Transplantation is the preferred method of end stage renal insufficiency treatment due to better quality of life and extended life of transplanted patients. Currently a non-invasive test, which evaluates the risk of acute or chronic rejection or deterioration of the transplanted organ's function, is being sought. An increase of the transrenal DNA concentration in the urine of urinary tract infection patients and in renal graft recipients during an episode of acute rejection was observed. There were also reports on shortening of telomeres in transplanted organ chromosomes, as the result of accelerated aging of cells, and its connection with the onset of chronic allograft nephropathy and the degree of its completion, and thus the deterioration of kidney function. The aim of this paper is to describe the urine genetic analysis through determining the length of the telomeres and the content of transrenal DNA to monitor kidney function and to evaluate the prevalence of acute and chronic rejection in patients after kidney transplantation. The genetic analysis of the biological material collected from patients relies on the determination of transrenal DNA content and length of DNA telomeres isolated from the urine of kidney recipients. The presented methods assume that the genetic profile of the transplanted organ recipient as well as kidney donor can be determined, so the source of the genetic material in the urine of the patient can be identified. A measurable effect of these methods' use would be to complement the evaluation of the prevalence of acute and chronic rejection and transplanted kidney function with a modern, non-invasive method, which is the analysis of telomere length from sediment of urine and the content of transrenal DNA in the urine.