artery wall involving several cell types such as smooth muscle cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and platelets. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is a typical age-related degenerative pathology, which is characterized by signs of cell senescence in the arterial wall including reduced cell proliferation, irreversible growth...
Published 12/20/2014    Read More...
The present study aims to investigate whether gastrokine 1 (GKN1) induces senescence and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by regulating telomere length and telomerase activity. Telomere length, telomerase activity, and hTERT expression decreased significantly in AGSGKN1 and MKN1GKN1 cells. Both stable cell lines showed increased expression of TRF1 and reduced expression of the hTERT and c-myc proteins. In addition, TRF1 induced a considerable decrease in cell growth, telomerase activity, and...
Published 12/20/2014    Read More...
Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied...
Published 12/20/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative...
Published 12/18/2014    Read More...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that maintains telomere length. Telomeres and telomerase are involved in cellular ageing and have been connected to some ageing related diseases, like cardiovascular disease. Telomerase dysfunction could be the main underlying mechanism in this connection but this point is still unclear. The aim of this article is to investigate the possible influence of cellular ageing, measured by two telomerase polymorphisms, TERC-63G>A (rs2293607) and TERT-1327C>T...
Published 12/17/2014    Read More...
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with a high incidence rate in South China and is predominantly treated with radiotherapy; however, the survival rate remains low. The therapeutic effects of radiation and chemotherapy may be enhanced when combined with anti‑sense oligonucleotides targeting human telomerase RNA (hTR ASODN). However, the influence of hTR ASODN on the anti‑tumor effects of radiation in NPC remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of hTR ASODN on the...
Published 12/17/2014    Read More...
The 3' human telomeric overhang provides ample opportunities for the formation and interaction of G-quadruplexes, which have shown impacts on many biological functions including telomerase activities in the telomere region. However, in the few investigations on DNA constructs that approach to the full length of the human telomeric overhang, the presence of higher-order quadruplex-quadruplex interactions is still a subject of debate. Herein, we employed dynamic splint ligation (DSL) to prepare a...
Published 12/15/2014    Read More...
Systemic telomere length has been associated with measures of diastolic function, vascular stiffness and left ventricular mass mainly in smaller, patient-specific settings and not in a general population. In this study we describe the applicability of these findings in a large, representative population....
Published 12/15/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is regarded as a marker of cellular aging due to the gradual shortening by each cell division, but is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress and inflammation. Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism occur mainly in the elderly, with oxidative stress and inflammation in afflicted cells. In this study the relationship between blood TL and prognosis of 168 patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (136 Parkinson's disease [PD], 17 Progressive...
Published 12/12/2014    Read More...
Telomeric DNA represents a novel target for the development of anticancer drugs. By application of a catalytic metallodrug strategy, a copper-acridine-ATCUN complex (CuGGHK-Acr) has been designed that targets G-quadruplex telomeric DNA. Both fluorescence solution assays and gel sequencing demonstrate the CuGGHK-Acr catalyst to selectively bind and cleave the G-quadruplex telomere sequence. The cleavage pathway has been mapped by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass...
Published 12/11/2014    Read More...
Cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that might increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other aging-related diseases, but their relationships with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, are poorly understood. In experimental studies, they have been shown to induce telomere shortening, but no epidemiologic study to date has examined their associations with LTL in the general population. We examined associations of blood lead and cadmium (n = 6,796)...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death and disability, representing 63% of the total death number worldwide. A characteristic phenotype of these diseases is the accelerated aging, which is the result of phenomena such as accumulated DNA damage, telomere capping loss and subcellular irreversible/nonrepaired oxidative damage. DNA damage, mostly oxidative, plays a key role in the development of most common NCDs. The present review will gather some of the most relevant...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technology by which a highly differentiated somatic nucleus is transferred into an enucleated oocyte to generate a reconstructed embryo that subsequently develops to an offspring. However, to date, the efficiency of cloned animal is still low. The major reason is incomplete nuclear reprogramming of donor cells after nuclear transfer, which results in abnormal epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, gene imprinting,...
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age-related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of nonsupportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in...
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
Telomeres represent the repetitive sequences that cap chromosome ends and are essential for their protection. Telomere length is known to be highly heritable and is derived from a homeostatic balance between telomeric lengthening and shortening activities. Specific loci that form the genetic framework underlying telomere length homeostasis, however, are not well understood. To investigate the extent of natural variation of telomere length in Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined 229 worldwide...
Published 12/08/2014    Read More...
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) clusters risk factors for age-related conditions including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Shorter telomere length (TL), a cellular marker for biological age, may predict an individual's deteriorating metabolic condition....
Published 12/06/2014    Read More...
Disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is variable, with some patients having a relatively stable course, while others suffer relentless progression leading to severe breathlessness, frequent acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), respiratory failure and death. Radiological markers such as CT emphysema index, bronchiectasis and coronary artery calcification (CAC) have been linked with increased mortality in COPD patients. Molecular changes in lung tissue reflect...
Published 12/05/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is indicative of biological age. Shorter telomeres have been associated with several disease and health states. There are inconsistencies throughout the literature amongst relative telomere length measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and different extraction methods or kits used. We quantified whole-blood leukocyte telomere length using the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio by qPCR in 20 young (18-25 yrs) men after extracting DNA using three common extraction methods:...
Published 12/04/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are tandem repeats of sequences present at the end of the chromosomes that maintain chromosomal integrity. After repeated cell division, telomeres shorten to a critical level, triggering replicative senescence or apoptosis, which is a key determinant of cellular aging. Short telomeres also contribute to genome instability and are a hallmark of many cancers. There are several methods for estimating telomere length (TL) from extracted DNA samples. Southern blot is accurate but requires a...