Telomeres have emerged as a promising and important factor modulating cellular and organism responses to ionizing radiation (IR). Pin2/TRF1 interacting protein X1 (PinX1) is an intrinsic telomerase inhibitor and a putative tumor suppressor gene in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role PinX1 in osteosarcoma (OS) radioresistance. A telomerase-positive OS cell line Saos-2 and a telomerase-negative OS cell line U2OS were used. PinX1 shRNA lentiviral vetors were constructed and transfected to cells. PinX1 expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. Relative telomere length (RTL) was detected by using qPCR. Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis. Radiosensitivity was determined by colony formation assay. Data showed that, PinX1 knockdown resulted in telomere shortening, G1 phase arrest, increased apoptosis and enhanced IR sensitivity both in Saos-2 and U2OS cell lines, regardless of telomerase status. Our study concluded that PinX1 could serve as a novel predictor for radiotherapy response to OS patients, and the pathway of PinX1-mediated telomere stability might represent a new target to improve the radiotherapy effect of OS.