Telomere Science Library

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about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our previous data demonstrated that two SNPs (rs398652 on 14q21 and rs621559 on 1p34.2) were associated with LTL and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese. However, the role of these genetic variants on glioma risk is still unknown. Therefore, we examined if these genetic variants have impact on the genetic susceptibility of glioma in...
Published 05/21/2014    Read More...
Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of chromosomes in almost all eukaryotes. The core of telomerase consists of telomerase RNA and the reverse transcriptase that uses a short segment without the RNA to template the addition of telomeric repeats. In addition, one or more accessory proteins are required for telomerase action in vivo. The best-studied accessory protein is Est1, which is conserved from yeasts to humans. In budding yeast, Est1 has two critical in...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Increased proliferation rates as well as resistance to apoptosis are considered major obstacles for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), thus highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Since senescence has been recognized as a physiological barrier against tumorigenesis, senescence-based therapy could represent a new strategy against CML. DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) was reported to induce cellular senescence but underlying...
Published 06/24/2014    Read More...
Increased mobility of chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs) has been noted in yeast and mammalian cells but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to DSB repair remain unclear. Here, we use a telomere-based system to track DNA damage foci with high resolution in living cells. We find that the greater mobility of damaged chromatin requires 53BP1, SUN1/2 in the linker of the nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and dynamic microtubules. The data further demonstrate...
Published 11/07/2015    Read More...
The DNA damage response factor 53BP1 functions at the intersection of two major double strand break (DSB) repair pathways--promoting nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and inhibiting homology-directed repair (HDR)--and integrates cellular inputs to ensure their timely execution in the proper cellular contexts. Recent work has revealed that 53BP1 controls 5' end resection at DNA ends, mediates synapsis of DNA ends, promotes the mobility of damaged chromatin, improves DSB repair in heterochromatic...
Published 10/04/2013    Read More...
The TERT-CLPTM1L region of chromosome 5p15.33 is a multi-cancer susceptibility locus that encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, of the telomerase enzyme. Numerous cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs10069690, have been identified within the hTERT gene. The minor allele (A) at rs10069690 creates an additional splice donor site in intron 4 of hTERT, and is associated with an elevated risk of multiple cancers including breast and ovarian carcinomas. We...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
Genetic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer, in several GWAS. Results outside this region have varied....
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
Secondary metabolite genes are often clustered together and situated in particular genomic regions, like the subtelomere, that can facilitate niche adaptation in fungi. Solanapyrones are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi occupying different ecological niches. Full-genome sequencing of the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei revealed a solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster embedded in an AT-rich region proximal to a telomere end and surrounded by Tc1/Mariner-type transposable elements. The...
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Current drugs for myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis, including Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, do not induce complete or partial remissions. Imetelstat is a 13-mer lipid-conjugated oligonucleotide that targets the RNA template of human telomerase reverse transcriptase....
Published 09/03/2015    Read More...
To prospectively examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and subsequent rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in women....
Published 01/15/2016    Read More...
DNA-metal nanoparticle conjugates have been increasingly exploited for sensing purposes over the past decades. However, most of the existing strategies are operated with canonical DNA structures, such as single-stranded forms, stem-loop structures, and double helix structures. There is intense interest in the development of nano-system based on high order DNA secondary structures. Herein, we propose a SERS/fluorescence dual-mode nanosensor, where the signal transduction mechanism is based on the...
Published 02/07/2015    Read More...
The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or the factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. To determine how the TIN2-DC mutations affect telomere function, we generated mice with the equivalent of the TIN2 K280E DC allele (TIN2(DC)) by gene targeting. Whereas homozygous TIN2(DC/DC) mice were not viable,...
Published 01/22/2014    Read More...
Here, with the aim of obtaining insight into the intriguing selectivity of G-quadruplex (G4) ligands toward cancer compared to normal cells, a genetically controlled system of progressive transformation in human BJ fibroblasts was analyzed. Among the different comparative evaluations, we found a progressive increase of DNA damage response (DDR) markers throughout the genome from normal toward immortalized and transformed cells. More interestingly, sensitivity to G4 ligands strongly correlated...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
A major objective of biobehavioral research is defining the mechanisms that underlie linkages among behavior, biology, health, and disease. The genomic revolution has demonstrated the importance of studying the role of the environment in (epi)genetic mechanisms. The idea that interactions between environment and genetics influence health outcomes is a central concept of the exposome, a measure of environmental exposures throughout a lifetime. Research suggests that telomere length (TL) and...
Published 03/04/2014    Read More...
This perspective review focused on the Werner syndrome (WS) by addressing the issue of how a single mutation in a WRN gene encoding WRN DNA helicase induces a wide range of premature aging phenotypes accompanied by an abnormal pattern of tumors. The key event caused by WRN gene mutation is the dysfunction of telomeres. Studies on normal aging have identified a molecular circuit in which the dysfunction of telomeres caused by cellular aging activates the TP53 gene. The resultant p53 suppresses...
Published 12/17/2013    Read More...
A remarkable observation emerging from recent cancer genome analyses is the identification of chromothripsis as a one-off genomic catastrophe, resulting in massive somatic DNA structural rearrangements (SRs). Largely due to lack of suitable model systems, the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis has remained elusive. We developed an integrative method termed "complex alterations after selection and transformation (CAST)," enabling efficient in vitro generation of complex DNA rearrangements...
Published 09/28/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest associated with an altered secretory pathway, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. However, cellular senescence is initiated by diverse molecular triggers, such as activated oncogenes and shortened telomeres, and is associated with varied and complex physiological endpoints, such as tumor suppression and tissue aging. The extent to which distinct triggers activate divergent modes of senescence that might be associated with different...
Published 03/20/2014    Read More...
Social control in the health domain refers to attempts by social network members to get an individual to modify their health behaviors. According to the dual effects model of social control, having one's health behavior controlled by others should be related to healthier behavioral change, but might arouse psychological distress as one may resent being controlled. Despite potential healthy behavior change, the stress of social control may thus be detrimental as interpersonal stress has been...
Published 08/11/2014    Read More...
Heterochromatin assembly and its associated phenotype, position effect variegation (PEV), provide an informative system to study chromatin structure and genome packaging. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic in all cell types except the male germline; as such, Y chromosome dosage is a potent modifier of PEV. However, neither Y heterochromatin composition, nor its assembly, has been carefully studied. Here, we report the mapping and...
Published 01/24/2014    Read More...
Senescence stimuli activate multiple tumor suppressor pathways to initiate cycle arrest and a differentiation program characteristic of senescent cells. We performed a two-stage, gain-of-function screen to select for the genes whose enhanced expression can bypass replicative senescence. We uncovered multiple genes known to be involved in p53 and Rb regulation and ATM regulation, two components of the CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex involved in preventing telomere erosion, and genes such as REST and...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a predictor of aging and a number of age-related diseases. We performed genome-wide association studies of mean LTL in 2632 individuals,with a two-stage replication in 3917 individuals from Chinese populations. To further validate our findings, we get the results of 696 samples from a cohort of European ancestry. We identified two loci associated with LTL that map in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT; rs2736100, P = 1.93×10(-5)) on chromosome 5p15.33...
Published 01/21/2014    Read More...
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P =...
Published 12/01/2013    Read More...
Replicative senescence is a fundamental tumor-suppressive mechanism triggered by telomere erosion that results in a permanent cell cycle arrest. To understand the impact of telomere shortening on gene expression, we analyzed the transcriptome of diploid human fibroblasts as they progressed toward and entered into senescence. We distinguished novel transcription regulation due to replicative senescence by comparing senescence-specific expression profiles to profiles from cells arrested by DNA...
Published 05/23/2014    Read More...
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) acts as a reservoir for stem cells. The central zone (CZ) harbors stem cells. The stem cell progenitors differentiate in the adjacent peripheral zone and in the rib meristem located just beneath the CZ. The SAM is further divided into distinct clonal layers: the L1 epidermal, L2 sub-epidermal and L3 layers. Collectively, SAMs are complex structures that consist of cells of different clonal origins that are organized into functional domains. By employing...
Published 06/25/2014    Read More...
Telomere integrity is essential to maintain genome stability, and telomeric dysfunctions are associated with cancer and aging pathologies. In human, the shelterin complex binds TTAGGG DNA repeats and provides capping to chromosome ends. Within shelterin, RAP1 is recruited through its interaction with TRF2, and TRF2 is required for telomere protection through a network of nucleic acid and protein interactions. RAP1 is one of the most conserved shelterin proteins although one unresolved question...
Published 01/08/2016    Read More...
Telomeric and subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes largely consist of highly repetitive and redundant DNA sequences, resulting in a paucity of unique DNA sequences specific to individual telomeres. Accordingly, it is difficult to analyze telomere metabolism on a single-telomere basis. To circumvent this problem, we have exploited a human artificial chromosome (HAC#21) derived from human chromosome 21 (hChr21). HAC#21 was generated through truncation of the long arm of native hChr21 by the...
Published 02/18/2014    Read More...
An electronic nanoswitch is described based on the conformational change of the DNA sequence in the presence of stabilizing ligands. The new electrochemical biosensor was prepared by modifying a screen-printed graphite electrode (SPE) with functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles [(SiO2-N-propylpiperazine-N-(2-mercaptopropane-1-one) (SiO2@NPPNSH)] and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). These nanoparticles are able to immobilize thiolated G-quadruplex DNA structures (SH-G4DNA). The SH groups on the SiO2@NPPNSH...
Published 04/17/2015    Read More...
About a decade ago, I proposed that t-loops, the lariat structures adopted by many eukaryotic telomeres, could explain how the transition from circular to linear chromosomes was successfully negotiated by early eukaryotes. Here I reconsider this loopy hypothesis in the context of the idea that eukaryotes evolved through a period of genome invasion by Group II introns....
Published 10/20/2015    Read More...
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative...
Published 12/04/2014    Read More...
Genomic analyses of fungal genome structure have revealed the presence of physically-linked groups of genes, termed gene clusters, where collective functionality of encoded gene products serves a common biosynthetic purpose. In multiple fungal pathogens of humans and plants gene clusters have been shown to encode pathways for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including metabolites required for pathogenicity. In the major mould pathogen of humans Aspergillus fumigatus, multiple clusters of...
Published 11/05/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are repeated sequences (the hexanucleotide TTAGGG in vertebrates) located at chromosome ends of eukaryotes, protecting DNA from end joining or degradation. Telomeres become shorter with each cell cycle, but telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex, alleviates this attrition. The telomerase RNA component (TERC) is an essential element of telomerase, serving as a template for telomere elongation. The H/ACA domain of TERC is indispensable for telomere biogenesis. Mutations in the...
Published 06/19/2014    Read More...
Cardiac angiosarcoma (CAS) is a rare malignant tumour whose genetic basis is unknown. Here we show, by whole-exome sequencing of a TP53-negative Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) family including CAS cases, that a missense variant (p.R117C) in POT1 (protection of telomeres 1) gene is responsible for CAS. The same gene alteration is found in two other LFL families with CAS, supporting the causal effect of the identified mutation. We extend the analysis to TP53-negative LFL families with no CAS and find the...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Rif1 protein is present in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human. In yeast, Rif1 is important for telomere homeostasis. Despite conservation in its domain organization, human Rif1 is not part of the telomere complex but was recently reported to work at DNA double‐strand breaks (DSBs) with 53BP1 to inhibit 5′ strand degradation (resection) and stimulate a subset of nonhomologous end‐joining (NHEJ) reactions. Martina et al report in this issue of EMBO reports that yeast Rif1 is also recruited...
Published 04/27/2014    Read More...
This study reports on a unique balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation detected in a phenotypically normal cattle dam and her calf. CBG-, GTG-banding and FISH using bovine whole-chromosome and telomere probes were applied. The analyses showed that the breakpoints were located near to the centromere in chromosome 26 (q11) and exceptionally close to the telomere in chromosome 13 (q24). The whole euchromatin segment of chromosome 26 was translocated onto chromosome 13. The distal end of...
Published 11/13/2014    Read More...
The combined 1p-/19q- deletions in oligodendrogliomas originate from translocation between both chromosomes. In the few cases of oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) where only 1p deletion was described, the origin remains unknown. We report the first case of GBMO, in which a single 1p deletion was detected and was linked to a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7. Fresh surgical specimens were collected during surgery and the samples were used for...
Published 09/30/2013    Read More...
Authors: Alison A AA. Bertuch Published: 10/31/2014, Blood PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/31/2014    Read More...
Authors: Tim T. De Meyer, Katrien K. Vandepitte, Simon S. Denil, Marc L ML. De Buyzere, Ernst R ER. Rietzschel, Sofie S. Bekaert Published: 10/23/2013, European journal of human genetics : EJHG PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/23/2013    Read More...
Werner Syndrome (WS) is a rare inherited disease characterized by premature aging and increased propensity for cancer. Mutations in the WRN gene can be of several types, including nonsense mutations, leading to a truncated protein form. WRN is a RecQ family member with both helicase and exonuclease activities, and it participates in several cell metabolic pathways, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reported a novel homozygous WS mutation (c.3767 C > G) in...
Published 04/17/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and its inherited form, familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP). We identified a kindred with FIP with short telomeres who did not carry a mutation in known FIP genes TERT or hTR . We performed targeted sequencing of other telomere-related genes to identify the genetic basis of FIP in this kindred. The proband was a 69 year-old man with dyspnea, restrictive pulmonary function test results, and reticular...
Published 08/21/2014    Read More...
Transchromosomic (Tc) technology using human chromosome fragments (hCFs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs), has been used for generating mice containing Mb-sized segments of the human genome. The most significant problem with freely segregating chromosomes with human centromeres has been mosaicism, possibly due to the instability of hCFs or HACs in mice. We report a system for the stable maintenance of Mb-sized human chromosomal fragments following translocation to mouse chromosome 10...
Published 02/02/2014    Read More...
DNA sequences that can form intramolecular quadruplex structures are found in promoters of proto-oncogenes. Many of these sequences readily fold into parallel quadruplexes. Here we characterize the ability of yeast Pif1 to bind and unfold a parallel quadruplex DNA substrate. We found that Pif1 binds more tightly to the parallel quadruplex DNA than single-stranded DNA or tailed duplexes. However, Pif1 unwinding of duplexes occurs at a much faster rate than unfolding of a parallel intramolecular...
Published 01/14/2015    Read More...
Inflammation, hormones and energy-related factors have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and it has been proposed that convergence and interactions of these factors importantly influence CRC risk. We have previously hypothesized that genetic variation in the CHIEF (convergence of hormones, inflammation and energy-related factors) pathway would influence risk of CRC. In this paper, we utilize an Adaptive Rank Truncation Product (ARTP) statistical method to determine the overall pathway...
Published 10/20/2014    Read More...
Authors: Valérie V. Gabelica Published: 08/21/2014, Biochimie PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/21/2014    Read More...
Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here, we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally short-lived African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de-novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9...
Published 02/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and telomere length plays a clear role in various diseases. However, it is not known whether telomere length is related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....
Published 12/03/2013    Read More...
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in...
Published 09/11/2014    Read More...
Alterations in pathways including BRAF, CDKN2A, and TERT contribute to the development of melanoma, but the sequence in which the genetic alterations occur and their prognostic significance remains unclear. To clarify the role of these pathways, we analyzed a primary melanoma and its metastasis....
Published 12/11/2014    Read More...
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the mammalian sirtuin family, is a nuclear deacetylase with substrate-specific NAD(+)-dependent activity. SIRT6 has emerged as a critical regulator of diverse processes, including DNA repair, gene expression, telomere maintenance, and metabolism. However, our knowledge regarding its interactions and regulation remains limited. Here, we present a comprehensive proteomics-based analysis of SIRT6 protein interactions and their dependence on SIRT6 catalytic activity....
Published 10/25/2013    Read More...
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4, and is characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, congenital malformations, and typical facial appearance including 'Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose. The form and the severity of clinical manifestations vary according to the size and location of the deletion. Major complications are severe growth retardation, developmental delay, seizures, feeding difficulties due to...
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
Telomere length has a biological link to cancer, with excessive telomere shortening leading to genetic instability and resultant malignant transformation. Telomere length is heritable and genetic variants determining telomere length have been identified. Telomere biology has been implicated in the development of hematological malignancies (HMs), therefore, closer examination of telomere length in HMs may provide further insight into genetic etiology of disease development and support for...
Published 10/24/2014    Read More...
Drosophila telomeres are elongated by transposition of specialized retroelements rather than telomerase activity and are assembled independently of the sequence. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex that localizes and functions exclusively at telomeres and by non-terminin proteins that do not serve telomere-specific functions. We show that mutations in the Drosophila Separase encoding gene Sse lead not only to endoreduplication but also telomeric fusions (TFs), suggesting a role...
Published 01/18/2016    Read More...
The enzymatic ribonucleoprotein telomerase maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, including humans, and plays a central role in aging and cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is a flexible scaffold that tethers telomerase holoenzyme protein subunits to the complex. Here we test the hypothesis that a lengthy conserved region of the Est1-binding TLC1 arm contributes more than simply Est1-binding function. We separated Est1 binding from potential other functions by tethering TLC1...
Published 03/03/2015    Read More...
The chromosome-like mitotic stability of the yeast 2 micron plasmid is conferred by the plasmid proteins Rep1-Rep2 and the cis-acting locus STB, likely by promoting plasmid-chromosome association and segregation by hitchhiking. Our analysis reveals that stable plasmid segregation during meiosis requires the bouquet proteins Ndj1 and Csm4. Plasmid relocalization from the nuclear interior in mitotic cells to the periphery at or proximal to telomeres rises from early meiosis to pachytene. Analogous...
Published 06/10/2014    Read More...
Some healthy individuals carry human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) within a host chromosome, which is called inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6). Because iciHHV-6 is generally considered a non-pathogenic condition, it is important to distinguish iciHHV-6 from HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised hosts because both conditions manifest high copy numbers of the HHV-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a reliable...
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
Prolonged culture of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leads them to adopt embryonal carcinoma cell features, creating enormous dangers for their further application. The mechanism involved in ESC stability has not, however, been extensively studied. We previously reported that SMAD family member 3 (Smad3) has an important role in maintaining mouse ESC stability, as depletion of Smad3 results in cancer cell-like properties in ESCs and Smad3-/- ESCs are prone to grow large, malignant teratomas. To...
Published 01/08/2015    Read More...
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is one of the most abundant RNA binding proteins. hnRNP A1 is localized prevalently in the nucleus but it can relocate to the cytoplasm in response to specific stimuli shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. The cellular localization of this protein is regulated by a short C-terminus motif (M9) and other less defined sequences. The RNA binding specificity of this protein is dependent on multiple RNA binding domains (RBDs),...
Published 02/14/2014    Read More...
Activation of the ERK pathway is a hallmark of cancer, and targeting of upstream signaling partners led to the development of approved drugs. Recently, SCH772984 has been shown to be a selective and potent ERK1/2 inhibitor. Here we report the structural mechanism for its remarkable selectivity. In ERK1/2, SCH772984 induces a so-far-unknown binding pocket that accommodates the piperazine-phenyl-pyrimidine decoration. This new binding pocket was created by an inactive conformation of the...
Published 09/07/2014    Read More...
We report the case of a patient with a clinical phenotype consistent with Down Syndrome (DS) who has a novel karyotypic abnormality. Karyotypic analyses were performed to investigate the cause of two spontaneous abortions. A balanced translocation between chromosomes 4 and 21 was identified, along with an additional abnormal chromosome 21. We performed high-resolution banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and FISH studies in both the patient and her mother to define the abnormality...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Nuclear receptors bind chromosome ends in "alternative lengthening of telomeres" (ALT) cancer cells that maintain their ends by homologous recombination instead of telomerase. Marzec et al. now demonstrate that, in ALT cells, nuclear receptors not only trigger distal chromatin associations to mediate telomere-telomere recombination events, but also drive chromosome-internal targeted telomere insertions (TTI)....
Published 02/28/2015    Read More...
Androgen receptor (AR) plays a role in maintaining telomere stability in prostate cancer cells, as AR inactivation induces telomere dysfunction within 3 h. Since telomere dysfunction in other systems is known to activate ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways, we investigated the role of ATM-mediated DDR signaling in AR-inactivated prostate cancer cells. Indeed, the induction of telomere dysfunction in cells treated with AR-antagonists (Casodex...
Published 09/02/2015    Read More...
Short telomeres induce a DNA damage response, senescence, and apoptosis, thus maintaining telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell viability. Telomerase addition of telomere repeats is tightly regulated in cells. To probe pathways that regulate telomere addition, we developed the ADDIT assay to measure new telomere addition at a single telomere in vivo. Sequence analysis showed telomerase-specific addition of repeats onto a new telomere occurred in just 48 hr. Using the ADDIT assay, we...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for ATM and ATR in the localization of telomerase to telomeres and telomere elongation in immortal human cells. Stalled replication forks increased telomerase recruitment in an ATR-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased telomerase recruitment was...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Downstream factors that regulate the decision between senescence and cell death have not been elucidated. Cells undergo senescence through three pathways, replicative senescence (RS), stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) and oncogene-induced senescence. Recent studies suggest that the ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) kinase is not only a key protein mediating cellular responses to DNA damage, but also regulates cellular senescence induced by telomere end exposure (in RS) or persistent...
Published 06/17/2014    Read More...
Histone H3.3 is a replication-independent histone variant, which replaces histones that are turned over throughout the entire cell cycle. H3.3 deposition at euchromatin is dependent on HIRA, whereas ATRX/Daxx deposits H3.3 at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres. The role of H3.3 at heterochromatic regions is unknown, but mutations in the ATRX/Daxx/H3.3 pathway are linked to aberrant telomere lengthening in certain cancers. In this study, we show that ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 is...
Published 04/09/2015    Read More...
The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX, which targets tandem repetitive DNA, has been shown to be required for expression of the alpha globin genes, for proliferation of a variety of cellular progenitors, for chromosome congression and for the maintenance of telomeres. Mutations in ATRX have recently been identified in tumours which maintain their telomeres by a telomerase independent pathway involving homologous recombination thought to be triggered by DNA damage. It is as yet unknown whether...
Published 03/20/2014    Read More...
Excessive telomere shortening is observed in breast cancer lesions when compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, suggesting that telomere length may represent a key biomarker for early cancer detection. Because tumor-derived, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is often released from cancer cells and circulates in the bloodstream, we hypothesized that breast cancer development is associated with changes in the amount of telomeric cfDNA that can be detected in the plasma. To test this hypothesis, we devised...
Published 10/16/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is currently used as an emerging biomarker in understanding the development/progression of hematological malignancies. The absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology has allowed the study of TL from a variety of mammalian tissues, but it has not been tested for bone marrow (BM) samples. In this study, we have examined the relationship between TL data generated by absolute qPCR versus those obtained by terminal restriction fragments (TRF) in 102 BM samples from patients...
Published 01/20/2015    Read More...
Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that early vascular dysfunction occurs in low-birth-weight subjects, especially preterm (PT) infants. We recently reported impaired angiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in this condition. We hypothesized that ECFC dysfunction in PT might result from premature senescence and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Compared with ECFCs from term neonates (n = 18), ECFCs isolated from PT (n = 29) display an accelerated...
Published 02/11/2014    Read More...
Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines....
Published 03/29/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures that protect chromosomal ends from degradation. These structures progressively shorten during cellular division and can signal replicative senescence below a critical length. Telomere length is predominantly maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Significant decreases in telomere length and telomerase activity are associated with a host of chronic diseases; conversely their maintenance underpins the optimal function of the adaptive immune system....
Published 04/21/2014    Read More...
Telomeric DNA has been intensely investigated for its role in chromosome protection, aging, cell death, and disease. In humans the telomeric tandem repeat (TTAGGG)n is found at the ends of chromosomes and provides a novel target for the development of new drugs in the treatment of age related diseases such as cancer. These telomeric sequences show slight sequence variations from species to species; however, each contains repeats of 3 to 4 guanines allowing the G-rich strands to fold into compact...
Published 02/21/2014    Read More...
Telomere length can be considered as a biological marker for cell proliferation and aging. Obesity is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and proliferation as well as with shorter telomeres in adipose tissue. As adipose tissue is a mixture of different cell types and the cellular composition of adipose tissue changes with obesity, it is unclear what determines telomere length of whole adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate telomere length in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes in...
Published 09/12/2013    Read More...
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse childhood experiences are also associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults, suggesting accelerated cell aging. No studies have yet assessed the relationship of ACEs to LTL in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite the high incidence of antecedent ACEs in individuals with MDD. Further, no studies in any population have assessed the...
Published 08/05/2014    Read More...
The aged liver is more sensitive to the drug treatments and has a high probability of developing liver disorders such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present mechanisms underlying age-associated severe liver injury and acceleration of liver proliferation after CCl4 treatments. We have examined liver response to CCl4 treatments using old WT mice and young C/EBPα-S193D knockin mice, which express an aged-like isoform of C/EBPα. Both animal models have altered chromatin structure as...
Published 11/22/2013    Read More...
Telomeres are essential in maintaining chromosome integrity and in controlling cellular replication. Attrition of telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with age is well documented from cross-sectional studies. But the actual in vivo changes in telomere lengths and its relationship with the contributing factors within the individuals with age have not been fully addressed. In the present paper, we report a longitudinal analysis of telomere length in the PBMCs, lymphocytes...
Published 12/03/2014    Read More...
Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2years,...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells'), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes....
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Aging involves a deterioration of cell functions and changes that may predispose the cell to undergo an oncogenic transformation. The carcinogenic risks following radiation exposure rise with age among adults. Increasing inflammatory response, loss of oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, ongoing telomere attrition, decline in the DNA damage response efficiency, and deleterious nuclear organization are age-related cellular changes that trigger a serious threat to genomic integrity. In this review, we...
Published 02/02/2015    Read More...
Human aging is associated with DNA methylation changes at specific sites in the genome. These epigenetic modifications may be used to track donor age for forensic analysis or to estimate biological age....
Published 02/03/2014    Read More...
Aging is characterized by a decrease in genome integrity, impaired organ maintenance, and an increased risk of cancer, which coincide with clonal dominance of expanded mutant stem and progenitor cell populations in aging tissues, such as the intestinal epithelium, the hematopoietic system, and the male germline. Here we discuss possible explanations for age-associated increases in the initiation and/or progression of mutant stem/progenitor clones and highlight the roles of stem cell quiescence,...
Published 06/06/2015    Read More...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear....
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
Genome integrity is constantly challenged by endo- and exogenous DNA-damaging factors. The influence of genotoxic agents causes an accumulation of DNA lesions, which if not repaired, become mutations that can cause various abnormalities in a cell metabolism. The main pathway of DSB repair, which is based on non-homologous recombination, is canonical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). It has been shown that this mechanism is highly conserved in both Pro- and Eukaryotes. The mechanisms that...
Published 02/27/2015    Read More...
Increasing evidence suggests that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from placenta of fetal origin (fPMSCs) are superior to MSCs of other sources for cell therapy. Since the initial number of isolated MSCs is limited, in vitro propagation is often required to reach sufficient numbers of cells for therapeutic applications, during which MSCs may undergo genetic and/or epigenetic alterations that subsequently increase the probability of spontaneous malignant transformation. Thus, factors...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex...
Published 06/19/2014    Read More...
The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) have a conserved role in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin and gene silencing. Using a transgenic mouse model system we demonstrate that elevated expression of Suv39h1 increases global H3K9me3 levels in vivo. More specifically, Suv39h1 overexpression enhances the imposition of H3K9me3 levels at constitutive heterochromatin at telomeric and major satellite repeats in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chromatin...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
The function of yeast Rap1 as an activator in transcription, a repressor at silencer elements, and as a major component of the shelterin-like complex at telomeres requires the known high-affinity and specific interaction of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) with its recognition sequences. In addition to a high-affinity one-to-one complex with its DNA recognition site, Rap1(DBD) also forms lower affinity complexes with higher stoichiometries on DNA. We proposed that this originates from the ability of...
Published 01/12/2015    Read More...
To cope with DNA double strand break (DSB) genotoxicity, cells have evolved two main repair pathways: homologous recombination which uses homologous DNA sequences as repair templates, and non-homologous Ku-dependent end-joining involving direct sealing of DSB ends by DNA ligase IV (Lig4). During the last two decades a third player most commonly named alternative end-joining (A-EJ) has emerged, which is defined as any Ku- or Lig4-independent end-joining process. A-EJ increasingly appears as a...
Published 03/06/2014    Read More...
Chromosome ends are protected by telomeres that prevent DNA damage response and degradation. Telomerase expression extends telomeres and inhibits DNA damage response. Telomeres are also maintained by the recombination-based alternative lengthening pathway. Telomerase is believed to be the sole mechanism for telomere maintenance in the epidermis. We show that basal cells in the epidermis maintain telomeres both by telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanisms in vivo. ALT...
Published 02/17/2014    Read More...
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomerase-independent telomere length maintenance mechanism that enables the unlimited proliferation of a subset of cancer cells. Some neuroblastoma (NB) tumors appear to maintain telomere length by activating ALT. Of 40 NB cell lines, we identified four potential ALT cell lines (CHLA-90, SK-N-FI, LA-N-6, and COG-N-291) that were telomerase-negative and had long telomeres (a feature of ALT cells). All four cell lines lacked MYCN amplification and...
Published 05/03/2014    Read More...
Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a mechanism using homologous recombination to maintain telomere length and sustain limitless replicability of cancer cells. Recently, ALT has been found to be associated with inactivation of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein. In this study, 119 tumors (88 angiosarcomas, 11 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, and 20 Kaposi sarcomas) were analyzed to determine the ALT status, its...
Published 06/05/2015    Read More...
The determination of the primary tumor origin in patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NELM) can pose a considerable management challenge. Recent studies have shown that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is prevalent in some human tumors, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET), and can be useful in predicting tumor biology. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of ALT as a biomarker in patients with NELM, in particular to predict the site of origin...
Published 01/10/2014    Read More...
Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication...
Published 01/16/2015    Read More...
Alternative splicing affects approximately 95% of eukaryotic genes, greatly expanding the coding capacity of complex genomes. Although our understanding of alternative splicing has increased rapidly, current knowledge of splicing regulation has largely been derived from studies of highly expressed mRNAs. Telomerase is a key example of a protein that is alternatively spliced, but it is expressed at very low levels and although it is known that misregulation of telomerase splicing is a hallmark of...
Published 08/26/2014    Read More...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of linear chromosomes. It contains two core canonical components: the essential RNA component, hTR, which provides the template for DNA synthesis, and the reverse transcriptase protein component, hTERT. Low telomerase activity in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown, however, whether telomerase, in addition to its long-term requirement for telomere...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an...
Published 11/21/2014    Read More...
8-Oxo-dGTP, an oxidised form of dGTP generated in the nucleotide pool, can be incorporated opposite adenine or cytosine in template DNA, which can in turn induce mutations. In this study, we identified a novel MutT homolog (NDX-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP. In addition, we found that NDX-1, NDX-2 and NDX-4 proteins have 8-oxo-GTPase or 8-oxo-GDPase activity. The sensitivity of ndx-2 knockdown C. elegans worms to methyl viologen and menadione bisulphite...
Published 01/16/2014    Read More...
Although telomere shortening occurs as a natural part of aging, there is now a robust body of research that suggests that there is a relationship between psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors and changes in telomere length. These factors need to be considered when integrating telomere measurement in biobehavioral research studies....
Published 12/16/2013    Read More...
Guanine-rich oligonucleotides can adopt noncanonical tertiary structures known as G-quadruplexes, which can exist in different forms depending on experimental conditions. High-resolution structural methods, such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, have been of limited usefulness in resolving the inherent structural polymorphism associated with G-quadruplex formation. The lack of, or the ambiguous nature of, currently available high-resolution structural data, in turn, has severely...
Published 05/08/2014    Read More...
Mitochondrial diabetes is a kind of rare diabetes caused by monogenic mutation in mitochondria. The study aimed to summarize the clinical phenotype profiles in mitochondrial diabetes with m.3243 A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation and to investigate the mechanism in this kind of diabetes by analyzing the relationship among clinical phenotypes and peripheral leukocyte DNA telomere length....
Published 10/08/2015    Read More...
Inverted duplication 8p associated with deletion of the short arms of chromosome 8 (invdupdel[8p]) is a relatively uncommon complex chromosomal rearrangement, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000-30,000 live borns. The chromosomal rearrangement consists of a deletion of the telomeric region (8p23-pter) and an inverted duplication of the 8p11.2-p22 region. Clinical manifestations of this disorder include severe to moderate intellectual disability and characteristic facial features. In most...
Published 02/25/2015    Read More...
LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, composed of SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology) domain proteins. They are crucial for nuclear positioning and nuclear shape determination, and also mediate nuclear envelope (NE) attachment of meiotic telomeres, essential for driving homolog synapsis and recombination. In mice, SUN1 and SUN2 are the only SUN domain proteins expressed during meiosis, sharing their localization with meiosis-specific KASH5....
Published 02/27/2014    Read More...
Maintaining the length of the telomere tract at chromosome ends is a complex process vital to normal cell division. Telomere length is controlled through the action of telomerase as well as a cadre of telomere-associated proteins that facilitate replication of the chromosome end and protect it from eliciting a DNA damage response. In vertebrates, multiple poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) have been implicated in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and chromosome end...
Published 02/13/2014    Read More...
The development of sensitive telomerase biosensors is hindered by the restricted accessibility of telomere strand (TS) primer and the limited enzyme reaction space, which is mainly confined by the vertical distance. In this work, we designed an electrochemical telomerase biosensor based on a spired DNA tetrahedron TS primer (STTS). By adding a rigid dsDNA spire onto the top of the DNA tetrahedron, we successfully regulated the distance between the TS primer and the surface, and thus greatly...
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length....
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
University of California, Berkeley In 1984, University of California, Berkeley biology professor Elizabeth Blackburn and then grad student Carol Greider made the discovery that a quarter century later would win them the Nobel Pnze: They identified telomerase as the enzyme that protects the DNA in our chromosomes, in...
Published     Read More...
A new Ru(II)-Se complex, Ru(bpy)2L2Cl2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, L = 1,10-phenanthrolineselenazole) (Ru-Se) has been synthesized and characterized. The G-quadruplex DNA-binding properties of the complex and its selenium ligand (Phen-Se) were evaluated by thermal denaturation study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stop assay, and telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). The results showed that the obtained complex could induce and stabilize G-quadruplex structure as well as exhibit...
Published 01/11/2014    Read More...
Studies on Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) and antigenic variation in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, have yielded a remarkable range of novel and important insights. The features first identified in T. brucei extend from unique to conserved-among-trypanosomatids to conserved-among-eukaryotes. Consequently, much of what we now know about trypanosomatid biology and much of the technology available has its origin in studies related to VSGs. T. brucei is now probably the most...
Published 05/22/2014    Read More...
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with a high incidence rate in South China and is predominantly treated with radiotherapy; however, the survival rate remains low. The therapeutic effects of radiation and chemotherapy may be enhanced when combined with anti‑sense oligonucleotides targeting human telomerase RNA (hTR ASODN). However, the influence of hTR ASODN on the anti‑tumor effects of radiation in NPC remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of hTR ASODN on the...
Published 12/17/2014    Read More...
Anxiety disorders increase the risk of onset of several ageing-related somatic conditions, which might be the consequence of accelerated cellular ageing....
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
This method makes it possible to measure the fluorescence of a DNA probe in cells with known division number and targeted surface antigen. In fact, this method is a combination or consistent application of three other methods: cell tracking by vital dye, surface immunophenotyping, and flow-FISH. The idea in developing this method was to study telomere length changes in cells with known surface antigen after every new cell division. First, the in vitro cell culturing and staining with CFSE vital...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
Exposure to radiation and some chemotherapeutic agents is associated with an increased risk of developing second cancers. Short telomeres are almost universally associated with malignant cancer progression. An unanswered question is whether inherited short telomeres or therapy-related telomere shortening is a biomarker of the development of second malignant neoplasms....
Published 12/23/2013    Read More...
A large variability in occurrence, complications, and age/gender manifestations characterizes individual susceptibility of sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), even in subjects with the same risk factor profiles. The reasons are poorly understood. On the other hand, TAA pathophysiology mechanisms remain unclear than those involved in abdominal aorta aneurysms. However, recent evidence is suggesting a crucial role of biological ageing in inter-individual risk variation of cardiovascular...
Published 08/17/2014    Read More...
We have reported that telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) of established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human amnion (hAM933) and fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, and that the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among clones without chromosomal instability, although the telomeres of other iPSCs derived from MRC-5 became shorter as the number of passages increased along with chromosomal abnormalities...
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Arsenic (As) induces pre-malignant and malignant dermatological lesions, non-dermatological health effects and cancers in humans. Senescence involves telomere length changes and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which promotes carcinogenesis. Though in vitro studies have shown that As induces senescence, population based studies are lacking. We investigated the arsenic-induced senescence, telomere length alteration and its contribution towards development of...
Published 03/24/2014    Read More...
Inorganic arsenic is a carcinogen whose mode of action may involve telomere dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with longer telomeres and altered expression of telomere-related genes in peripheral blood. In this study, we evaluated the association of urinary arsenic concentration with expression of telomere-related genes and telomere length in Bangladeshi individuals with a wide range of arsenic exposure through naturally contaminated...
Published 11/25/2014    Read More...
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is largely caused by the t(15,17) chromosome translocation, leading to the production of the PML/retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), as a monotherapy or combination therapy, have been successfully used to treat APL primarily by targeting the degradation of the fusion protein. We previously observed that ATO treatment induced cell death in APL cell line HL-60 accompanied by inhibition of the human...
Published 11/28/2014    Read More...
Circumvention of the telomere length-dependent mechanisms that control the upper boundaries of cellular proliferation is necessary for the unlimited growth of cancer. Most cancer cells achieve cellular immortality by up-regulating the expression of telomerase to extend and maintain their telomere length. However, a small but significant number of cancers do so via the exchange of telomeric DNA between chromosomes in a pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres, or ALT. Although it...
Published 08/26/2014    Read More...
Telomere length can provide valuable insight into telomeres and telomerase related diseases, including cancer. Here, we present a brand-new optical telomere length measurement protocol using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this protocol, two single strand DNA are used as SERS probes. They are labeled with two different Raman molecules and can specifically hybridize with telomeres and centromere, respectively. First, genome DNA is extracted from cells. Then the telomere and...
Published 11/10/2014    Read More...
Naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives have shown high affinity for telomeric guanine (G)‑quadruplexes and good antiproliferative activity in different human tumor experimental models. A trisubstituted compound (H‑NDI‑NMe2) has been reported to stabilize the telomeric G‑quadruplex and to cause telomere dysfunction and downregulation of telomerase expression. We further investigated its mechanism of action by analyzing the capability of the molecule to interfere with the expression...
Published 10/23/2014    Read More...
Authors: Francis F. de Zegher, Marta M. Díaz, Lourdes L. Ibáñez Published: 08/04/2015, JAMA pediatrics PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
The 5p15.33 locus has been recently identified to associate with multiple cancer types including lung, urinary bladder, prostate, and cervical cancer, based on its critical role in the maintenance of telomere, chromosome stability, and ultimately preventing normal cell malignance. TERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is an attractive candidate gene for the 5p15.33 locus. Recently, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the...
Published 01/04/2014    Read More...
Telomeres protect chromosome ends and are markers of cellular aging and replicative capacity....
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with health and mortality. Because osteoporosis is an age-related condition and LTL is considered to be a biomarker of aging, we hypothesized that shorter LTL could predict lower BMD. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is an association of LTL with BMD and to determine whether this possible association is independent of age. The BMDs of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were...
Published 04/11/2015    Read More...
Compelling epidemiological evidence indicates that alterations of telomere length are associated with risks of many malignancies in a tumor-specific manner, such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the association between leukocyte telomere length and glioma risk has not been investigated....
Published 12/22/2013    Read More...
Our investigation aims to assess the impact of symptoms of maternal sleep-disordered breathing, specifically sleep apnea risk and daytime sleepiness, on fetal leukocyte telomere length....
Published 04/01/2015    Read More...
To replicate previously confirmed telomere-length loci in a Chinese Han population with coronary heart disease (CHD), and investigate these loci and the possibility of and age at onset of CHD....
Published 05/27/2014    Read More...
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to age faster than the general population, possibly related to HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and/or social/environmental factors. We evaluated leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, in HIV-infected and uninfected adults....
Published 01/22/2014    Read More...
Authors: Steven C SC. Hunt, Jeremy D JD. Kark, Abraham A. Aviv Published: 02/18/2015, Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
Chromosome 21 nondisjunction in oocytes is the most common cause of trisomy 21, the primary chromosomal abnormality responsible for Down syndrome (DS). This specific type of error is estimated to account for over 90 % of live births with DS, with maternal age being the best known risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction. The loss of telomere length and the concomitant shortening of chromosomes are considered a biological marker for aging. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mothers who had a...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Fifteen percent of tumors utilize recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. The mechanisms underlying ALT are unclear but involve several proteins involved in homologous recombination including the BLM helicase, mutated in Bloom's syndrome, and the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. Cells deficient in either BLM or BRCA1 have phenotypes consistent with telomere dysfunction. Although BLM associates with numerous DNA damage repair proteins including BRCA1 during...
Published 08/01/2014    Read More...
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress might be considered the key mechanisms of aging. Insulin resistance (IR) is a phenomenon related to inflammatory and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that IR may be associated with cellular senescence, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and arterial stiffness (core feature of arterial aging), as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)....
Published 08/26/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the...
Published 07/27/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), encoded by the TERT gene, is an essential component of telomerase, essential for the maintenance of telomere DNA length, chromosomal stability and cellular immortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between common genetic variations across the TERT gene region and prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness in a Chinese population. A total of 12 TERT tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped on the Sequenom...
Published 03/04/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects...
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
Introduction. Fatigue is often present in older adults with no identified underlying cause. The accruing burden of oxidative stress and inflammation might be underlying factors of fatigue. We therefore hypothesized that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is relatively short in older adults who experience fatigue. Materials and Methods. We assessed 439 older nondisabled Danish twins. LTL was measured using Southern blots of terminal restriction fragments. Fatigue was measured by the Mob-T Scale...
Published 02/16/2014    Read More...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10-15% of the general population and affected individuals are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since telomere length is considered to be involved in biological aging, we tested whether relative telomere length (RTL) might be a marker for these two diseases....
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n = 166) and the CRISIS-Study (n = 889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage...
Published 07/07/2015    Read More...
Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were...
Published 04/03/2015    Read More...
Accumulating evidence indicates a putative association of telomere length and mitochondrial function with antipsychotics response in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, pharmacological findings were limited and no previous work has assessed this in a prospective longitudinal study. This study assessed telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in first-episode antipsychotic-naïve SCZ patients with 8-week risperidone treatment to evaluate the association between these biomarkers and clinical...
Published 12/18/2015    Read More...
Early life stress (ELS) poses a risk for mental disorders and aging-related diseases. Accelerated biological aging, reflected in shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), may underlie these risks. We examined whether objectively recorded ELS and retrospectively self-reported traumatic experiences across the lifespan are associated with LTL in later adulthood. Of 1486 participants, 215 had been exposed to ELS, namely to temporary separation from both parents in childhood. Participants...
Published 02/11/2014    Read More...
Personality traits have been associated with cardiometabolic diseases and mental disorders as well as with longevity. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Accelerated cellular aging may play a role in this process. We studied whether personality traits in late adulthood, as defined in the five-factor model (FFM), were associated with a biomarker of cellular vitality, leukocyte telomere length (LTL)....
Published 04/28/2015    Read More...
Associations between the rs6010620 polymorphism in the regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) gene and glioma have been widely reported but the results were not inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the rs6010620 polymorphism in RTEL1 gene and risk of glioma by meta-analysis....
Published 09/17/2014    Read More...
Statins are one of the most potent drugs in delaying age-related inflammatory changes in the arterial vessel wall, slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis. Statins have also been shown to abrogate telomere-attributed cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to explore a potential effect of atorvastatin on telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T-lymphocytes (T cells)....
Published 08/04/2014    Read More...
In this study, we analyzed 100 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for telomerase activity, telomere length and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) using the TRAP assay, TeloTTAGGG assay kit and immunohistochemical analysis of ALT associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies respectively. A significantly higher (P=0.000) telomerase activity was observed in 81 cases of RCC which was correlated with clinicopathological features of tumor for instance, stage (P=0.008) and grades (P=0.000)...
Published 03/11/2015    Read More...
The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomere...
Published 03/17/2015    Read More...
The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system...
Published 06/19/2015    Read More...
Ring chromosomes arise following breakage and rejoining in both chromosome arms. They are heterogeneous with variable size and genetic content and can originate from any chromosome. Phenotypes associated with ring chromosomes are highly variable as apart from any deletion caused by ring formation, imbalances from ring instability can also occur. Of interest is ring chromosome 20 which has a significant association with epilepsy with seizure onset in early childhood. Severe growth deficiency...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
To uncover the genetic events leading to transformation of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) to secondary high-grade glioma (sHGG)....
Published 02/09/2015    Read More...
Loss of telomere protection occurs during physiological cell senescence and ageing, due to attrition of telomeric repeats and insufficient retention of the telomere-binding factor TRF2. Subsequently formed telomere fusions trigger rampant genomic instability leading to cell death or tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, telomere fusions require either the classical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) pathway dependent on Ku70/80 and LIG4, or the alternative non-homologous end-joining (A-NHEJ), which...
Published 01/12/2015    Read More...
The autoimmune-prone BXSB/MpJ-Yaa mouse is a model of membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Severe MPGN has been reported only in male BXSB/MpJ-Yaa mice because of the Y-linked autoimmune accelerator (Yaa) locus. However, we show that female BXSB/MpJ mice develop age-related MPGN without Yaa. Female BXSB/MpJ mice clearly developed MPGN characterized by increased mesangial cells, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), double contouring and spike formation of GBM with...
Published 01/30/2014    Read More...
Complex protein networks are involved in nearly all cellular processes. To uncover these vast networks of protein interactions, various high-throughput screening technologies have been developed. Over the last decade, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has been widely used to detect protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in living cells. This technique is based on the reconstitution of a fluorescent protein in vivo. Easy quantification of the BiFC signals allows effective...
Published 03/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, have a specialized chromatin structure that provides a stable chromosomal terminus. In budding yeast Rap1 protein binds to telomeric TG repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Here we show that binding of multiple Rap1 proteins stimulates DNA double-stranded break (DSB) induction at both telomeric and non-telomeric regions. Consistent with the role of DSB induction, Rap1 stimulates nearby recombination events in a dosage-dependent...
Published 08/11/2015    Read More...
The single-stranded DNA binding proteins in mouse shelterin, POT1a and POT1b, accumulate at telomeres as heterodimers with TPP1, which binds TIN2 and thus links the TPP1/POT1 dimers with TRF1 and TRF2/Rap1. When TPP1 is tethered to TIN2/TRF1/TRF2, POT1a is thought to block replication protein A binding to the single-stranded telomeric DNA and prevent ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase activation. Similarly, TPP1/POT1b tethered to TIN2 can control the formation of the correct...
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA binding protein that plays an essential role in telomere maintenance. RPA binds to and unfolds G-quadruplex (G4) structures formed in telomeric DNA, thus facilitating lagging strand DNA replication and telomerase activity. To investigate the effect of G4 stability on the interactions with human RPA (hRPA), we used a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches. Our data revealed an inverse relationship between G4 stability and ability...
Published 04/18/2014    Read More...
The most difficult thyroid tumors to diagnose by histology are follicular carcinomas (FTCs) and Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCCs). Telomere alteration and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression have been observed in most human cancers and are known to be a feature of malignancy. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether hTERT protein expression and telomere alteration could be applicable biological markers for distinguishing FTC from HCC....
Published 02/22/2014    Read More...
In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effects of this type of electromagnetic radiation and the reported results, using different genetic or cellular assays, are quite discordant. This multidisciplinary study focuses on potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, evaluated by several end-points, associated with THz radiation. For this...
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Over the last 50 years, major improvements have been made in our understanding of the driving forces, both parallel and opposing, that lead to aging and cancer. Many theories on aging first proposed in the 1950s, including those associated with telomere biology, senescence, and adult stem-cell regulation, have since gained support from cumulative experimental evidence. These views suggest that the accumulation of mutations might be a common driver of both aging and cancer. Moreover, some tumor...
Published 12/02/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes and thereby protect their stability and integrity. Telomeres play central roles in maintaining the genome's integrity, distinguishing between the natural chromosomal ends and unwanted double-stranded breaks. In addition, telomeres are replicated by a special reverse transcriptase called telomerase, in a complex mechanism that is coordinated with the genome's replication. Telomeres also play an important...
Published 04/21/2014    Read More...
Authors: Gretchen G. Vogel Published: 01/23/2015, Science (New York, N.Y.) PubMed Full Text...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Cataracts in small animals are shown to be at least partially caused by oxidative damage to lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the internal lens; biomarkers of oxidative stress in the lens are considered as general biomarkers for life expectancy in the canine and other animals. Telomeres lengths and expressed telomerase activity in canine LECs may serve as important monitors of oxidative damage in normal LECs with documented higher levels of telomerase activity in cataractous LECs during cells'...
Published 03/31/2014    Read More...
Mature adipocytes have shown dynamic plasticity to be converted into fibroblast-like and lipid-free cells. After the dedifferentiation process, these cells re-entered the cell cycle and acquired a high proliferation potential, becoming a valid source of stem cells. However, many aspects of the cellular biosafety about dedifferentiated fat cells remained unclear. This study aimed to elucidate their potential susceptibility to malignant transformation and to ascertain the safety of these cells for...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Slower rates of aging distinguish humans from our nearest living cousins. Chimpanzees rarely survive their forties while large fractions of women are postmenopausal even in high-mortality hunter-gatherer populations. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for these somatic aging differences remain to be identified, though telomeres might play a role. To find out, we compared telomere lengths across age-matched samples of female chimpanzees and women....
Published 03/15/2014    Read More...
Number of seeds per silique (NSS) is an important determinant of seed yield potential in Brassicaceae crops, and it is controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci. We previously mapped a major quantitative trait locus, qSS.C9, on the C9 chromosome that controls NSS in Brassica napus. To gain a better understanding of how qSS.C9 controls NSS in B. napus, we isolated this locus through a map-based cloning strategy. qSS.C9 encodes a predicted small protein with 119 amino acids,...
Published 10/22/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing, which might be used to identify individuals at higher risk of age-related diseases. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for several diseases. This study aims to analyse the associations of BMI with TL and the rate of TL change in older adults....
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
In a preliminary screening study of natural alkaloids, boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, showed an interesting dose and time dependent anti-proliferative effect in several cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity of boldine in human fibroblasts was considerably lower than the telomerase positive embryonic kidney HEK293 and breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Whether boldine can inhibit telomerase was investigated here using a modified quantitative real-time telomere repeat amplification protocol...
Published 03/03/2015    Read More...
Our understanding of the pathophysiology of aplastic anemia is undergoing significant revision, with implications for diagnosis and treatment. Constitutional and acquired disease is poorly delineated, as lesions in some genetic pathways cause stereotypical childhood syndromes and also act as risk factors for clinical manifestations in adult life. Telomere diseases are a prominent example of this relationship. Accelerated telomere attrition is the result of mutations in telomere repair genes and...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited multisystem disorder, characterized by oral leukoplakia, nail dystrophy, and abnormal skin pigmentation, as well as high rates of bone marrow (BM) failure, solid tumors, and other medical problems such as osteopenia. DC and telomere biology disorders (collectively referred to as TBD here) are caused by germline mutations in telomere biology genes leading to very short telomeres and limited proliferative potential of hematopoietic stem cells. We found...
Published 12/12/2014    Read More...
In addition to gene network switches, local epigenetic modifications to DNA and histones play an important role in all-or-none cellular decision-making. Here, we study the dynamical design of a well-characterized epigenetic chromatin switch: the yeast SIR system, in order to understand the origin of the stability of epigenetic states. We study hysteresis in this system by perturbing it with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We find that SIR silencing has many characteristics of a non-linear...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Despite the fact that telomeres carry chromatin marks typically associated with silent heterochromatin, they are actively transcribed into TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA transcription is conserved from yeast to man, initiates in the subtelomeric region and proceeds through the telomeric tract of presumably each individual telomere. TERRA levels are increased in yeast survivors and in cancer cells employing ALT as a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM). Thus, TERRA may be a...
Published 04/01/2014    Read More...
Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not...
Published 07/16/2014    Read More...
Direct visualization of genomic loci in the 3D nucleus is important for understanding the spatial organization of the genome and its association with gene expression. Various DNA FISH methods have been developed in the past decades, all involving denaturing dsDNA and hybridizing fluorescent nucleic acid probes. Here we report a novel approach that uses in vitro constituted nuclease-deficient clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated caspase 9 (Cas9)...
Published 08/31/2015    Read More...
Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28,...
Published 01/21/2015    Read More...
In most organisms, telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope at the onset of meiosis to promote the crucial processes of pairing, recombination and synapsis during prophase I. This attachment of meiotic telomeres is mediated by the specific distribution of several nuclear envelope components that interact with the attachment plates of the synaptonemal complex. We have determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy that the ablation of the kinase CDK2 alters the nuclear envelope in mouse...
Published 11/06/2014    Read More...
CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63-deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death, and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is...
Published 07/09/2015    Read More...
The shelterin proteins are required for telomere integrity. Shelterin dysfunction can lead to initiation of unwarranted DNA damage and repair pathways at chromosomal termini. Interestingly, many shelterin accessory proteins are involved in DNA damage signaling and repair. We demonstrate here that in normal human fibroblasts, telomeric ends are protected by phosphorylation of CGG triplet repeat-binding protein 1 (CGGBP1) at serine 164 (S164). We show that serine 164 is a major phosphorylation...
Published 10/23/2013    Read More...
Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of...
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
  Mouse lifespan extended up to 24 percent with a single treatment. A number of studies have shown that it is possible to lengthen the average life of individuals of many species, including mammals, by acting on specific genes. To date, however, this has meant altering the animals' genes...
Published     Read More...
CRISPR/Cas9, a bacterial adaptive immune system derived genome-editing technique, has become to be one of the most compelling topics in biotechnology. Bombyx mori is an economically important insect and a model organism for studying lepidopteran and arthropod biology. Here we reported highly efficient and multiplex genome editing in B. mori cell line and heritable site-directed mutagenesis of Bmku70, which is required for NHEJ pathway and also related to antigen diversity, telomere length...
Published 03/27/2014    Read More...
Melanoma has traditionally been viewed as a radioresistant cancer. However, recent studies suggest that under certain clinical circumstances, radiotherapy may play a significant role in the treatment of melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomere length is a hallmark of radiosensitivity. The newly discovered mammalian CTC1‑STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex has been demonstrated to be an important telomere maintenance factor. In this study, by establishing a radiosensitive/radioresistant...
Published 04/02/2014    Read More...
Among diverse environmental factors that modify aging, diet has a profound effect. Calorie restriction (CR), which entails reduced calorie consumption without malnutrition, is the only natural regimen shown to extend maximum and mean lifespan, as well as healthspan in a wide range of organisms. Although the knowledge about the biological mechanisms underlying CR is still incipient, various approaches in biogerontology research suggest that CR can ameliorate hallmarks of aging at the cellular...
Published 06/01/2014    Read More...
Thoracic aorta shows with advancing age various changes and a progressive deterioration in structure and function. As a result, vascular remodeling (VR) and medial degeneration (MD) occur as pathological entities responsible principally for the sporadic TAA onset. Little is known about their genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Recent evidence is proposing the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in their evocation and progression. Thus, we evaluated the potential role of...
Published 07/10/2014    Read More...
Reactivation of telomerase, the chromosome end-replicating enzyme, drives human cell immortality and cancer. Point mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter occur at high frequency in multiple cancers, including urothelial cancer (UC), but their effect on telomerase function has been unclear. In a study of 23 human UC cell lines, we show that these promoter mutations correlate with higher levels of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA), TERT protein, telomerase enzymatic...
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
Authors: Stacy S. Drury, Katherine K. Theall Published: 06/02/2014, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/02/2014    Read More...
Break-induced replication (BIR) is a mechanism to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) that possess only a single end that can find homology in the genome. This situation can result from the collapse of replication forks or telomere erosion. BIR frequently produces various genetic instabilities including mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletions, duplications, and template switching that can result in copy-number variations (CNVs). An important type of genomic rearrangement specifically linked...
Published 02/27/2014    Read More...
Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex is essential for telomere maintenance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Elimination of the fission yeast shelterin subunit Ccq1 causes progressive loss of telomeres due to the inability to recruit telomerase, activates the DNA damage checkpoint, and loses heterochromatin at telomere/subtelomere regions due to reduced recruitment of the heterochromatin regulator complex Snf2/histone deacetylase-containing repressor complex (SHREC). The...
Published 09/09/2015    Read More...
In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the cell cycle-dependent telomere elongation by telomerase is controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). The telomere length homeostasis is balanced between telomerase-unextendable and telomerase-extendable states that both require Cdc13. The recruitment of telomerase complex by Cdc13 promotes telomere elongation, while the formation of Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 (CST) complex at the telomere blocks telomere elongation by telomerase. However, the...
Published 10/28/2013    Read More...
A constellation of related genetic diseases are caused by defects in the telomere maintenance machinery. These disorders, often referred to as telomeropathies, share symptoms and molecular mechanisms, and mounting evidence indicates they are points along a spectrum of disease. Several new causes of these disorders have been recently discovered, and a number of related syndromes may be unrecognized telomeropathies. Progress in the clinical understanding of telomeropathies has in turn driven...
Published 05/13/2014    Read More...
Abstract Like most basic molecular mechanisms, programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) was first identified in viruses. Early observations that global dysregulation of -1 PRF had deleterious effects on yeast cell growth suggested that -1 PRF may be used to control cellular gene expression, and the cell cycle in particular. Collection of sufficient numbers of viral -1 PRF signals coupled with advances in computer sciences enabled 2 complementary computational approaches to identify -1 PRF...
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
Tumour formation is blocked by two barriers: replicative senescence and crisis. Senescence is triggered by short telomeres and is bypassed by disruption of tumour-suppressive pathways. After senescence bypass, cells undergo crisis, during which almost all of the cells in the population die. Cells that escape crisis harbour unstable genomes and other parameters of transformation. The mechanism of cell death during crisis remains unexplained. Here we show that human cells in crisis undergo...
Published 06/25/2015    Read More...
To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL)....
Published 01/01/2014    Read More...
Depression might be associated with accelerated cellular aging. However, does this result in an irreversible state or is the body able to slow down or recover from such a process? Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that protect the ends of chromosomes and generally shorten with age; and therefore index cellular aging. The majority of studies indicate that persons with depression have shorter leukocyte telomeres than similarly aged non-depressed persons, which may contribute to the observed...
Published 08/20/2014    Read More...
Telomeres play an essential role in maintaining chromosomal integrity in the face of physiological stressors. Although the age-related shortening of TL (telomere length) in highly proliferative tissue is predominantly due to the replication process, the mechanism for telomere shortening in skeletal muscle, which is minimally proliferative, is unclear. By studying TL in both the upper and lower limbs of the young, old-mobile and old-immobile subjects and by virtue of the bipedal nature of human...
Published 06/04/2014    Read More...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The efficacy and safety of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) in primary and secondary prevention of CAD are confirmed in several large studies. It is well known that statins have some pleiotropic, anti-atherosclerotic effects. We review the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of statins revealed in recently published studies. Endothelial cell injury is regarded as the...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
Over the last 40 years it has become clear that telomeres, the end of the chromosomes, and the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which is required to counteract their shortening, play a pivotal role in senescence and aging. However, over the last years several studies demonstrated that TERT belongs to the group of dual-targeted proteins. It contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal as well as a mitochondrial targeting sequence and, under physiological conditions, is found in...
Published 02/28/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest, caused by insults, such as: telomere erosion, oncogene activation, irradiation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and viral infection. Extrinsic stimuli such as cell culture stress can also trigger this growth arrest. Senescence is thought to have evolved as an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, as it acts as a tumor suppressor mechanism during the reproductive age, but can promote organismal aging by disrupting tissue renewal, repair, and...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is the state of permanent inhibition of cell proliferation. Senescent cells are characterized by several features including increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL) and senescenceassociated secretory phenotype (SASP). In vitro, 2 types of senescence have been described. One is telomere-dependent replicative senescence and the second is stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Despite some tissue-specific characteristics many kinds of cells,...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Since its first description over 50 years ago, cellular senescence has gained increasing attention. The number of research publications on cellular senescence last year alone is more than the number of publications in the decade in 1990s. Laboratories solely studying senescence, scientific conferences and organisations dedicated to field of cellular senescence are also on the rise. These not only indicate the growing interest in this field but also highlight the importance of cellular senescence...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
Linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms invariably possess centromeres and telomeres to ensure proper chromosome segregation during nuclear divisions and to protect the chromosome ends from deterioration and fusion, respectively. While centromeric sequences may differ between species, with arrays of tandemly repeated sequences and retrotransposons being the most abundant sequence types in plant centromeres, telomeric sequences are usually highly conserved among plants and other organisms. The...
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
Cerebro-retinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) or Coats plus syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder affecting the eyes, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pathogenesis involves small vessel obliterative microangiopathy. Recently, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in CTC1 have been reported in CRMCC patients. We herein report an adolescent referred to our hospital following new seizures in a context of an undefined multisystem disorder. Cerebral imaging...
Published 04/02/2015    Read More...
Progressive telomere shortening with cell division is a hallmark of aging. Short telomeres are associated with increased cancer risk, but there are conflicting reports about telomere length and mortality in breast cancer survivors....
Published 03/13/2014    Read More...
It is known that aged organisms have modified epigenomes. Epigenetic modifications, such as changes in global and locus-specific DNA methylation, and histone modifications are suspected to play an important role in cancer development and aging. In the present study, with the well-established horse aging model, we showed the global loss of DNA methylation in blood lymphocytes during juvenile-to-aged period. Additionally, we tested a pattern of DNA methylation of ribosomal DNA and selected genes...
Published 05/23/2013    Read More...
In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes....
Published 10/25/2014    Read More...
Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to be a cause of telomere dysfunction in tumor cells; however, very few studies have investigated X-ray-related changes in telomere length and the telomerase activity in normal human cells, such as umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The loss of a few hundred base pairs from a shortened telomere has been shown to be important with respect to cellular senescence, although it may not be detected according to traditional mean telomere length [assessed as the...
Published 07/25/2014    Read More...
The characterization of unusual telomere sequence sheds light on patterns of telomere evolution, maintenance and function. Plant species from the closely related genera Cestrum, Vestia and Sessea (family Solanaceae) lack known plant telomeric sequences. Here we characterize the telomere of Cestrum elegans, work that was a challenge because of its large genome size and few chromosomes (1C 9.76 pg; n = 8). We developed an approach that combines BAL31 digestion, which digests DNA from the ends...
Published 05/11/2015    Read More...
Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited...
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
For the first time, a plant (rice) translin was characterized. The rice translin protein, which was octameric in native state, bound efficiently to single-stranded DNA and RNA. Translin, a DNA-/RNA-binding protein, is expressed in brain, testis and in certain malignancies. It is involved in chromosomal translocation, mRNA metabolism, transcriptional regulation and telomere protection. Studies from human, mice, drosophila and yeast have revealed that it forms an octameric ring, which is important...
Published 05/27/2014    Read More...
TERT encodes the telomerase reverse transcriptase, which is responsible for maintaining telomere ends by addition of (TTAGGG) n nucleotide repeats at the telomere.  Recent genome-wide association studies have found common genetic variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus (5p15.33) associated with an increased risk of several cancers. ...
Published 10/02/2014    Read More...
A compensating, recombined Lr59 translocation with greatly reduced alien chromatin was identified. Microsatellite locus Xdupw217 occurs within the remaining segment and can be used as a co-dominant marker for Lr59. In earlier studies, leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks.) resistance gene Lr59 was transferred from Aegilops peregrina (Hackel) Maire et Weiler to chromosome arm 1AL of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The resistance gene was then genetically mapped on the translocated...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
Mutations in components of the 3' mRNA splicing machinery are found in almost 50% of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cases. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kim and colleagues, Colla and colleagues, and Shirai and colleagues report on the impact of mutated or dysregulated splicing factors to hematopoiesis, mRNA splicing, and MDS pathogenesis....
Published 05/13/2015    Read More...
Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
When a dicentric chromosome breaks in mitosis, the broken ends cannot be repaired by normal mechanisms that join two broken ends since each end is in a separate daughter cell. However, in the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a broken end may be healed by de novo telomere addition. We find that Chk2 (encoded by lok) and P53, major mediators of the DNA damage response, have strong and opposite influences on the transmission of broken-and-healed chromosomes: lok mutants exhibit a large...
Published 02/27/2014    Read More...
In recent years there has been a large expansion in our understanding of SIRT6 biology including its structure, regulation, biochemical activity, and biological roles. SIRT6 functions as an ADP-ribosylase and NAD(+)-dependent deacylase of both acetyl groups and long-chain fatty-acyl groups. Through these functions SIRT6 impacts upon cellular homeostasis by regulating DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and glucose and lipid metabolism, thus affecting diseases such diabetes, obesity, heart disease,...
Published 01/14/2014    Read More...
Telomeric DNA repeats are key features of chromosomes that allow the maintenance of integrity and stability in the telomeres. However, interstitial telomere sites (ITSs) can also be found along the chromosomes, especially near the centromere, where they may appear following chromosomal rearrangements like Robertsonian translocations. There is no defined role for ITSs, but they are linked to DNA damage-prone sites. We were interested in studying the structural organization of ITSs during meiosis,...
Published 06/06/2014    Read More...
With the continued extension of lifespan, aging and age-related diseases have become a major medical challenge to our society. Aging is accompanied by changes in multiple systems. Among these, the aging process in the central nervous system is critically important but very poorly understood. Neurons, as post-mitotic cells, are devoid of replicative associated aging processes, such as senescence and telomere shortening. However, because of the inability to self-replenish, neurons have to...
Published 08/14/2014    Read More...
The fate of cultivated primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with respect to genetic instability and telomere attrition has not yet been described in great detail. Thus, knowledge of the genetic constitution of HSCs is important when interpreting results of HSCs in culture. While establishing a cell culture model for myelodysplastic syndrome with a deletion in 5q by performing RPS14 knockdown, we found surprising data that may be of importance for any CD34+ cell culture experiments. We...
Published 10/26/2013    Read More...
Chromosomal instability is defined as a state of numerical and/or structural chromosomal anomalies in cells. Numerous studies have documented the incidence of chromosomal instability, which acutely or chronically may lead to accelerated ageing (tissue-wide or even organismal), cancer or other genetic disorders. Potential mechanisms leading to the generation of chromosome-genome instability include erroneous/inefficient DNA repair, chromosome segregation defects, spindle assembly defects, DNA...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
Repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes, especially in sex chromosome differentiation. The genus Triportheus represents an interesting model for such studies because all of its species analyzed so far contain a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A close relationship has been found between the differentiation of the W chromosome and heterochromatinization, with the involvement of different types of repetitive DNA in this process. This...
Published 03/14/2014    Read More...
Rineloricaria is the most species-rich genus of the Loricariinae (armored catfish) with 65 valid species. However, the karyotype structure is known only for eight species in this group. This study provides cytogenetic data for Rineloricaria lanceolata collected from the upper Paraguay basin (Mato Grosso do Sul). The specimens revealed extensive chromosomal polymorphism constituting 10 karyotypes, which differed in the diploid number (48 to 45 chromosomes) and fundamental number (FN) between 52...
Published 07/29/2014    Read More...
Differentiation and copy number of repetitive sequences affect directly chromosome structure which contributes to reproductive isolation and speciation. Comparative cytogenetic mapping has been verified an efficient tool to elucidate the differentiation and distribution of repetitive sequences in genome. In present study, the distinct chromosomal structures of five Cucumis species were revealed through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique and comparative cytogenetic mapping of major...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
The mitotic chromosomes of 11 species from the anuran families Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae were analyzed by means of conventional staining, banding techniques, and in situ hybridization. The amount, location, and fluorochrome affinities of constitutive heterochromatin, the number and positions of nucleolus organizer regions, and the patterns of telomeric DNA sequences were determined for most of the species. The karyotypes were found to be highly conserved with a low diploid chromosome...
Published 04/25/2014    Read More...
Authors: Eytan E. Zlotorynski Published: 11/22/2014, Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology PubMed Full Text...
Published 11/22/2014    Read More...
To allow chromosome segregation, topoisomerase II (topo II) must resolve sister chromatid intertwines (SCI) formed during deoxynucleic acid (DNA) replication. How this process extends to the full genome is not well understood. In budding yeast, the unique structure of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array is thought to cause late SCI resolution of this genomic region during anaphase. In this paper, we show that chromosome length, and not the presence of rDNA repeats, is the critical feature determining...
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
In meiosis, pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are crucial for the correct segregation of chromosomes, and substantial movements of chromosomes are required to achieve homolog pairing. During this process, it is known that telomeres cluster to form a bouquet arrangement of chromosomes. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides a striking example of bouquet formation, after which the entire nucleus oscillates between the cell poles (these oscillations are generally...
Published 06/20/2014    Read More...
Telomere crisis occurs during tumorigenesis when depletion of the telomere reserve leads to frequent telomere fusions. The resulting dicentric chromosomes have been proposed to drive genome instability. Here, we examine the fate of dicentric human chromosomes in telomere crisis. We observed that dicentric chromosomes invariably persisted through mitosis and developed into 50-200 μm chromatin bridges connecting the daughter cells. Before their resolution at 3-20 hr after anaphase, the...
Published 12/21/2015    Read More...
Chromothripsis is a recently discovered phenomenon of genomic rearrangement, possibly arising during a single genome-shattering event. This could provide an alternative paradigm in cancer development, replacing the gradual accumulation of genomic changes with a "one-off" catastrophic event. However, the term has been used with varying operational definitions, with the minimal consensus being a large number of locally clustered copy number aberrations. The mechanisms underlying these...
Published 01/29/2014    Read More...
The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement, baptized chromothripsis (chromo for chromosomes, thripsis for shattering into pieces), greatly modifies our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in the repair of DNA damage and the genesis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Initially described in cancers, and then in constitutional rearrangements, chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome(s) segments followed by a chaotic...
Published 01/21/2014    Read More...
To review the discovery of chromothripsis and analyze its impact on human reproduction....
Published 10/18/2014    Read More...
Recovery from infection is not always complete, and mild chronic infection may persist. Although the direct costs of such infections are apparently small, the potential for any long-term effects on Darwinian fitness is poorly understood. In a wild population of great reed warblers, we found that low-level chronic malaria infection reduced life span as well as the lifetime number and quality of offspring. These delayed fitness effects of malaria appear to be mediated by telomere degradation, a...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Dental-pulp tissue is often exposed to inflammatory injury. Sequested growth factors or angiogenic signaling proteins that are released following inflammatory injury play a pivotal role in the formation of reparative dentin. While limited or moderate angiogenesis may be helpful for dental pulp maintenance, the induction of significant level of angiogenesis is probably highly detrimental. Hitherto, several studies have addressed the effects of proinflammatory stimuli on the survival and...
Published 11/26/2014    Read More...
Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regeneration in liver and gut. nfkb1(-/-) fibroblasts exhibit aggravated cell senescence because of an enhanced autocrine and paracrine feedback through NF-κB, COX-2 and ROS, which stabilizes DNA damage....
Published 06/24/2014    Read More...
Los of renal function is associated with uremia-associated immune deficiency, which contributes significantly to the mortality and morbidity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In this review, the effect of ESRD on the adaptive cellular immune system is discussed. Progressive loss of renal function causes a preferential loss of number and function of lymphoid cells. More in depth analysis of these changes reveals a loss of thymic function, attrition of telomeres, and expanded memory T...
Published 11/18/2014    Read More...
Chromosome engineering is a major focus in the fields of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes. Here, we describe the "telomerator," a new synthetic biology device for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The telomerator is designed to inducibly convert circular DNA molecules into mitotically stable, linear chromosomes replete with functional telomeres in vivo. The telomerator cassette encodes convergent yeast telomere seed sequences flanking the I-SceI...
Published 11/05/2014    Read More...
Recent large-scale prospective studies suggest that long telomeres are associated with an increase cancer risk, counter to conventional wisdom....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Previously, we reported that alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) may be a biomarker for chemo-sensitivity and late recurrence in neuroblastoma (NBL). In this study, alterations of ATRX or DAXX, which both encode chromatin remodeling proteins in telomeric region, and their relationship to ALT were examined in NBLs....
Published 11/14/2014    Read More...
Authors: Inderjeet I. Dokal, Tom T. Vulliamy, Philip P. Mason, Monica M. Bessler Published: 09/03/2014, European journal of human genetics : EJHG PubMed Full Text...
Published 09/03/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline...
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
The telomere repeat units of Candida species are substantially longer and more complex than those in other organisms, raising interesting questions concerning the recognition mechanisms of telomere-binding proteins. Herein we characterized the properties of Candida parapsilosis Cdc13A and Cdc13B, two paralogs that are responsible for binding and protecting the telomere G-strand tails. We found that Cdc13A and Cdc13B can each form complexes with itself and a heterodimeric complex with each other....
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a genetic predictor for various cancers. However, evidences about this point with respect to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Han Chinese populations remain limited. Our previous study demonstrated that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was associated with the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related ESCC. Telomeres and p53 play important roles in maintaining genomic stability and regulating the cell cycle. HPV impacts both telomere length...
Published 08/18/2014    Read More...
Since the advent of molecular phylogenetics, numerous attempts have been made to infer the evolutionary trajectories of chromosome numbers on DNA phylogenies. Ideally, such inferences should be evaluated against cytogenetic data. Towards this goal, we carried out phylogenetic modelling of chromosome number change and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a medium sized genus of Araceae to elucidate if data from chromosomal markers would support maximum likelihood-inferred changes in...
Published 02/04/2014    Read More...
Authors: Amy E AE. Taylor, Marcus R MR. Munafò Published: 08/14/2014, International journal of epidemiology PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/14/2014    Read More...
Meiotic recombination contributes to genetic diversity by yielding new combinations of alleles. Individuals vary with respect to the genome-wide recombination counts in their gametes. Exploiting data resources in Iceland, we compiled a data set consisting of 35,927 distinct parents and 71,929 parent-offspring pairs. Within this data set, we called over 2.2 million recombination events and imputed variants with sequence-level resolution from 2,261 whole genome-sequenced individuals into the...
Published 11/24/2013    Read More...
To determine the mutation status of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter region in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from different geographical regions....
Published 01/09/2015    Read More...
The use of DNA to deliver vaccine antigens offers many advantages, including ease of manufacture and cost. However, most DNA vaccines are plasmids and must be grown in bacterial culture, necessitating elements that are either unnecessary for effective gene delivery (for example, bacterial origins of replication) or undesirable (for example, antibiotic resistance genes). Removing these elements may improve the safety profile of DNA for the delivery of vaccines. Here, we describe a novel,...
Published 05/15/2014    Read More...
Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of...
Published 01/28/2015    Read More...
A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage...
Published 04/25/2014    Read More...
Cryptosporidium hominis is a dominant species for human cryptosporidiosis. Within the species, IbA10G2 is the most virulent subtype responsible for all C. hominis-associated outbreaks in Europe and Australia, and is a dominant outbreak subtype in the United States. In recent yearsIaA28R4 is becoming a major new subtype in the United States. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two field specimens from each of the two subtypes and conducted a comparative genomic analysis of the obtained...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
Only a few studies, primarily limited to small samples, have examined the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) data generated by Southern blots, expressed in kilobases, versus quantitative PCR data, expressed in the telomere product/a single gene product (T/S). In the present study, we compared LTL data generated by the two methods in 681 elderly participants (50% African Americans, 50% of European origin, 49.2% women, mean age 73.7±2.9 years) in the Health Aging and Body...
Published 08/14/2013    Read More...
Population studies have demonstrated that telomere length (TL) displays great diversity among different populations. Previously described controversial findings associated longevity with specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (hgs) (e.g., J and U). These observations may be influenced by population diversity, geographic location, and/or specific historic background. The aims of this study were to identify a specific hg which correlates with aging in a Latvian populating and to evaluate the...
Published 02/07/2015    Read More...
We present a classic interactome bioinformatic analysis and a study on competing endogenous (ce) RNAs for hTERT. The hTERT gene codes for the catalytic subunit and limiting component of the human telomerase complex. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is essential for the integrity of telomeres. Telomere dysfunctions have been widely reported to be involved in aging, cancer, and cellular senescence. The hTERT gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID interaction database...
Published 04/08/2014    Read More...
The main Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia are Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi and B. bavariensis. This is in contrast to the United States, where infections are exclusively caused by B. burgdorferi. Until to date the genome sequences of four B. afzelii strains, of which only two include the numerous plasmids, are available. In order to further assess the genetic diversity of B. afzelii, the most common species in Europe, responsible for the large variety...
Published 03/23/2015    Read More...
The present study was primarily undertaken to examine the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and telomere length may be associated with aplastic anemia (AA). Our study included a single institution analysis of 40 patients presenting with AA first diagnosed at the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between 2010 and 2013. Bone marrow and oral epithelial samples were collected from patients with AA (n=40) for mtDNA mutation and telomere...
Published 08/13/2014    Read More...
Coronin-1A deficiency is a recently recognized autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in CORO1A (OMIM 605000) that results in T-cell lymphopenia and is classified as T(-)B(+)NK(+)severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Only two other CORO1A-kindred are known to date, thus the defining characteristics are not well delineated. We identified a unique CORO1A-kindred....
Published 07/30/2014    Read More...
Telomeres, nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are important for the maintenance of genomic stability. Telomeres were considered as typical heterochromatic regions, but in light of recent results, this view should be reconsidered. Asymmetrically located cytosines in plant telomeric DNA repeats may be substrates for a DNA methyltransferase enzyme and indeed, it was shown that these repeats are methylated. Here, we analyse the methylation of telomeric cytosines...
Published 12/10/2013    Read More...
Telomeres are the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consisting of consecutive short repeats that protect chromosome ends from degradation. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, leading to replicative cell senescence. Deregulation of telomere length homeostasis is associated with the development of various age-related diseases and cancers. A number of experimental techniques exist for telomere length measurement; however, until recently, the absence of tools for extracting telomere lengths...
Published 04/29/2015    Read More...
Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein necessary for all aspects of DNA metabolism involving an ssDNA intermediate, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, DNA damage response and checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. The role of RPA in most of these reactions is to protect the ssDNA until it can be delivered to downstream enzymes. Therefore a crucial feature of RPA is that it must bind very tightly to ssDNA, but...
Published 02/03/2014    Read More...
Genomic instability is recognized as one of the most important hurdles in the expanding field of stem cell-based therapies. In the recent years, an accumulating body of evidence has shown that human stem cells undergo a diverse program of biological changes upon ex vivo cultivation that include numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, point mutations, variation of telomere length, and epigenetic instability. As the field moves forward, the growing awareness of the risk factors...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Borrelia species are unique in the bacterial world in possessing segmented genomes which sometimes contain over 20 genetic elements. Most elements are linear and contain covalently closed hairpin ends requiring a specialized process, telomere resolution, for their generation. Hairpin telomere resolution is mediated by the telomere resolvase, ResT. Although the process has been studied extensively in vitro, the essential nature of the resT gene has precluded biological studies to further probe...
Published 04/18/2014    Read More...
The spatial distribution of parental genomes has attracted much interest because intranuclear chromosome distribution can modulate the transcriptome of cells and influence the efficacy of meiotic homologue pairing. Pairing of parental chromosomes is imperative to sexual reproduction as it translates into homologue segregation and genome haploidization to counteract the genome doubling at fertilization. Differential FISH tagging of parental pericentromeric genome portions and specific painting of...
Published 08/15/2014    Read More...
Telomere maintenance is a highly coordinated process, and its misregulation is linked to cancer and telomere-shortening syndromes. Recent studies have shown that the TEL-patch--a cluster of amino acids on the surface of the shelterin component TPP1--is necessary for the recruitment of telomerase to the telomere in human cells. However, there has been only basic biochemical analysis of the role of TPP1 in the telomerase recruitment process. Here we develop an in vitro assay to quantitatively...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) utilizes a template within the integral RNA subunit (hTR) to direct extension of telomeres. Telomerase exhibits repeat addition processivity (RAP) and must therefore translocate the nascent DNA product into a new RNA:DNA hybrid register to prime each round of telomere repeat synthesis. Here, we use single-molecule FRET and nuclease protection assays to monitor telomere DNA structure and dynamics during the telomerase catalytic cycle. DNA...
Published 06/13/2014    Read More...
In Drosophila, a group of retrotransposons is mobilized exclusively to telomeres in a sequence-independent manner. How they target chromosome ends is not understood. Here, we focused on the telomeric element HeT-A and characterized the cell cycle expression and cytological distribution of its protein and RNA products. We determined the timing of telomere replication by creating a single lacO-marked telomere and provide evidence suggesting that transposon expression and recruitment to telomeres...
Published 04/14/2014    Read More...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers,...
Published 02/06/2014    Read More...
Authors: Published: 06/15/2015, PLoS genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/15/2015    Read More...
Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis of human telomeres was used to calibrate flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FF) measures of telomere lengths to expand the range of measures and increase power of resolution of our previously published protocol. TRF data used as the gold standard should be obtained by electrophoresis with suitable resolution applied to appropriately isolated genomic DNA. When we considered TRF attained by correct methods, we found our method to be insufficiently...
Published 01/23/2014    Read More...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, as well as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), obtained in vitro by EBV infection of B cells, express latent viral proteins and maintain their ability to grow indefinitely through inappropriate activation of telomere-specific reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic component of telomerase. Our previous studies demonstrated that high levels of TERT expression in LCLs prevent the activation of EBV lytic cycle, which is instead triggered by TERT...
Published 05/28/2015    Read More...
Cryopreservation is the only method for long-term storage of viable cells and tissues used for cellular therapy, stem cell transplantation and/or tissue engineering. However, the freeze-thaw process strongly contributes to cell and tissue damage through several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, cell injury from intracellular ice formation and altered physical cellular properties. Our previous proteomics investigation was carried out on Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells (WJSCs) having similar...
Published 05/05/2014    Read More...
The yeast KEOPS protein complex comprising Kae1, Bud32, Cgi121, Pcc1 and Gon7 is responsible for the essential tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) modification. Deletion of genes coding for the KEOPS subunits also affects telomere elongation and transcriptional regulation. In the present work, the crystal structure of Bud32/Cgi121 in complex with ADP revealed that ADP is bound in the catalytic site of Bud32 in a canonical manner characteristic of Protein Kinase A (PKA) family proteins. We...
Published 03/03/2015    Read More...
Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on...
Published 10/16/2014    Read More...
We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located...
Published 02/20/2015    Read More...
To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of 5 species of the reptile genus Gonatodes are described by means of conventional staining, banding analyses and in situ hybridization using a synthetic telomeric DNA probe. The amount, location and fluorochrome affinities of constitutive heterochromatin, the number and positions of nucleolus organizer regions, and the patterns of telomeric DNA sequences were determined for most of the species. The karyotypes of G. falconensis and G. taniae from northern...
Published 10/21/2014    Read More...
Dicentric chromosomes are unstable products of erroneous DNA repair events that can lead to further genome rearrangements and extended gene copy number variations. During mitosis, they form anaphase bridges, resulting in chromosome breakage by an unknown mechanism. In budding yeast, dicentrics generated by telomere fusion break at the fusion, a process that restores the parental karyotype and protects cells from rare accidental telomere fusion. Here, we observed that dicentrics lacking telomere...
Published 02/03/2015    Read More...
Leucocyte telomere length (LTL), which is fashioned by multiple genes, has been linked to a host of human diseases, including sporadic melanoma. A number of genes associated with LTL have already been identified through genome-wide association studies. The main aim of this study was to establish whether DCAF4 (DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor 4) is associated with LTL. In addition, using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), we examined whether LTL-associated genes in the general population might...
Published 01/26/2015    Read More...
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death and disability, representing 63% of the total death number worldwide. A characteristic phenotype of these diseases is the accelerated aging, which is the result of phenomena such as accumulated DNA damage, telomere capping loss and subcellular irreversible/nonrepaired oxidative damage. DNA damage, mostly oxidative, plays a key role in the development of most common NCDs. The present review will gather some of the most relevant...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence has been associated with the structural and functional decline observed during physiological lung aging and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense in the lungs and are important to COPD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying airway epithelial cell senescence, and particularly the role of telomere dysfunction in this process, are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate telomere dysfunction in airway...
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a state of permanent replicative arrest that allows cells to stay viable and metabolically active but resistant to apoptotic and mitogenic stimuli. Specific, validated markers can identify senescent cells, including senescence-associated β galactosidase activity, chromatin alterations, cell morphology changes, activated p16- and p53-dependent signaling and permanent cell cycle arrest. Senescence is a natural consequence of DNA replication-associated telomere erosion, but...
Published 09/08/2014    Read More...
Human-infecting microbial pathogens all face a serious problem of elimination by the host immune response. Antigenic variation is an effective immune evasion mechanism where the pathogen regularly switches its major surface antigen. In many cases, the major surface antigen is encoded by genes from the same gene family, and its expression is strictly monoallelic. Among pathogens that undergo antigenic variation, Trypanosoma brucei (a kinetoplastid), which causes human African trypanosomiasis,...
Published 01/09/2015    Read More...
The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and...
Published 04/25/2015    Read More...
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in meiosis to initiate recombination and generate crossovers, the reciprocal exchanges of genetic material between parental chromosomes. Here, we present high-resolution maps of meiotic DSBs in individual human genomes. Comparing DSB maps between individuals shows that along with DNA binding by PRDM9, additional factors may dictate the efficiency of DSB formation. We find evidence for both GC-biased gene conversion and mutagenesis around meiotic DSB...
Published 11/14/2014    Read More...
The integrity of the nuclear lamina has emerged as an important factor in the maintenance of genome stability. In particular, mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins (lamin A/C), alter nuclear morphology and function, and cause genomic instability. LMNA gene mutations are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases and devastating premature aging syndromes such as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) and Restrictive Dermopathy (RD). HGPS is a severe laminopathy, with...
Published 06/12/2015    Read More...
Whole genome sequencing of cancer genomes has revealed a diversity of recurrent gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) that are likely signatures of specific defects in DNA damage response pathways. However, inferring the underlying defects has been difficult due to insufficient information relating defects in DNA metabolism to GCR signatures. By analyzing over 95 mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the frequency of GCRs that deleted an internal CAN1/URA3 cassette on chrV...
Published 04/03/2014    Read More...
Authors: Nam Woo NW. Cho, Roger A RA. Greenberg Published: 02/04/2015, Nature PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/04/2015    Read More...
Mitochondrial DNA deletions are prominent in human genetic disorders, cancer, and aging. It is thought that stalling of the mitochondrial replication machinery during DNA synthesis is a prominent source of mitochondrial genome instability; however, the precise molecular determinants of defective mitochondrial replication are not well understood. In this work, we performed a computational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome using the "Pattern Finder" G-quadruplex (G4) predictor algorithm...
Published 09/05/2014    Read More...
Telomeres consist of TTAGGG repeats bound by the shelterin complex and end with a 3' overhang. In humans, telomeres shorten at each cell division, unless telomerase (TERT) is expressed and able to add telomeric repeats. For effective telomere maintenance, the DNA strand complementary to that made by telomerase must be synthesized. Recent studies have discovered a link between different activities necessary to process telomeres in the S phase of the cell cycle to reform a proper overhang....
Published 12/17/2014    Read More...
Human telomeres associate with shelterin, a six-protein complex that protects chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. The shelterin subunit TRF2 (telomeric repeat-binding factor 2) protects telomeres by facilitating their organization into the protective capping structure. We have reported previously that the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit)-interacting protein KIP associates with telomerase through an interaction with hTERT (human telomerase...
Published 09/08/2014    Read More...
Expression of type I interferons (IFNs) can be induced by DNA-damaging agents, but the mechanisms and significance of this regulation are not completely understood. We found that the transcription factor IRF3, activated in an ATM-IKKα/β-dependent manner, stimulates cell-autonomous IFN-β expression in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. Cells and tissues with accumulating DNA damage produce endogenous IFN-β and stimulate IFN signaling in vitro and in vivo. In turn, IFN acts to amplify...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
The extent of clinical expression in cases of segmental aneuploidy often varies depending on the size of the chromosomal region involved. Here we present clinical and cytogenetic findings in a 5-month old boy with a duplication of a chromosomal segment 4p16.1-->4pter and a deletion of a chromosomal segment 8p23.1-->8pter. His karyotype was determined by applying classical GTG banding and FISH method (WHCR region, centromere 4, centromere 8, telomere 8p) as 46,XY,der(8)t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1).ish...
Published 05/23/2014    Read More...
Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and...
Published 10/31/2013    Read More...
Authors: Sharon L SL. Wenger, Joseph J. Hansroth, Amy L AL. Shackelford Published: 03/11/2014, Gene PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/11/2014    Read More...
Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB),...
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
Uracil in the genome can result from misincorporation of dUTP instead of dTTP during DNA synthesis, and is primarily removed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) during base excision repair. Telomeres contain long arrays of TTAGGG repeats and may be susceptible to uracil misincorporation. Using model telomeric DNA substrates, we showed that the position and number of uracil substitutions of thymine in telomeric DNA decreased recognition by the telomere single-strand binding protein, POT1. In primary...
Published 01/08/2015    Read More...
We studied potential changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAM-P8) aging model. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays with longtime survival revealed a lower number of label-retaining stem cells in the SAM-P8 SVZ compared with the SAM-Resistant 1 (SAM-R1) control strain. We also found that in SAM-P8 niche signaling is attenuated and the stem cell pool is less responsive to the self-renewal niche factor pigmented epithelium-derived factor...
Published 01/30/2015    Read More...
To maintain genome integrity, DNA replication is executed and regulated by a complex molecular network of numerous proteins, including helicases and cell cycle checkpoint regulators. Through a systematic screening for putative replication mutants, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of human Regulator of Telomere Length 1 (RTEL1), which functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, and recombination. RTEL1 deficiency retards plant growth, a phenotype including a prolonged S-phase duration...
Published 01/16/2015    Read More...
Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene...
Published 11/14/2014    Read More...
In a graying world, there is an increasing interest in correlates of aging, especially those found in early life. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is an emerging marker of aging at the cellular level, but little is known regarding its link with poor decision making that often entails being overly impatient. Here we investigate the relationship between LTL and the degree of impatience, which is measured in the laboratory using an incentivized delay discounting task. In a sample of 1,158 Han...
Published 02/22/2016    Read More...
For the first time, an amplified chemiluminescence (CL) detection of the telomere DNA spotted on a nylon membrane is described here, based on the direct hybridization with the CL probe of dendrimer-like polymeric DNAs possessing a large number of guanine moieties. This probe was synthesized by sense and antisense hybridization between Y-shaped DNAs and then could hybridize with the target DNA....
Published 12/17/2013    Read More...
Cancer was recognized as a genetic disease at least four decades ago, with the realization that the spontaneous mutation rate must increase early in tumorigenesis to account for the many mutations in tumour cells compared with their progenitor pre-malignant cells. Abnormalities in the deoxyribonucleotide pool have long been recognized as determinants of DNA replication fidelity, and hence may contribute to mutagenic processes that are involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, many anticancer...
Published 08/24/2015    Read More...
For >35 yr, we have known that the accuracy of DNA replication is controlled in large part by the relative concentrations of the 4 canonical deoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphates (dNTPs) at the replisome. Since this field was last reviewed, ∼8 yr ago, there has been increased understanding of the mutagenic pathways as they occur in living cells. At the same time, aspects of deoxyribonucleotide metabolism have been shown to be critically involved in processes as diverse as cell cycle control,...
Published 06/13/2014    Read More...
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that is implicated in plethora of biological processes, including metabolism, aging, stress response, and tumorigenesis. Telomerase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. Activation of TERT is considered a crucial step in tumorigenesis, and therefore it is a potential therapeutic target against cancer. We have recently found that SIRT1 expression is highly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the...
Published 01/08/2014    Read More...
Following the results we previously reported on a series of xanthene and xanthone derivatives as G-quadruplex stabilizing ligands, in order to obtain a more selective compound with respect to the previous generation of derivatives, we decided to modify the structure of the core ligand, specifically its aromatic extension. In particular, here we report the design, synthesis and activity data of a new compound obtained by dimerization of the xanthene core (HELIXA4C). The reported results show that...
Published 11/03/2014    Read More...
Loss of function or mutation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM) results in inherited genetic disorders characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and cancer. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product belongs to the PI3K-like protein kinase (PIKKs) family and is functionally implicated in mitogenic signal transduction, chromosome condensation, meiotic recombination, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance. The ATM protein kinase is primarily activated...
Published 04/01/2015    Read More...
To combine telomere and centromere (TC) staining of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) fusions to identify dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes, making possible the realization of a dose-response curve and automation of the process....
Published 01/14/2015    Read More...
Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making...
Published 04/27/2015    Read More...
Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed postmenopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors, including diet, exercise, and sleep. Here we followed...
Published 07/29/2014    Read More...
In humans, telomere length studies have acquired great relevance because the length of telomeres has been related to natural processes like disease, aging and cancer. However, very little is known about the influence of telomere length on the biology of wild type plants. The length of plant telomeres has been usually studied by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) analyses. This technique requires high amounts of tissue, including multiple cell types, which might be the reason why very little is...
Published 07/02/2014    Read More...
Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
Animals in a poor biological state face reduced life expectancy, and as a consequence should make decisions that prioritize immediate survival and reproduction over long-term benefits. We tested the prediction that if, as has been suggested, developmental telomere attrition is a biomarker of state and future life expectancy, then individuals who have undergone greater developmental telomere attrition should display greater choice impulsivity as adults. We measured impulsive decision-making in a...
Published 12/04/2014    Read More...
Small RNAs play crucial roles in regulating gene expression during mammalian meiosis. To investigate the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) during meiosis in males, we generated germ-cell-specific conditional deletions of Dgcr8 and Dicer in mice. Analysis of spermatocytes from both conditional knockout lines revealed that there were frequent chromosomal fusions during meiosis, always involving one or both sex chromosomes. RNA sequencing indicates upregulation of...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. A Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) could help to understand the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on telomere shortening....
Published 09/09/2015    Read More...
Ageing is associated with an overall decline in the functional capacity of tissues and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as telomere dysfunction. Dietary restriction (DR) is a recognised anti-ageing intervention that extends lifespan and improves health in several organisms. To investigate the role of telomeres and telomerase in haematopoietic ageing, we compared the HSPC profile and clonogenic capacity of bone marrow cells from wild type with...
Published 07/17/2014    Read More...
The cornea protects the anterior eye and accounts for two thirds of the eyes refractive capacity. The homeostasis of corneal epithelium is thought to be maintained by putative stem cells residing in the epithelial basal layer. As a tissue constantly exposed to environmental stress, the cornea is hypothesised to accumulate persistent DNA damage events with time in stem cell populations. Recently, telomere associated DNA damage foci (TAFs) have been suggested as a marker for persistent DNA damage...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be potential underlying mechanisms for telomere attrition. A lack of specific antioxidants is believed to increase free radical damage and a greater risk for telomere shortening. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between diet and leukocyte telomere length in a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents. We hypothesized that dietary total antioxidant capacity would be positively associated with telomere length....
Published 08/04/2014    Read More...
TP53 mutations are the most common mutations in human cancers, and TP53-R175H and TP53-R273H are the most frequent. The impact of these mutations on genomic instability after tumor initiation is still uncovered. To gain insight into this, we studied the effects of three specific TP53 mutants (TP53-V143A, TP53-R175H, and TP53-R273H) on genomic instability using four isogenic lines of LoVo cells. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), three-dimensional (3D) quantitative FISH...
Published 07/25/2014    Read More...
Chromosomal evolution, including numerical and structural changes, is a major force in plant diversification and speciation. This study addresses genomic changes associated with the extensive chromosomal variation of the Mediterranean Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae), which includes four diploid cytotypes each with a unique combination of chromosome number (x = 5, 6, 7), rDNA loci and genome size....
Published 08/28/2014    Read More...
Human PARP family consists of 17 members of which PARP-1 is a prominent member and plays a key role in DNA repair pathways. It has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) encompassing the nuclear localisation signal (NLS), central automodification domain and C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP-1 accounts for majority of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymer synthesis that upon binding to numerous proteins including PARP itself modulates their activity. Reduced PARP-1 activity in ageing human samples and its...
Published 07/31/2014    Read More...
We have investigated the effects of hyperthermia (HT) on cell proliferation and telomerase activity of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compared with human leukemic cell lines (TF-1, K562 and HL-60). The cells were exposed to HT at 42 and 43 °C up to 120 min. The cells were incubated at 37 °C for 96 h. Then the cells were collected and assayed for cell proliferation, viability, telomerase activity, and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths. The enzyme activity from HSCs was...
Published 06/14/2014    Read More...
To create a nanoscale dual switch, two responsive DNA motifs, azobenzene-modified DNAs and G-telomeric repeat sequences, were introduced together into the nanoframe system. The dual-switching behaviors controlled by photoirradiation and K(+) were successfully visualized in real time by high-speed atomic force microscopy....
Published 03/25/2014    Read More...
The development of a fluorescent probe capable of detecting and distinguishing the wide diversity of G-quadruplex structures is particularly challenging. Herein, we report a novel BODIPY-based fluorescent sensor (GQR) that shows unprecedented selectivity to parallel-stranded G-quadruplexes with exposed ends and four medium grooves. Mechanistic studies suggest that GQR associates with G-quadruplex grooves close to the end of the tetrad core, which may explain the dye's specificity to only a...
Published 01/20/2014    Read More...
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin. A substantial portion of these tumors exhibits complex karyotypes and lack characterized chromosomal aberrations. Owing to such properties, both histopathologic and molecular classification of these tumors has been a significant challenge. This study examines the protein expression of a large number of human STS, including subtype heterogeneity, using two-dimensional gel proteomics. In addition, detailed proteome profiles of...
Published 07/28/2014    Read More...
The adenosine derivative of 2-oxo-1,3-diazaphenoxazine (Adap) exhibits a superb ability to recognize and form base pairs with 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in duplex DNA. In this study, the triphosphate of Adap (dAdapTP) was synthesized and tested for single nucleotide incorporation into primer strands using the Klenow Fragment. The efficiency of dAdapTP incorporation into 8-oxo-dG-containing templates was more than 36-fold higher than with dG-containing templates, and provides better...
Published 02/26/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with shorter LTL being associated with several chronic diseases of aging and earlier mortality. Identifying factors related to LTL among African Americans may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health....
Published 01/20/2014    Read More...
Most human cancers depend on the telomerase to maintain telomeres; however, about 10% of cancers are telomerase negative and utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. Mutations in the DAXX gene have been found frequently in both telomerase-positive and ALT cells, and how DAXX mutations contribute to cancers remains unclear. We report here that endogenous DAXX can localize to Cajal bodies, associate with the telomerase and regulate telomerase targeting to telomeres....
Published 11/21/2014    Read More...
Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality,...
Published 01/11/2016    Read More...
Maintenance of chromosomal ends (telomeres) directly contributes to cancer cell immortalization. The telomere protection enzymes belonging to the tankyrase (Tnks) subfamily of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) have recently been shown to also control transcriptional response to secreted Wnt signaling molecules. Whereas Tnks inhibitors are currently being developed as therapeutic agents for targeting Wnt-related cancers and as modulators of Wnt signaling in tissue-engineering agendas, their...
Published 05/04/2015    Read More...
Recent studies used the contact data or three-dimensional (3D) genome reconstructions from Hi-C (chromosome conformation capture with next-generation sequencing) to assess the co-localization of functional genomic annotations in the nucleus. These analyses dichotomized data point pairs belonging to a functional annotation as "close" or "far" based on some threshold and then tested for enrichment of "close" pairs. We propose an alternative approach that avoids dichotomization of the data and...
Published 11/18/2014    Read More...
Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal,...
Published 07/04/2014    Read More...
In most eukaryotes, telomeres consist of tandem arrays of a short repetitive DNA sequence. Insect telomeres are generally constituted by a (TTAGG)n repeat motif. Usually, telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds this sequence to chromosome ends. We examined telomerase activity in 15 species across Insecta. Telomerase activity was revealed in Isoptera, Blattaria, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Sternorrhyncha. In contrast, we...
Published 08/01/2014    Read More...
Cytomixis is the migration of nuclei from one cell to another in higher plants, most frequently observable during microsporogenesis, which has a potential evolutionary significance. Currently, a major challenge is to label the chromatin migrating between cells to clarify its further fate. We have for the first time succeeded in visualizing the telomeric chromatin regions in the nuclei migrating between cells using fluorescent in situ hybridization. It has been shown that the telomeric signals in...
Published 01/05/2015    Read More...
Transposable elements are mobile genetic elements that have successfully populated eukaryotic genomes and show diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Although first viewed solely as selfish, transposable elements are now known as important vectors to drive the adaptation and evolution of their host genome. Transposable elements can affect host gene structures, gene copy number, gene expression, and even as a source for novel genes. For example, a number of transposable...
Published 06/24/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a...
Published 09/28/2015    Read More...
Down syndrome (DS) results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of...
Published 02/23/2015    Read More...
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent non-hematopoietic precursor cells with the ability to differentiate into several tissue types. The use of hMSCs has gained significant importance in cancer therapies as well as a large number of degenerative disease therapies due to their homing abilities. However, these cells may undergo spontaneous transformation leading to them bypassing naturally built-in cell controls that could lead to senescence and carcinogenesis. Therefore, although...
Published 03/21/2016    Read More...
The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) and the Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) complex are key regulators of DNA repair, and have been recently shown to independently regulate telomere length. Sensitivity of cancers to PARPi is largely dependent on the BRCAness of the cells. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cancers are BRCA-proficient. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether a targeted molecular "hit" on the MRN complex, which is upstream of BRCA, can effectively sensitize BRCA-proficient...
Published 10/16/2014    Read More...
Approximately 1 percent of healthy individuals carry human herpesvirus-6 within a host chromosome. This is referred to as chromosomally integrated herpesvirus-6 (CIHHV-6). In this study, we investigated the chromosomal integration site in six individuals harboring CIHHV-6B. Using FISH, we found that HHV-6B signals are consistently located at the telomeric region. The proximal endpoints of the integrated virus were mapped at one of two telomere-repeat-like sequences (TRSs) within the DR-R in all...
Published 04/02/2014    Read More...
Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and...
Published 06/03/2014    Read More...
Migration of the telomere of the short arm of rye chromosome 5R (5RS) during bouquet organization is dependent on the conformation that this chromosome adopts in its intact, submetacentric, or truncated, metacentric, form. In order to establish whether the telomere migration dependence on chromosome conformation is a common feature of all rye chromosomes, the behavior of the telomeres of 2 other rye chromosomes, 1R and 6R, with apparent differences in the arm ratio, has been studied at the...
Published 06/21/2014    Read More...
Telomeres play an important role in cancer progression. Recently it has been shown that subtelomeric methylation, negatively regulates telomere length in various diseases, including cancers. Here we evaluated the influence of subtelomeric methylation in telomere dysfunction in gallbladder cancer (GBC), and whether this dysfunction is affected by the presence of gallstones....
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare disorder that often leads to early death owing to a variety of complications and associated disorders. Early diagnosis and intervention is important in care for patients affected by this disease....
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
Cushing's syndrome (CS) increases cardiovascular risk (CVR) and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL) shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging....
Published 03/23/2015    Read More...
We have shown that E-type cyclins are key regulators of mammalian male meiosis. Depletion of cyclin E2 reduced fertility in male mice due to meiotic defects, involving abnormal pairing and synapsis, unrepaired DNA, and loss of telomere structure. These defects were exacerbated by additional loss of cyclin E1, and complete absence of both E-type cyclins produces a meiotic catastrophe. Here, we investigated the involvement of E-type cyclins in maintaining telomere integrity in male meiosis....
Published 12/28/2015    Read More...
Authors: Surabhi S. Dangi-Garimella Published: 12/31/2014, The American journal of managed care PubMed...
Published 12/31/2014    Read More...
Homozygous ABCA1 gene mutation causes Tangier disease (TD). The effects reported in heterozygous state regard plasma HDL, cell cholesterol efflux and coronary artery disease. We investigated whether in vitro replicative skin fibroblast senescence shown in TD proband (Hom), his father (Het), and in a healthy control might be induced in a "gene-dosage way"....
Published 03/26/2014    Read More...
Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease....
Published 05/26/2015    Read More...
Autoimmune cytopenia is a frequent manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies. Two siblings presented with Evans syndrome, viral infections, and progressive leukopenia. DNA available from one patient showed a homozygous frameshift mutation in tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) abolishing protein expression. TPP2 is a serine exopeptidase involved in extralysosomal peptide degradation. Its deficiency in mice activates cell death programs and premature senescence. Similar to cells from naïve,...
Published 11/20/2014    Read More...
Interphase chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are tethered to the nuclear envelope at their telomeres and to the spindle pole body (SPB) at their centromeres. Using a polymer model of yeast chromosomes that includes these interactions, we show theoretically that telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope is a major determinant of gene positioning within the nucleus only for genes within 10 kb of the telomeres. We test this prediction by measuring the distance between the SPB and the silent...
Published 07/14/2014    Read More...
Senescent cells, which express p16 (INK4a) , accumulate with aging and contribute to age-related pathology. To understand whether cytotoxic agents promote molecular aging, we measured expression of p16 (INK4a) and other senescence markers in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy....
Published 03/28/2014    Read More...
The outcome of kidney allograft transplantation is associated with numerous donor-dependent and recipient-dependent immunological and non-immunological factors. Studies on genetic factors affecting the non-immunological aspects, like ageing of the kidney allograft and patient outcome are still lacking. The aim of this study was the analysis of relative telomere length (RTL; T/S ratio) in the biopsy specimens of the transplanted kidney allograft and its correlation with the delayed graft function...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) can enhance the effector function of natural killer (NK) cells but also limits their proliferation when continuously combined with IL-2/IL-15. Paradoxically, membrane-bound (mb)-IL-21 has been shown to improve human NK cell proliferation when cultured with IL-2/mb-IL-15. To clarify the role of IL-21, we investigated the effect of the timing of IL-21 addition to NK cell culture....
Published 06/18/2014    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with dementia and psychological stress, but its relationship with human brain size is unknown....
Published 10/14/2014    Read More...
Novel treatment approaches are desperately needed for malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). Telomerase is an attractive therapeutic target because it is specific to cancer and critical for cancer cell immortality. We evaluated the effect of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat in preclinical models of MRT. Three MRT cell lines, BT-12, G401, and RT-peri, were treated with the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat. The effects of imetelstat on telomere length, DNA damage response, and cell proliferation were...
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is related to cellular aging and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the specific role of cellular aging in this process is still unclear. The aim of this report was to analyze the prognostic value of telomere length in men admitted for acute coronary syndrome. Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood leukocytes of 203 men classified into 2 groups: those aged 50 to 75 years and those >75 years. Clinical follow-up had been done...
Published 11/07/2013    Read More...
Short telomere lengths are found in a subset of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but their clinical significance is unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with various blood leucocyte telomere lengths had different overall survival....
Published 06/16/2014    Read More...
Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle....
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Lack of weight gain throughout adult life could mimic the beneficial effects of energy restriction in humans. The present study aimed to assess the effects of weight stability or gain, over a period of 10 years, on telomere length, sirtuin 1 and 6 expression, and carotid intima media thickness....
Published 03/24/2014    Read More...
Ageing is a major cause of illness, disease and mortality, mainly due to the shortening of telomeres, resulting in cells undergoing senescence and apoptosis. Increasing autophagy and the levels of antioxidants removes oxidants that cause DNA and telomere damage, thus reducing the rate at which telomeres shorten, resulting in a longer cellular lifespan. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been shown to increase the lifespan of organisms by upregulating pathways involved in DNA damage...
Published 11/12/2014    Read More...
Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation contributes to skin photoaging. Baicalin, a plant-derived flavonoid, effectively absorbs UV rays and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may delay the photoaging process. In the current study, cultured human skin fibroblasts were incubated with 50 μg/ml baicalin 24 hours prior to 10 J/cm(2) UVA irradiation. In order to examine the efficacy of baicalin treatment in delaying UVA-induced photoaging, we investigated aging-related...
Published 05/29/2014    Read More...
Studies of the effects of smoking on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using cigarettes smoked per day or pack years smoked (PYS) present limitations. Reported high levels of smoking may not increase toxin exposure levels proportionally. Nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) predicts total cigarette puff volume and overall exposure based on total N-nitrosamines, is highly reproducible and independent of time since the last cigarette. We hypothesized that smokers with higher NMRs will exhibit increased...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Telomerase, consisting of telomerase RNA and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is responsible for the maintenance of the end of linear chromosomes. TERT, as the catalytic subunit of telomerase, plays a critical role in telomerase activity. Researches indicate TERT-associated proteins participate in the regulation of telomerase assembly, posttranslational modification, localization, and enzymatic function. Here, the telomerase RNA-binding domain of Eimeria tenella TERT (EtTRBD) was cloned...
Published 09/09/2014    Read More...
The molecular karyotype of Hypsizygus marmoreus was explored by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis. Eleven chromosomal bands were separated from the dikaryotic mycelia of H. marmoreus (strain Hm 3-10), and the chromosomes ranged in size from 1.9 to 5.8 Mb. The total genome size of the strain was estimated to be 36.3 Mb. The chromosome numbers were also confirmed by telomere fingerprinting, and 22 telomeric bands were identified. This result suggests that 11...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
The shelterin protein TRF2 is essential for chromosome-end protection. Depletion of TRF2 causes chromosome end-to-end fusions, initiating genomic instability that can be cancer promoting. Paradoxically, significant increased levels of TRF2 are observed in a subset of human cancers. Experimental overexpression of TRF2 has also been shown to induce telomere shortening, through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF2 overexpression results in replication stalling in duplex telomeric repeat...
Published 12/07/2015    Read More...
We sought to examine the relationship between elevated transferrin saturation (TS) and measures of health status (telomere length and patient-reported health-related quality of life) to assess whether elevated TS is associated with negative patient outcomes beyond increased risk for morbidity and mortality, using a cross-sectional analysis of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study supplemented with assays for leukocyte telomere length in adults ≥25 years old (n = 669). Among...
Published 12/15/2013    Read More...
ELG1 is a conserved gene uncovered in a number of genetic screens in yeast aimed at identifying factors important in the maintenance of genome stability. Elg1's activity prevents gross chromosomal rearrangements, maintains proper telomere length regulation, helps repairing DNA damage created by a number of genotoxins and participates in sister chromatid cohesion. Elg1 is evolutionarily conserved, and its mammalian ortholog (also known as ATAD5) is embryonic lethal when lost in mice, acts as a...
Published 11/24/2014    Read More...
The model for telomere shortening at each replication cycle is currently incomplete, and the exact contribution of the telomeric 3' overhang to the shortening rate remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate key steps of the mechanism of telomere replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By following the dynamics of telomeres during replication at near-nucleotide resolution, we find that the leading-strand synthesis generates blunt-end intermediates before being 5'-resected and filled in. Importantly,...
Published 03/24/2014    Read More...
Genetic mutations in microcephalin1 (MCPH1) cause primary autosomal recessive microcephaly which is characterized by a marked reduction in brain size. MCPH1 encodes a centrosomal protein with three BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains. Also, it is a key regulator of DNA repair pathway and cell cycle checkpoints. Interestingly, in the past few years, many research studies have explored the role of MCPH1, a neurodevelopmental gene in several cancers and its tumor suppressor functions have been...
Published 01/29/2014    Read More...
Telomeric diseases are a group of rare progeroid genetic syndromes, presenting premature aging phenotypes, characterized for defects on telomere maintenance. In humans, telomeres are heterochromatic structures consisting of long TTAGGG repeats located at the chromosomal ends, which shorten progressively after each DNA replication because of the 'end replication problem'. Critically short telomeres activate a DNA damage response that leads to the arrest of the cell cycle and resulting in cellular...
Published 04/27/2015    Read More...
Telomerase contributes to cell proliferation and survival through both telomere-dependent and telomere-independent mechanisms. In this report, we discovered that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transiently activates the catalytic components of telomerase (TERT) expression in human cancer cell lines and murine primary neural cells. Importantly, we show that depletion of hTERT sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis under ER stress, whereas increased hTERT expression reduces ER stress-induced cell...
Published 10/22/2013    Read More...
More than 85% of all human cancers possess the ability to maintain chromosome ends, or telomeres, by virtue of telomerase activity. Loss of functional telomeres is incompatible with survival, and telomerase inhibition has been established in several model systems to be a tractable target for cancer therapy. As human tumour cells typically maintain short equilibrium telomere lengths, we wondered if enforced telomere elongation would positively or negatively impact cell survival. We found that...
Published 11/24/2014    Read More...
Engineered minichromosomes have been produced in several plant species via telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation. This approach bypasses the complications of the epigenetic nature of centromere function in plants, which has to date precluded the production of minichromosomes by the re-introduction of centromere sequences to a plant cell. Genes to be added to a cleaved chromosome are joined together with telomere repeats on one side. When these constructs are introduced into plant cells, the...
Published 03/19/2015    Read More...
Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant...
Published 03/19/2015    Read More...
Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induction of pluripotency (to form iPSCs) are both recognized reprogramming methods, there has been relatively little comparative analysis of the resulting pluripotent cells. Here, we examine the capacity of these two reprogramming approaches to rejuvenate telomeres using late-generation telomerase-deficient (Terc(-/-)) mice that exhibit telomere dysfunction and premature aging. We found that embryonic stem cells established from Terc(-/-) SCNT...
Published 11/21/2013    Read More...
A confounding aspect of biological ageing is the nature and role of senescent cells. It is unclear whether the three major types of cellular senescence, namely replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage-induced senescence are descriptions of the same phenomenon instigated by different sources, or if each of these is distinct, and how they are associated with ageing. Recently, we devised an epigenetic clock with unprecedented accuracy and precision based on very specific...
Published 02/14/2016    Read More...
Authors: Chao C. Xing, Christine Kim CK. Garcia Published: 02/23/2016, Journal of medical genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/23/2016    Read More...
As chromatin structures, telomeres undergo epigenetic regulation of their maintenance and function. In plants, these processes are likely of a higher complexity than in animals or yeasts, as exemplified by methylation of cytosines in plant telomeric DNA or reversible developmental regulation of plant telomerase. We highlight the dual role of telomeres from the epigenetic point of view: (i) as chromatin structures that are the subject of epigenetic regulation (e.g. DNA and histone modifications),...
Published 04/01/2014    Read More...
Inhibition of Mek/Erk signaling by pharmacological Mek inhibitors promotes self-renewal and pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Intriguingly, Erk signaling is essential for human ESC self-renewal. Here we demonstrate that Erk signaling is critical for mouse ESC self-renewal and genomic stability. Erk-depleted ESCs cannot be maintained. Lack of Erk leads to rapid telomere shortening and genomic instability, in association with misregulated expression of pluripotency genes, reduced...
Published 10/19/2015    Read More...
Short dysfunctional telomeres are capable of fusion, generating dicentric chromosomes and initiating breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Cells that escape the ensuing cellular crisis exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements that drive clonal evolution and malignant progression. We demonstrate that there is an absolute requirement for fully functional DNA ligase III (LIG3), but not ligase IV (LIG4), to facilitate the escape from a telomere-driven crisis. LIG3- and LIG4-dependent alternative (A) and...
Published 08/07/2014    Read More...
Telomeres play a key role in replicative ageing and undergo age-dependent attrition in vivo. Here, we report a novel method, TelSeq, to measure average telomere length from whole genome or exome shotgun sequence data. In 260 leukocyte samples, we show that TelSeq results correlate with Southern blot measurements of the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (mTRFs) and display age-dependent attrition comparably well as mTRFs....
Published 03/07/2014    Read More...
Aging of an individual entails a progressive decline of functional reserves and loss of homeostasis that eventually lead to mortality. This process is highly individualized and is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This individualization and the diversity of factors influencing aging result in a significant heterogeneity among people with the same chronological age, representing a major challenge in daily oncology practice. Thus, many factors other than mere...
Published 09/29/2013    Read More...
Agricultural workers are often exposed to high levels of pesticides over prolonged periods of time. We attempted to determine whether exposure to multiple pesticides shortens relative telomere length (RTL) and causes nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) formation via the mechanism of telomere-end fusion in the lymphocytes of agricultural workers. For measuring RTL, we used quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization, while NPB frequency was measured as part of the cytome assay. Multivariate analysis of...
Published 06/26/2014    Read More...
Gene duplication is a major driving force in genome evolution. Here, we explore the nature and origin of the POT1 gene duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana. Protection of Telomeres (POT1) is a conserved multifunctional protein that modulates telomerase activity and its engagement with telomeres. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two divergent POT1 paralogs termed AtPOT1a and AtPOT1b. AtPOT1a positively regulates telomerase activity, whereas AtPOT1b is proposed to negatively regulate telomerase and...
Published 02/19/2015    Read More...
Human genetic disorders and transgenic mouse models have shown that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and telomere dysfunction instigate the aging process. Epidemiologically, exercise is associated with greater life expectancy and reduced risk of chronic diseases. While the beneficial effects of exercise are well established, the molecular mechanisms instigating these observations remain unclear....
Published 01/31/2016    Read More...
Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs) are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%), and...
Published 02/18/2016    Read More...
Short telomeres are a common defect in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, yet mutations in the telomerase genes account for only a subset of these cases....
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related disease featuring progressive lung scarring. To elucidate the molecular basis of IPF, we performed exome sequencing of familial kindreds with pulmonary fibrosis. Gene burden analysis comparing 78 European cases and 2,816 controls implicated PARN, an exoribonuclease with no previous connection to telomere biology or disease, with five new heterozygous damaging mutations in unrelated cases and none in controls (P = 1.3 × 10(-8)); mutations...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for...
Published 11/12/2015    Read More...
Telomeres have recently been suggested to play important role in ageing and are considered to be a reliable ageing biomarkers. The life history theory predicts that costs of reproduction should be expressed in terms of accelerated senescence, and some empirical studies do confirm such presumption. Thus, a link between reproductive effort and telomere dynamics should be anticipated. Recent studies have indeed demonstrated that reproduction may trigger telomere loss, but actual impact of...
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
Abnormal telomere attrition has been found to be closely related to patients with SAA in recent years. To identify the incidence of telomere attrition in SAA patients and investigate the relationship of telomere length with clinical parameters, SAA patients (n=27) and healthy controls (n=15) were enrolled in this study. Telomere length of PWBCs was significantly shorter in SAA patients than in controls. Analysis of gene expression of Shelterin complex revealed markedly low levels of POT1...
Published 05/06/2014    Read More...
Aprataxin (APTX) deficiency causes progressive cerebellar degeneration, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia in man. Cell free assays and crystal structure studies demonstrate a role for APTX in resolving 5'-adenylated nucleic acid breaks, however, APTX function in vertebrates remains unclear due to the lack of an appropriate model system. Here, we generated a murine model in which a pathogenic mutant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)) is expressed in an Aptx-/- mouse strain. We report a delayed...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are tandem repeat sequences present at chromosome end that are synthesized by RNA-protein enzyme called telomerase. The RNA component (TR) serves as template for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) for generating telomere repeats. TERT is overexpressed in actively dividing cells including cancerous cells, absent in differentiated somatic cells whereas human telomerase RNA (hTR) is present in normal as well as in cancer cells. Telomerase overexpression in cancer cells ensures...
Published 03/25/2014    Read More...
The predominant X-linked form of Dyskeratosis congenita results from mutations in DKC1, which encodes dyskerin, a protein required for ribosomal RNA modification that is also a component of the telomerase complex. We have previously found that expression of an internal fragment of dyskerin (GSE24.2) rescues telomerase activity in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) patient cells. Here we have found that an increased basal and induced DNA damage response occurred in X-DC cells in comparison...
Published 07/02/2014    Read More...
The core complex of telomere-associated proteins, named the shelterin complex, plays a critical role in telomere protection and telomere length (TL) homeostasis. In this study, we have explored changes in the expression of telomere-associated genes POT1, TIN2, RAP1 and TPP1, in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 154 patients: 70 with MGUS and 84 with MM were studied. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify gene...
Published 11/14/2013    Read More...
Many women now choose to develop their careers before having children. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to assess a woman's potential for extended fertility and to understand the health consequences of having children at a late age. In particular, there is a striking positive correlation between extended fertility and longevity in women, which poses important implications for medicine, biology, and evolution. In this article we review the diverse epidemiologic evidence for the link...
Published 03/18/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive TG-rich DNA elements essential for maintaining the stability of genomes and replicative capacity of cells in almost all eukaryotes. Most of what is known about telomeres in plants comes from the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, which has become an important comparative model for telomere biology. Arabidopsis tolerates numerous insults to its genome, many of which are catastrophic or lethal in other eukaryotic systems such as yeast and vertebrates. Despite the importance...
Published 06/24/2014    Read More...
Asymptomatic relatives of patients with familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP), the inherited form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, carry increased risk for developing interstitial lung disease....
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable...
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is a key component of the telomerase complex. By lengthening telomeres in DNA strands, TERT increases senescent cell lifespan. Mice that lack TERT age much faster and exhibit age-related conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes and neurodegeneration. Accelerated telomere shortening in both human and animal models has been documented in conditions associated with insulin resistance, including T2DM. We investigated the role of TERT, in regulating cellular...
Published 06/23/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the protein component of telomerase and combined with an RNA molecule, telomerase RNA component, forms the telomerase enzyme responsible for telomere elongation. Telomerase is essential for maintaining telomere length from replicative attrition and thus contributes to the preservation of genome integrity. Although diverse mouse models have been developed and studied to prove the physiological roles of telomerase as a telomere- elongating enzyme, recent...
Published 12/16/2013    Read More...
Our genome contains many G-rich sequences, which have the propensity to fold into stable secondary DNA structures called G4 or G-quadruplex structures. These structures have been implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation and telomere maintenance. However, G4 sequences are prone to mutations particularly upon replication stress or in the absence of specific helicases. To investigate how G-quadruplex structures are resolved during DNA replication, we developed a model system using...
Published 09/05/2014    Read More...
The familial myelodysplastic (MDS)/acute leukemia (AL) predisposition syndromes are inherited disorders that lead to significantly increased lifetime risks of MDS and AL development. At present, four recognized syndromes have Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments--certified testing for their respective germ-line mutations: telomere biology disorders due to mutation of TERC or TERT, familial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated CEBPA, familial MDS/AML with mutated GATA2, and familial...
Published 01/27/2014    Read More...
Thyroid cancer, the commonest of endocrine malignancies, continues increasing in incidence being the 5th more prevalent cancer among women in the United States in 2012. Familial thyroid cancer has become a well-recognized, unique, clinical entity in patients with thyroid cancer originating from follicular cells, that is, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. Hereditary nonmedullary thyroid cancer may occur as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes (familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner's...
Published 09/11/2014    Read More...
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibility between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes, and is characterized by the inability to produce viable pollen. The restoration of male fertility generally involves the introgression of nuclear genes, termed restorers of fertility (Rf). CMS has been widely used for hybrid seed production in many crops but not in wheat, partly owing to the complex genetics of fertility restoration. In this study, an acrocentric chromosome that restores pollen...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Chromosome 5p15.33 has been identified as a lung cancer susceptibility locus, however the underlying causal mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Previous fine-mapping studies of this locus have relied on imputation or investigated a small number of known, common variants. This study represents a significant advance over previous research by investigating a large number of novel, rare variants, as well as their underlying mechanisms through telomere length. Variants for this fine-mapping study...
Published 11/20/2015    Read More...
A novel rice mutant, lesion mimic and early senescence 1 (lmes1), was induced from the rice 93-11 cultivar in a γ-ray field. This mutant exhibited spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack at the beginning of the tillering stage. Moreover, at the booting stage, lmes1 mutants exhibited a significantly increased MDA but decreased chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and photosynthetic rate in the leaves, which are indicative of an early senescence phenotype. The...
Published 04/05/2014    Read More...
The telomeric transcriptome comprises multiple long non-coding RNAs generated by transcription of linear chromosome ends. In a screening performed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we identified factors modulating the cellular levels of the telomeric transcriptome. Among these factors, Cay1 is the fission yeast member of the conserved family of Cactins, uncharacterized proteins crucial for cell growth and survival. In cay1∆ mutants, the cellular levels of the telomeric factor Rap1 are drastically...
Published 11/14/2014    Read More...
The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity,...
Published 04/28/2015    Read More...
As a DNA repair protein, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a structure-specific 5' nuclease, plays pivotal roles in the maturation of Okazaki fragments, long-patch base excision repair, restarting of stalled replication forks and telomere maintenance. FEN1 possesses 5' endonuclease, 5' exonuclease and gap-endonuclease activities, which render it an essential node in maintaining genome fidelity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the expression level of FEN1 and gastric...
Published 02/28/2014    Read More...
The essential role of dietary micronutrients for genome stability is well documented, yet the effect of folate deficiency or excess on telomeres is not known. Accordingly, human WIL2-NS cells were maintained in medium containing 30, 300, or 3,000 nmol/L folic acid (FA) for 42 days to test the hypothesis that chronic folate deficiency would cause telomere shortening and dysfunction. After 14 days, telomere length (TL) in FA-deficient (30 nmol/L) cultures was 26% longer than that of 3,000 nmol/L...
Published 11/19/2013    Read More...
'Cellular senescence', a term originally defining the characteristics of cultured cells that exceed their replicative limit, has been broadened to describe durable states of proliferative arrest induced by disparate stress factors. Proposed relationships between cellular senescence, tumour suppression, loss of tissue regenerative capacity and ageing suffer from lack of uniform definition and consistently applied criteria. Here, we highlight caveats in interpreting the importance of suboptimal...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Both telomere length and frailty were observed to be associated with aging. Whether and to what extent telomere length is related to frailty is essentially unknown. In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 3537 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 75 years of a large German cohort study, we assessed the hypothesis that shorter telomere length might be a biological marker for frailty. Using whole blood DNA we examined mean telomere repeat copy to single gene copy number (T/S ratio)...
Published 08/21/2014    Read More...
Up-regulated expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and subsequent maintenance of telomere length are essential in tumour development. Recent studies have implicated somatic gain-of-function mutations at the TERT promoter as one of the mechanisms that promote transcriptional activation of TERT; however, it remains unclear whether this genetic abnormality is prevalent in gynaecological neoplasms. We performed mutational analysis in a total of 525 gynaecological cancers, and...
Published 02/10/2014    Read More...
Authors: Yoshinori Y. Tanino, Hiroki H. Yamaguchi, Atsuro A. Fukuhara, Mitsuru M. Munakata Published: 07/01/2014, The European respiratory journal PubMed Full Text...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in...
Published 03/17/2015    Read More...
The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is responsible for the pandemic of Dutch elm disease that has been ravaging Europe and North America for 50 years. We proceeded to annotate the genome of the O. novo-ulmi strain H327 that was sequenced in 2012. The 31.784-Mb nuclear genome (50.1% GC) is organized into 8 chromosomes containing a total of 8,640 protein-coding genes that we validated with RNA sequencing analysis. Approximately 53% of these genes have their closest match to Grosmannia...
Published 12/24/2014    Read More...
Estrogens and antioxidants indirectly alleviate telomere attrition. However, available clinical data on the association between hormone exposure and telomere length are inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous estrogen use and of some genetic factors implicated in estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress response on mean leukocyte telomere length. We studied 259 postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695),...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
Most of the mammalian genome consists of nucleotide sequences not coding for proteins. Exons of genes make up only 3% of the human genome, while the significance of most other sequences remains unknown. Recent genome studies with high-throughput methods demonstrate that the so-called noncoding part of the genome may perform important functions. This hypothesis is supported by three groups of experimental data: 1) approximately 10% of the sequences, most of which are located in noncoding parts of...
Published 03/09/2015    Read More...
The Ku heterodimer serves in the initial step in repairing DNA double-strand breaks by the non-homologous end-joining pathway. Besides this key function, Ku also plays a role in other cellular processes including telomere maintenance. Inactivation of Ku can lead to DNA repair defects and telomere aberrations. In model organisms where Ku has been studied, inactivation can lead to DNA repair defects and telomere aberrations. In general Ku deficient mutants are viable, but a notable exception to...
Published 02/04/2015    Read More...
The G-quadruplex (G4) elements comprise a class of nucleic acid structures formed by stacking of guanine base quartets in a quadruple helix. This G4 DNA can form within or across single-stranded DNA molecules and is mutually exclusive with duplex B-form DNA. The reversibility and structural diversity of G4s make them highly versatile genetic structures, as demonstrated by their roles in various functions including telomere metabolism, genome maintenance, immunoglobulin gene diversification,...
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
Telomere is protected by its G-quadruplex, T-loop structure, telomerase, and binding protein complex. Protein POT1 (protection of telomeres 1) is one subunit of telomere binding protein complex Shelterin. POT1 acts as a regulator of telomerase-dependent telomere length, and it can help telomere to form D-loop structure to stabilize telomere. POT1 protects telomere ends from ATR-dependent DNA damage response as well....
Published 03/12/2014    Read More...
This review summarizes the results of structural studies carried out with analogs of G-quadruplexes built from natural nucleotides. Several dozens of base-, sugar-, and phosphate derivatives of the biological building blocks have been incorporated into more than 50 potentially quadruplex forming DNA and RNA oligonucleotides and the stability and folding topology of the resultant intramolecular, bimolecular and tetramolecular architectures characterized. The TG4T, TG5T, the 15 nucleotide-long...
Published 03/25/2013    Read More...
One of the most dynamic adult human tissues is the endometrium. Through coordinated, cyclical proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte recruitment, apoptosis, and desquamation, the uterine lining is expanded and shed monthly, unless pregnancy is established. Errors in these steps potentially cause endometrial dysfunction, abnormal uterine bleeding, failed embryonic implantation, infertility, or endometrial carcinoma. Our prior studies showed that gap junctions comprised of Gap junction alpha-1...
Published 05/14/2014    Read More...
During meiosis, telomeres cluster and promote homologous chromosome pairing. Telomere clustering depends on conserved SUN and KASH domain nuclear membrane proteins, which form a complex called the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) and connect telomeres with the cytoskeleton. It has been thought that LINC-mediated cytoskeletal forces induce telomere clustering. However, how cytoskeletal forces induce telomere clustering is not fully understood. Recent study of fission yeast has...
Published 01/11/2014    Read More...
It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory....
Published 12/21/2013    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced...
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Cre/loxP system-mediated site-specific recombination is utilized to study gene function in vivo. Successful conditional knockout of genes of interest is dependent on the availability of Cre-driver mice. We produced and characterized pancreatic β cell-specific Cre-driver mice for use in diabetes mellitus research. The gene encoding Cre was inserted into the second exon of mouse Ins1 in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Five founder mice were produced by microinjection of linearized BAC...
Published 04/28/2014    Read More...
Body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and telomere length are phenotypes that modulate the course of aging. Over 40% of their phenotypic variance is determined by genetics. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently uncovered >100 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) association with these traits....
Published 01/29/2016    Read More...
Mutations in ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked), a chromatin-remodeling protein, are associated with the telomerase-independent ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) pathway of telomere maintenance in several types of cancer, including human gliomas. In telomerase-positive glioma cells, we found by immunofluorescence that ATRX localized not far from the chromosome ends but not exactly at the telomere termini. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are protective heterochromatic structures that cap the end of linear chromosomes and play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Telomere length represents a balance between processes that shorten telomeres during cell divisions with incomplete DNA replication and the ones that lengthen telomeres by the action of telomerase, an RNA-protein complex with reverse transcriptase activity which adds telomeric repeats to DNA molecule ends. Telomerase activity and telomere length have a...
Published 07/20/2015    Read More...
Hispanics are the largest nonwhite ethnic group in the US population, and they have higher incidence and mortality rates for gastric cancer (GC) than whites and Asians. Studies have identified several genetic susceptibility loci and intermediate phenotypic biomarkers for GC in whites and Asians. No studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility and intermediate phenotypic biomarkers in Hispanics....
Published 06/24/2014    Read More...
Telomere length homeostasis is essential for the long-term survival of stem cells, and its set point determines the proliferative capacity of differentiated cell lineages by restricting the reservoir of telomeric repeats. Knockdown and overexpression studies in human tumor cells showed that the shelterin subunit TPP1 recruits telomerase to telomeres through a region termed the TEL patch. However, these studies do not resolve whether the TPP1 TEL patch is the only mechanism for telomerase...
Published 08/15/2014    Read More...
Telomeres represent the repetitive sequences that cap chromosome ends and are essential for their protection. Telomere length is known to be highly heritable and is derived from a homeostatic balance between telomeric lengthening and shortening activities. Specific loci that form the genetic framework underlying telomere length homeostasis, however, are not well understood. To investigate the extent of natural variation of telomere length in Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined 229 worldwide...
Published 12/08/2014    Read More...
Authors: Michael M. Heuser, Carola C. Schlarmann, Vera V. Dobbernack, Victoria V. Panagiota, Lutz L. Wiehlmann, Carolin C. Walter, Fabian F. Beier, Patrick P. Ziegler, Haiyang H. Yun, Sofia S. Kade, Aylin A. Kirchner, Liu L. Huang, Christian C. Koenecke, Matthias M. Eder, Tim H TH. Brümmendorf, Martin M. Dugas,...
Published 06/06/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is associated with a large range of human diseases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that are associated with leucocyte telomere length (LTL). However, these studies are limited to adult populations. Nevertheless, childhood is a crucial period for the determination of LTL, and the assessment of age-specific genetic determinants, although neglected, could be of great importance. Our aim was to provide insights and preliminary results on...
Published 02/01/2015    Read More...
Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between telomere length (TL) and risk for various cancers. These inconsistencies are likely attributable, in part, to biases that arise due to post-diagnostic and post-treatment TL measurement. To avoid such biases, we used a Mendelian randomization approach and estimated associations between nine TL-associated SNPs and risk for five common cancer types (breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancer, including subtypes)...
Published 07/02/2015    Read More...
The variability in the association of host innate immune response to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires ruling out the possible role of host KIR and HLA genotypes in HCV-related disorders: therefore, we therefore explored the relationships between KIR/HLA genotypes and chronic HCV infection (CHC) as they relate to the risk of HCV-related hepatocarcinoma (HCC) or lymphoproliferative disease progression....
Published 02/20/2015    Read More...
Previous studies have shown that telomeric P elements inserted at the left end of the X chromosome are anchors of the P cytotype, the maternally inherited state that regulates P-element activity in the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. This regulation is mediated by small RNAs that associate with the Piwi family of proteins (piRNAs). We extend the analysis of cytotype regulation by studying new combinations of telomeric and nontelomeric P elements (TPs and non-TPs). TPs interact with each...
Published 06/05/2014    Read More...
The progression from normal cells to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) requires the accumulation of multiple inherited or acquired mutations. Activating point mutations in the KRAS oncogene are prevalent in pancreatic cancer and result in the stimulation of several pathways including the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Other genetic alterations, including telomere shortening and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes such...
Published 01/21/2014    Read More...
Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from...
Published 12/29/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are critical in maintaining genomic stability and integrity, and telomerase expression in spermatogonial stem cells is responsible for the maintenance of telomere length in the human male germline. Genetic variants in telomere-associated pathway genes might affect telomere length and chromosomal stability, and subsequently disease susceptibility. Thus, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this pathway could contribute to male infertility risk. In a case-control...
Published 11/20/2013    Read More...
Premature aging disorders, like Werner syndrome, Bloom's syndrome, and Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), have been the subjects of immense interest as they recapitulate many of the phenotypes observed in physiological aging. They, therefore, not only provide model systems to study normal aging processes but also give valuable insights into the intricate mechanisms underlying senescence. Recent works on HGPS have revealed alterations in a spectrum of cellular and molecular pathways...
Published 07/06/2014    Read More...
Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a...
Published 01/05/2015    Read More...
Psychiatric diseases are associated with an increased rate of somatic age-related illness. A new study sheds light on putative mediating cellular mechanisms by linking increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and decreased telomere length to childhood stress and major depression....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Authors: Peter M PM. Nilsson Published: 10/21/2014, Nature reviews. Endocrinology PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/21/2014    Read More...
Human syndromes and mouse mutants that exhibit accelerated but bona fide aging in multiple organs and tissues have been invaluable for the identification of nine denominators of aging: telomere attrition, genome instability, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulated nutrient sensing, altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence and adult stem cell exhaustion. However, whether and how these instigators of aging interrelate or whether they...
Published 10/28/2015    Read More...
Authors: Kirsty K. Minton Published: 03/11/2015, Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/11/2015    Read More...
The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length is believed to measure cellular aging in humans, and short leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risks of late onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. Many studies have shown that leukocyte telomere length is a heritable trait, and several candidate genes have been identified, including TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and CTC1. Unlike most studies that have focused on genetic causes of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes in...
Published 01/17/2014    Read More...
Age-related physiological, biochemical and functional changes in mammalian skeletal muscle have been shown to begin at the mid-point of the lifespan. However, the underlying changes in DNA methylation that occur during this turning point of the muscle aging process have not been clarified. To explore age-related genomic methylation changes in skeletal muscle, we employed young (0.5 years old) and middle-aged (7 years old) pigs as models to survey genome-wide DNA methylation in the longissimus...
Published 08/05/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that protect them from degradation, end-to-end fusions, and fragility. In mammals, telomeres are composed of TTAGGG tandem repeats bound by a protein complex called shelterin, which has fundamental roles in the regulation of telomere protection and length. The telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TERF1 or TRF1) is one of the components of shelterin and has been shown to be essential for telomere protection. Telomeric...
Published 01/01/2015    Read More...
Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains...
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is a heritable trait, and short telomere length has been associated with multiple chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship of relative leukocyte telomere length with cardiometabolic risk and performed the first genome-wide association study and meta-analysis to identify variants influencing relative telomere length in a population of Sikhs from South Asia....
Published 05/03/2014    Read More...
Genome-wide participation and importance of the histone chaperone Asf1 (Anti-Silencing Function 1) in diverse DNA transactions like replication, repair, heterochromatic silencing and transcription are well documented. Yet its genome-wide targets have not been reported. Using ChIP-seq method, we found that yeast Asf1 associates with 590 unique targets including centromeres, telomeres and condensin-binding sites. It is found selectively on highly transcribed regions, which include replication fork...
Published 09/29/2014    Read More...
Thirteen common susceptibility loci have been reproducibly associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We report the results of an international 2-stage meta-analysis of CMM genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This meta-analysis combines 11 GWAS (5 previously unpublished) and a further three stage 2 data sets, totaling 15,990 CMM cases and 26,409 controls. Five loci not previously associated with CMM risk reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)), as did 2 previously...
Published 08/03/2015    Read More...
FEN1 has key roles in Okazaki fragment maturation during replication, long patch base excision repair, rescue of stalled replication forks, maintenance of telomere stability and apoptosis. FEN1 may be dysregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and have clinicopathological significance in patients. We comprehensively investigated FEN1 mRNA expression in multiple cohorts of breast cancer [training set (128), test set (249), external validation (1952)]. FEN1 protein expression was evaluated in 568...
Published 05/13/2014    Read More...
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in...
Published 10/29/2014    Read More...
Antigenic or phenotypic variation is a widespread phenomenon of expression of variable surface protein coats on eukaryotic microbes. To clarify the mechanism behind mutually exclusive gene expression, we characterized the genetic properties of the surface antigen multigene family in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia and the epigenetic factors controlling expression and silencing. Genome analysis indicated that the multigene family consists of intrachromosomal and subtelomeric genes; both...
Published 11/11/2014    Read More...
G-quadruplex is a stable, four-stranded DNA or RNA structure formed from guanine-rich regions and implicated in telomere maintenance, replication, gene regulation at transcription level or translation level, etc. Based on bioinformatics methods, we analyzed different putative G-quadruplex motifs (PGQMs) patterns in various genomic regions of two subspecies (indica and japonica) of Oryza sativa and the whole genomes of other 8 species. In total, in the 10 species we discussed, the PGQMs densities...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is considered to be a risk factor in adults due to its proved association with cancer incidence and mortality. Since newborn present a wide interindividual variation in mean telomere length, it is relevant to demonstrate if these differences in length can act also as an early risk indicator. To answer this question, we have measured the mean telomere length of 74 samples of cord blood from newborns and studied its association with the basal genetic damage, measured as the...
Published 03/12/2014    Read More...
Authors: Sarah S. Seton-Rogers Published: 03/19/2015, Nature reviews. Cancer PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/19/2015    Read More...
The integration and fixation preferences of DNA transposons, one of the major classes of eukaryotic transposable elements, have never been evaluated comprehensively on a genome-wide scale. Here, we present a detailed study of the distribution of DNA transposons in the human and bat genomes. We studied three groups of DNA transposons that integrated at different evolutionary times: 1) ancient (>40 My) and currently inactive human elements, 2) younger (<40 My) bat elements, and 3) ex vivo...
Published 04/22/2014    Read More...
A strain of the porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV), which causes inclusion body rhinitis in newborn piglets, has been characterized with respect to its complete genome sequence. The virus genome is 128,367bp, containing 79 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Of these ORFs, 69 have counterparts in human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), 6B (HHV-6B) and 7 (HHV-7), and two ORFs are homologous to other members in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Eight ORFs have no homologs in herpesvirus. Homologs had higher...
Published 06/04/2014    Read More...
A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we...
Published 11/10/2014    Read More...
Germline CDKN2A mutations occur in 40 % of 3-or-more case melanoma families while mutations of CDK4, BAP1, and genes involved in telomere function (ACD, TERF2IP, POT1), have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. Mutation of the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (c.-57 T>G variant) has been reported in one family. We tested for the TERT promoter variant in 675 multicase families wild-type for the known high penetrance familial melanoma genes, 1863 UK...
Published 01/04/2016    Read More...
Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate...
Published 12/07/2014    Read More...
Authors: Lorna L. Stewart Published: 10/16/2014, Nature PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/16/2014    Read More...
Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute...
Published 06/30/2014    Read More...
Authors: Published: 06/26/2014, Cancer discovery PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/26/2014    Read More...
Adipose tissues play important role in the pathophysiology of obesity-related diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D). To describe gene expression patterns and functional pathways in obesity-related T2D, we performed global transcript profiling of omental adipose tissue (OAT) in morbidly obese individuals with or without T2D....
Published 10/27/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is a specialized nucleoprotein enzyme complex that maintains the telomere length. The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytically active component of the telomerase complex. In humans, the protein component (hTERT) and RNA component (hTR) are found to differentially express in cancer cells. In contrast to differentiated cells, most of the cancer cells overexpress hTERT, which is needed to maintain the proliferative potential of cells. The overexpression of telomerase...
Published 06/11/2014    Read More...
DNA damage and telomere dysfunction shorten organismal lifespan. Here we show that oral glucose administration at advanced age increases health and lifespan of telomere dysfunctional mice. The study reveals that energy consumption increases in telomere dysfunctional cells resulting in enhanced glucose metabolism both in glycolysis and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle at organismal level. In ageing telomere dysfunctional mice, normal diet provides insufficient amounts of glucose thus leading to...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
Genomic instability and reduced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity have been identified as potential risk factors for malignant complications in celiac disease (CD). In this study, we assessed the possible influence of GST polymorphisms on genome instability phenotypes in a genetically characterised group of celiac patients from previous studies....
Published 02/22/2014    Read More...
Fine structural details of glycans attached to the conserved N-glycosylation site significantly not only affect function of individual immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules but also mediate inflammation at the systemic level. By analyzing IgG glycosylation in 5,117 individuals from four European populations, we have revealed very complex patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation with age. Several IgG glycans (including FA2B, FA2G2, and FA2BG2) changed considerably with age and the combination of these...
Published 12/10/2013    Read More...
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and...
Published 03/16/2015    Read More...
A large body of evidence supports a key role for telomere dysfunction in carcinogenesis due to the induction of chromosomal instability. To study telomere shortening in precancerous pancreatic lesions, we measured telomere lengths using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), and cancers. The materials employed included surgically resected pancreatic specimens without cancer (n = 33) and with...
Published 02/06/2015    Read More...
Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth....
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
Clonospheres formed due to modified culture conditions are often studied for their stem cell like behaviour. The main objective of the current study is to compare the stem cell markers and link it to hTERT levels by monitoring their quantitative gene expression as they are potential targets for new generation combination therapeutics....
Published 05/06/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs). At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1 and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase...
Published 12/11/2014    Read More...
Covalently closed hairpin ends, also known as hairpin telomeres, provide an unusual solution to the end replication problem. The hairpin telomeres are generated from replication intermediates by a process known as telomere resolution. This is a DNA breakage and reunion reaction promoted by hairpin telomere resolvases (also referred to as protelomerases) found in a limited number of phage and bacteria. The reaction promoted by these enzymes is a chemically isoenergetic two-step...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Although BRCA1 function is essential for maintaining genomic integrity in all cell types, it is unclear why increased risk of cancer in individuals harbouring deleterious mutations in BRCA1 is restricted to only a select few tissues. Here we show that human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) from BRCA1-mutation carriers (BRCA1(mut/+)) exhibit increased genomic instability and rapid telomere erosion in the absence of tumour-suppressor loss. Furthermore, we uncover a novel form of...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is a well-studied shelterin complex subunit that plays a major role in the protection of chomosome ends and the prevention of the telomere-associated DNA damage response. We show that heat shock induces the dissociation of TRF2 from telomeres in human primary and cancer cell cultures. TRF2 is not simply degraded in response to heat shock, but redistributed thoughout the nucleoplasm. This TRF2 depletion/redistribution does not initiate the DNA damage...
Published 02/06/2014    Read More...
The epigenetic writer Sir2 maintains the heterochromatin state of chromosome in three chromosomal regions, namely, the silent mating type loci, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism by which Sir2 is regulated under heat stress. Our study reveals that a transient heat shock causes a drastic reduction in the SIR2 transcript which results in sustained failure to initiate silencing for as long as 90 generations. Hsp82 overexpression, which is the usual...
Published 11/10/2014    Read More...
The shelterin complex plays dual functions in telomere homeostasis by recruiting telomerase and preventing the activation of a DNA damage response at telomeric ends. Somatic stem cells require telomerase activity, as evidenced by progressive stem cell loss leading to bone marrow failure in hereditary dyskeratosis congenita. Recent work demonstrates that dyskeratosis congenita can also arise from mutations in specific shelterin genes, although little is known about shelterin functions in somatic...
Published 12/09/2013    Read More...
Telomere syndromes have their most common manifestation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The short telomere defect in these patients may manifest systemically as bone marrow failure and liver disease. We sought to understand the causes of dyspnea in telomerase and telomere gene mutation carriers who have no parenchymal lung disease....
Published 10/06/2015    Read More...
Chromosomal telomere length shortens with repeated cell divisions. Human leukocyte DNA telomere length (LTL) has been shown to shorten during aging. LTL shortening has correlated with decreased longevity, dementia, and other age-associated processes. Because LTL varies widely between individuals in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have...
Published 06/18/2015    Read More...
Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110δ catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110δ-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three...
Published 12/08/2014    Read More...
The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of...
Published 01/18/2016    Read More...
to investigate p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF) tumor suppressor gene methylation status, determine telomere length and assess the importance of these epigenetic and genetic parameters in the development of pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid salivary glands....
Published 08/22/2015    Read More...
Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines three grades, predictive of the risk of recurrence. These tumors can relapse frequently and sometimes undergo malignant transformation. Maintenance of telomere length is a key process in malignant progression, and mutations in TERT promoter have recently been identified in various types of cancer. We sequenced the TERT promoter in 85 meningiomas from 73 patients. We found a high incidence of TERT...
Published 12/23/2013    Read More...
Cells challenged with DNA damage activate checkpoints to arrest the cell cycle and allow time for repair. Successful repair coupled to subsequent checkpoint inactivation is referred to as recovery. When DNA damage cannot be repaired, a choice between permanent arrest and cycling in the presence of damage (checkpoint adaptation) must be made. While permanent arrest jeopardizes future lineages, continued proliferation is associated with the risk of genome instability. We demonstrate that...
Published 09/26/2014    Read More...
Telomerase inactivation causes loss of the male germline in worms, fish, and mice, indicating a conserved dependence on telomere maintenance in this cell lineage. Here, using telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) reporter mice, we found that very high telomerase expression is a hallmark of undifferentiated spermatogonia, the mitotic population where germline stem cells reside. We exploited these high telomerase levels as a basis for purifying undifferentiated spermatogonia using...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality....
Published 06/06/2014    Read More...
To investigate frequent quantitative alterations of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma....
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
Telomere maintenance is crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The results of a previous study from the authors indicated that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types 16, 18, and 58 was a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the Shantou region of China. In the current study, the authors explored the association between HR-HPV infection, telomere length (TL), and DNA methylation and their significance in the prognosis of patients with ESCC....
Published 05/19/2014    Read More...
Authors: Carrie C. Printz Published: 03/07/2014, Cancer PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/07/2014    Read More...
A telomere-triggered isothermal exponential amplification-based DNAzyme biosensor is developed for highly sensitive detection of telomerase in cancer cells even at the single-cell level. This biosensor can be further applied for the screening of telomerase inhibitors for anticancer drug development....
Published 01/09/2014    Read More...
Plant cells contain a diverse repertoire of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that coordinate a network of post-transcriptional regulation. RBPs govern diverse developmental processes by modulating the gene expression of specific transcripts. Recent gene annotation and RNA sequencing clearly showed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like proteins which form a family of RBPs, are also expressed in higher plants and serve specific plant functions. In addition to their involvement in...
Published 07/28/2014    Read More...
Species with holocentric chromosomes are often characterized by a rapid karyotype evolution. In contrast to species with monocentric chromosomes where acentric fragments are lost during cell division, breakage of holocentric chromosomes creates fragments with normal centromere activity. To decipher the mechanism that allows holocentric species an accelerated karyotype evolution via chromosome breakage, we analyzed the chromosome complements of irradiated Luzula elegans plants. The resulting...
Published 06/11/2015    Read More...
Homocysteine can accelerate the senescence of endothelial progenitor cells or endothelial cells (ECs) via telomerase inactivation and length shortening. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated whether homocysteine promotes endothelial senescence by reducing the expression and activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by DNA methylation to reduce ECs telomerase activity....
Published 10/30/2014    Read More...
Animals and plants have biological clocks that help to regulate circadian cycles, seasonal rhythms, growth, development and sexual maturity. If aging is not a stochastic process of attrition but is centrally orchestrated, it is reasonable to suspect that the timing of senescence is also influenced by one or more biological clocks. Evolutionary reasoning first articulated by G. Williams suggests that multiple, redundant clocks might influence organismal aging. Some aging clocks that have been...
Published 10/14/2014    Read More...
Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss...
Published 11/29/2014    Read More...
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome is a dyskeratosis congenita-related telomere biology disorder that presents in infancy with intrauterine growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cerebellar hypoplasia in addition to the triad of nail dysplasia, skin pigmentation, and oral leukoplakia. Individuals with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome often develop bone marrow failure in early childhood. Germline mutations in DKC1, TERT, TINF2, RTEL1, ACD, or PARN cause about 60% of individuals with...
Published 12/19/2015    Read More...
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome is a rare telomere biology disorder that is recognized as a severe variant of dyskeratosis congenita. We present a Libyan boy with hematologic and neurologic abnormalities with typical dermatologic manifestations of dyskeratosis congenita. Death usually occurs before the age of 4 years as a result of pancytopenia or malignant transformation of mucocutaneous lesions. The boy presented survived longer than 5 years. Early recognition and appropriate genetic counseling...
Published 10/08/2015    Read More...
Germline mutations in telomere biology genes cause dyskeratosis congenita (DC), an inherited bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome. DC is a clinically heterogeneous disorder diagnosed by the triad of dysplastic nails, abnormal skin pigmentation, and oral leukoplakia; Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HH), a clinically severe variant of DC, also includes cerebellar hypoplasia, immunodeficiency, and intrauterine growth retardation. Approximately 70% of DC cases are associated with a...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome is a severe multisystem disorder that is characterized by bone-marrow failure, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, immunodeficiency, and cerebellar atrophy. This rare disease shares clinical features with dyskeratosis congenita and, together, they are recognized as a group of disorders caused by telomere dysfunction. As the genetic background of dyskeratosis congenita or Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome has expanded rapidly, multiple causative genes and...
Published 06/07/2014    Read More...
Human RecQ4 (hRecQ4) affects cancer and aging but is difficult to study because it is a fusion between a helicase and an essential replication factor. Budding yeast Hrq1 is homologous to the disease-linked helicase domain of RecQ4 and, like hRecQ4, is a robust 3'-5' helicase. Additionally, Hrq1 has the unusual property of forming heptameric rings. Cells lacking Hrq1 exhibited two DNA damage phenotypes: hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and telomere addition to DNA breaks....
Published 01/16/2014    Read More...
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) is a telomere-associated complex that functions in telomere duplex replication and fill-in synthesis of the telomeric C-strand following telomerase action. CST also facilitates genome-wide replication recovery after HU-induced fork stalling by increasing origin firing. CTC1 and STN1 were originally isolated as a DNA polymerase α stimulatory factor. Here we explore how CST abundance affects recovery from drugs that cause different types of DNA damage and...
Published 01/09/2015    Read More...
The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI...
Published 06/23/2014    Read More...
Authors: Vera V. Gorbunova, Jef D JD. Boeke, Stephen L SL. Helfand, John M JM. Sedivy Published: 12/05/2014, Science (New York, N.Y.) PubMed Full Text...
Published 12/05/2014    Read More...
More than two decades of genetic research have identified and assigned main biological functions of shelterin proteins that safeguard telomeres. However, a molecular mechanism of how each protein subunit contributes to the protecting function of the whole shelterin complex remains elusive. Human Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) forms a multifunctional complex with Telomeric Repeat binding Factor 2 (TRF2). Rap1-TRF2 complex is a critical part of shelterin as it suppresses homology-directed...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that...
Published 12/03/2014    Read More...
Human dyskerin is an evolutively conserved protein that participates in diverse nuclear complexes: the H/ACA snoRNPs, that control ribosome biogenesis, RNA pseudouridylation, and stability of H/ACA snoRNAs; the scaRNPs, that control pseudouridylation of snRNAs; and the telomerase active holoenzyme, which safeguards telomere integrity. The biological importance of dyskerin is further outlined by the fact that its deficiency causes the X-linked dyskeratosis congenita disease, while its...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
In humans, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is positively correlated with lifespan, and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of age-related disease. In this study we tested for association between telomere length and methylated cytosine levels. Measurements of mean telomere length and DNA methylation at >450,000 CpG sites were obtained for both blood (N = 24) and EBV-transformed cell-line (N = 36) DNA samples from men aged 44-45 years. We identified 65 gene promoters enriched for CpG...
Published 05/14/2014    Read More...
DNA-damage response and repair are crucial to maintain genetic stability, and are consequently considered central to aging and longevity. Here, we investigate whether this pathway overall associates to longevity, and whether specific sub-processes are more strongly associated with longevity than others. Data were applied on 592 SNPs from 77 genes involved in nine sub-processes: DNA-damage response, base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous...
Published 02/12/2014    Read More...
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is a severe form of Dyskeratosis congenita characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency and has been associated with telomere dysfunction. Recently, mutations in Regulator of Telomere ELongation helicase 1 (RTEL1), a helicase first identified in Mus musculus as being responsible for the maintenance of long telomeres, have been identified in several HHS patients. Here we show that RTEL1 is required for the export and the...
Published 01/27/2015    Read More...
Dyskerin is a pseudouridine (ψ) synthase involved in fundamental cellular processes including uridine modification in rRNA and small nuclear RNA and telomere stabilization. Dyskerin functions are altered in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) and cancer. Dyskerin's role in rRNA pseudouridylation has been suggested to underlie the alterations in mRNA translation described in cells lacking dyskerin function, although relevant direct evidences are currently lacking. Our purpose was to establish...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited...
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
Telomeres consist of long nucleotide repeats and a protein complex at chromosome ends essential for chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and thus are markers of cellular age. Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a cancer-prone inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by germ-line mutations in key telomere biology genes that result in extremely short telomeres. The triad of nail dysplasia, abnormal skin pigmentation, and oral leukoplakia is diagnostic of DC but highly...
Published 07/04/2014    Read More...
Linear chromosomes are stabilized by telomeres, but the presence of short dysfunctional telomeres triggers cellular senescence in human somatic tissues, thus contributing to ageing. Approximately 1% of the population inherits a chromosomally integrated copy of human herpesvirus 6 (CI-HHV-6), but the consequences of integration for the virus and for the telomere with the insertion are unknown. Here we show that the telomere on the distal end of the integrated virus is frequently the shortest...
Published 09/19/2013    Read More...
Many putative G-quadruplex forming sequences have been predicted to exist in the human genome and transcriptome. As these sequences are subject to point mutations or SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) during the course of evolution, we attempt to understand impact of these mutations in context of RNA G-quadruplex formation using human telomeric RNA (TERRA) as a model sequence. Our studies suggest that G-quadruplex stability is sensitive to substitution of the guanines comprising G-quartets....
Published 03/20/2015    Read More...
Break-induced replication (BIR) has been implicated in restoring eroded telomeres and collapsed replication forks via single-ended invasion and extensive DNA synthesis on the recipient chromosome. Unlike other recombination subtypes, DNA synthesis in BIR likely relies heavily on mechanisms enabling efficient fork progression such as chromatin modification. Herein we report that deletion of HST3 and HST4, two redundant de-acetylases of histone H3 Lysine 56 (H3K56), inhibits BIR, sensitizes...
Published 02/23/2015    Read More...
Clinical studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia may cause ageing in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) because ageing-associated alterations were found in peripheral blood cells and their bone marrow residing precursors in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia induces oxidant stress in hematopoietic stems cells that accelerates their ageing....
Published 01/27/2014    Read More...
Meiotic recombination, one of the central biological processes studied in population genetics, comes in two known forms: crossovers and gene conversions. A number of previous studies have shown that when one of these two events is nonexistent in the genealogical model, the point estimation of the corresponding recombination rate by population genetic methods tends to be inflated. Therefore, it has become necessary to obtain statistical evidence from population genetic data about whether one of...
Published 11/30/2014    Read More...
Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, that resemble TERRA in several key aspects. Those transcripts contain UUAGGG-repeats and are heterogeneous in size, fluctuate in abundance in a...
Published 09/03/2014    Read More...
Fine mapping of the Ug99 effective stem rust resistance gene Sr45 introgressed into common wheat from the D -genome goatgrass Aegilops tauschii. Stem rust resistance gene Sr45, discovered in Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the D -genome of wheat, is effective against commercially important Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici races prevalent in Australia, South Africa and the Ug99 race group. A synthetic hexaploid wheat (RL5406) generated by crossing Ae. tauschii accession RL5289 (carrying Sr45...
Published 01/28/2014    Read More...
Coccidiosis is considered to be a major problem for the poultry industry, and coccidiosis control is yet urgent. Due to the roles in telomere length regulation and end protection, telomere-binding proteins have been considered as a good target for drug design. In this work, a putative Gbp1p that is similar to telomeric DNA-binding protein Gbp (G-strand binding protein) of Cryptosporidium parvum, was searched in the database of Eimeria tenella. Sequence analysis indicated E.tenella Gbp1p...
Published 08/13/2014    Read More...
Flammulina velutipes is one of the major edible mushrooms in the world. Recently, abnormalities that have a negative impact on crop production have been reported in this mushroom. These symptoms include slow vegetative growth, a compact mycelial mat, and few or even no fruiting bodies. The morphologies and fruiting capabilities of monokaryons of wild-type and degenerate strains that arose through arthrospore formation were investigated through test crossing. Only one monokaryotic group of the...
Published 09/15/2014    Read More...
Numerous studies have shown sex differences in the onset and severity of hypertension. Despite these sex-differences the majority of animal studies are carried out in males. This study investigated expression changes in both male and female hypertensive mouse kidneys to identify common mechanisms that may be involved in the development of hypertension....
Published 08/30/2014    Read More...
Human chromosomes terminate in telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences bound by the shelterin complex. Shelterin protects chromosome ends, prevents recognition by the DNA damage machinery, and recruits telomerase. A patch of amino acids, termed the TEL-patch, on the OB-fold domain of the shelterin component TPP1 is essential to recruit telomerase to telomeres. In contrast, the site on telomerase that interacts with the TPP1 OB-fold is not well defined. In this study, we identify...
Published 10/01/2014    Read More...
Accumulating evidence suggests that RNAs interacting with genomic regions play important roles in the regulation of genome functions, including X chromosome inactivation and gene expression. However, to our knowledge, no non-biased methods of identifying RNAs that interact with a specific genomic region have been reported. Here, we used enChIP-RNA-Seq, a combination of engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), to perform a...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
The pentacyclic acridinium salt RHPS4 (3,11-difluoro-6,8,13-trimethyl-8H-quino [4,3,2-kl] acridinium methosulfate, compound 1) is one of the most interesting DNA G-quadruplex binding molecules due to its high efficacy in tumor cell growth inhibition both in in vitro models and in vivo against human tumor xenografts in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics. Despite compound 1 having desirable chemical and pharmaceutical properties, its potential as a therapeutic agent is compromised by...
Published 10/06/2014    Read More...
A chemoproteomic-driven approach was used to investigate the interaction network between human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA and nuclear proteins. We identified novel G-quadruplex binding partners, able to recognize these DNA structures at chromosome ends, suggesting a possible, and so far unknown, role of these proteins in telomere functions....
Published 02/03/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that maintains the ends of linear chromosomes in most eukaryotes. Loss of telomerase activity results in shortening of telomeric DNA and eventually a specific G2/M cell-cycle arrest known as senescence. In humans, telomere shortening occurs during aging, while inappropriate activation of telomerase is associated with approximately 90% of cancers. Previous studies have identified several classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) also associated with aging-related...
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
Translin is a single-stranded DNA and RNA binding protein that has a high affinity for G-rich sequences. TRAX is a Translin paralog that associates with Translin. Both Translin and TRAX were highly conserved in eukaryotes. The nucleic acid binding form of Translin is a barrel-shaped homo-octamer. A Translin-TRAX hetero-octamer having a similar structure also binds nucleic acids. Previous reports suggested that Translin may be involved in chromosomal translocations, telomere metabolism and the...
Published 12/29/2013    Read More...
Aplastic anemia (AA) is a disease characterized by pancytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrow caused by the decrease of hematopoietic stem cells. The pathogenesis of AA is complex and involves an abnormal hematopoietic microenvironment, hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor cell deficiencies and immunity disorders. Survival in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has markedly improved in the past 4 decades because of advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive and biologic drugs,...
Published 01/12/2014    Read More...
Genome organization into linear chromosomes likely represents an important evolutionary innovation that has permitted the development of the sexual life cycle; this process has consequently advanced nuclear expansion and increased complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Chromosome linearity, however, poses a major challenge to the internal cellular machinery. The need to efficiently recognize and repair DNA double-strand breaks that occur as a consequence of DNA damage presents a constant threat to...
Published 09/17/2013    Read More...
In addition to their applications in genome editing and gene expression regulation, programmable DNA recognition systems, including both CRISPR and TALE, have been recently engineered for the visualization of endogenous genomic elements in living cells. This capability greatly helps the study of genome function regulation by its physical organization and interaction with other nuclear structures. This chapter first discusses the general considerations in designing and implementing the imaging...
Published 11/15/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC....
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
Recently, we observed that telomeres of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were shorter than those of controls or sporadic breast cancer patients, suggesting that mutations in these genes might be responsible for this event. Given the contradictory results reported in the literature, we tested whether other parameters, such as chemotherapy, could be modifying telomere length (TL). We performed a cross-sectional study measuring leukocyte TL of 266 sporadic breasts cancer patients treated with first-line...
Published 12/21/2014    Read More...
Telomere length predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) possibly through an impact of telomere attrition on aortic stiffness. Whether reduced biological aging and a lack of telomere length-aortic stiffness relationships in women contribute to the lower prevalence of CVD in women, prior to menopause, is uncertain....
Published 11/19/2014    Read More...
We sought to investigate whether maternal smoking during pregnancy affects telomere length of the fetus....
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Telomeres, which protect the ends of chromosomes, are shortened in several hematologic malignancies, often with adverse prognostic implications, but their effect on prognosis of classic and variant hairy cell leukemia (HCL and HCLv) has not been reported. HCL/HCLv genomic DNA from 46 patients was studied by PCR to determine the ratio of telomere to single copy gene number (T/S). T/S was unrelated to diagnosis of HCL or HCLv (p=0.27), but shorter T/S was associated with unmutated immunoglobulin...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
It has been shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) display defective proliferative potential. We have probed the impaired replicative capacity of culture-expanded MSCs in MDS patients (n=30) compared with healthy subjects (n=32) by studying senescence characteristics and gene expression associated with WNT/transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) signaling pathways. We have also explored the consequences of the impaired patient...
Published 04/21/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) shortened occurs in colorectal carcinogenetic process. Our objective is to determine if it is only a local fact or there are alterations in normal colon cells and in other body cells....
Published 04/14/2015    Read More...
Authors: David L DL. Keefe Published: 08/06/2014, Fertility and sterility PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/06/2014    Read More...
The family Parodontidae presents a conserved diploid number of 54 chromosomes and different stages associated with ZW sex chromosome differentiation. For the great majority of species in this family it was proposed that the karyotypic diversification is mostly due to repetitive DNA mobility and accumulation. In this study, 2 repetitive probes, (GATA)n and (TTAGGG)n, were used to assess probable mechanisms of chromosome diversification, especially those related to molecular differentiation of the...
Published 02/03/2015    Read More...
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic) microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia), has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
In this issue, Soudet et al. show that the actual mechanistic details of the chromosomal end-replication problem, the principle linking telomere biology with human cellular senescence and cancer, match previous predictions almost to the nucleotide....
Published 03/24/2014    Read More...
Sumoylation, the covalent attachment of SUMO, a 90 amino acid peptide related to ubiquitin, is a major modulator of protein functions. Fluorescent SUMO protein fusions have been used in cell cultures to visualize SUMO in vivo but not in multicellular organisms. We generated a transgenic line of Drosophila expressing an mCherry-SUMO fusion. We analyzed its pattern in vivo in salivary gland nuclei expressing Venus-HP1 to recognize the different chromatin components (Chromocenter, chromosome IV)....
Published 12/08/2014    Read More...
Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is a downstream effector of the DNA damage response (DDR). Dysfunctional telomeres, either owing to critical shortening or disruption of the shelterin complex, activate a DDR, which eventually results in cell cycle arrest, senescence and/or apoptosis. Successive generations of telomerase-deficient (Terc) mice show accelerated aging and shorter lifespan due to tissue atrophy and impaired organ regeneration associated to progressive telomere shortening. In contrast, mice...
Published 06/12/2014    Read More...
Maintenance of telomere length and structure is essential for cell survival. Telomere synthesis is mediated by the ribonucleoprotein telomerase in 90% of cancer cells, and is regulated mainly by transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT. However, transcriptome analysis reveals complex splicing patterns and to date, twenty-two alternatively-spliced hTERT mRNAs have been reported, yet their functions have not been fully elucidated. The best characterized hTERT...
Published 01/09/2014    Read More...
Authors: Dan T A DT. Eisenberg Published: 09/11/2013, European journal of human genetics : EJHG PubMed Full Text...
Published 09/11/2013    Read More...
Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) A team of researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), headed by CNIO Director Mar-a Blasco, has demonstrated in a pioneering study on mammals that longevity is defined at a molecular level by the length of telomeres. The work-which is published...
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Obesity is associated with short telomere length. The cause of this association is unknown....
Published 04/24/2014    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction is important in carcinogenesis, and recently, stathmin and elongation factor 1α (EF1α) were reported to be up-regulated in telomere dysfunctional mice....
Published 05/31/2014    Read More...
The molecular basis to overcome therapeutic resistance to treat glioblastoma remains unclear. The anti-apoptotic b cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene is associated with treatment resistance, and is transactivated by the paired box transcription factor 8 (PAX8). In earlier studies, we demonstrated that increased PAX8 expression in glioma cell lines was associated with the expression of telomerase. In this current study, we more extensively explored a role for PAX8 in gliomagenesis....
Published 03/06/2014    Read More...
Development and validation of robust molecular biomarkers has so far been limited in melanoma research. In this paper we used a large population-based cohort to replicate two published gene signatures for melanoma classification. We assessed the signatures prognostic value and explored their biological significance by correlating them with factors known to be associated with survival (vitamin D) or etiological routes (nevi, sun sensitivity and telomere length). Genomewide microarray gene...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
Telomere length was sequentially determined in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS; n = 44) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n = 42) followed through 2.93 ± 0.99 years, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The initial telomere size from PsA patients was higher than those with cutaneous psoriasis only (n = 53), possibly due to the inflammatory condition. The qPCR assay was sensitive enough to evidence a significant telomere length shortening in PBL from...
Published 04/24/2014    Read More...
Human telomeric regions are packaged as constitutive heterochromatin, characterized by extensive subtelomeric DNA methylation and specific histone modifications. ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) type I patients carry mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) that methylates de novo repetitive sequences during early embryonic development. ICF type I patient fibroblasts display hypomethylated subtelomeres, abnormally short telomeres and premature senescence....
Published 02/18/2014    Read More...
The relationships between telomerase and telomeres represent attractive targets for new anticancer agents. Here, we report that the nucleoside analogue 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG) is recognized by telomerase and is incorporated into de novo-synthesized telomeres. This results in modified telomeres, leading to telomere dysfunction, but only in cells expressing telomerase. 6-Thio-dG, but not 6-thioguanine, induced telomere dysfunction in telomerase-positive human cancer cells and...
Published 12/16/2014    Read More...
Telomere attrition has been associated with age-related diseases, although causality is unclear and controversial; low-grade systemic inflammation (inflammaging) has also been implicated in age-related pathogenesis. Unpicking the relationship between aging, telomere length (TL), and inflammaging is hence essential to the understanding of aging and management of age-related diseases. This longitudinal study explored whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of aging and whether...
Published 05/25/2014    Read More...
Previous evidences support that increased oxidative stress (OxS) may play an important role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and both are closely linked to vascular dysfunction. This study determined whether there is a relationship between endothelial function and relative telomere length (RTL) in MetS subjects. In this cross-sectional study from the LIPGENE cohort, a total of 88 subjects (36 men and 52 women) were divided into four groups by quartiles of telomere length. We measured ischemic...
Published 07/11/2014    Read More...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is necessary for overcoming telomere shortening in human germ and stem cells. Mutations in telomerase or other telomere-maintenance proteins can lead to diseases characterized by depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow failure (BMF). Telomerase localization to telomeres requires an interaction with a region on the surface of the telomere-binding protein TPP1 known as the TEL patch. Here, we identify a family with aplastic anemia and...
Published 09/09/2014    Read More...
Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical...
Published 06/15/2015    Read More...
Germline testing for familial predisposition to myeloid malignancies is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple familial syndromes. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved testing exists for the following: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia, caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with mutated GATA2; familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA; and the inherited bone...
Published 08/12/2014    Read More...
Tankyrases (TNKS) play roles in Wnt signaling, telomere homeostasis, and mitosis, offering attractive targets for anticancer treatment. Using unbiased combination screening in a large panel of cancer cell lines, we have identified a strong synergy between TNKS and MEK inhibitors (MEKi) in KRAS-mutant cancer cells. Our study uncovers a novel function of TNKS in the relief of a feedback loop induced by MEK inhibition on FGFR2 signaling pathway. Moreover, dual inhibition of TNKS and MEK leads to...
Published 04/18/2014    Read More...
Recently, RAP1 (Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 2, Interacting Protein [TERF2IP]) was discovered as a modulator that selectively regulates nuclear factor light chain kappa enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling. The roles of RAP1 in regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis for corneal recovery following corneal injury remain poorly understood. The effects of RAP1 deletion on corneal resurfacing and neovascularization in a corneal alkali burn mouse model were examined....
Published 01/08/2015    Read More...
DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the major damages that cause genome instability and cellular aging. The homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DSBs plays an essential role in assurance of genome stability and cell longevity. Telomeres resemble DSBs and are competent for HR. Here we show that in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere recombination elicits genome instability and accelerates cellular aging. Inactivation of KEOPS subunit Cgi121 specifically inhibits...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Zygotic repair of the paternal genome is a key event after fertilization. Spermatozoa accumulate DNA strand breaks during spermatogenesis and can suffer additional damage by different factors, including cryopreservation. Fertilization with DNA-damaged spermatozoa (DDS) is considered to promote implantation failures and abortions, but also long-term effects on the progeny that could be related with a defective repair. Base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the most active in zygotic DNA...
Published 11/29/2014    Read More...
Sex chromosomes of extant eutherian species are too ancient to reveal the process that initiated sex-chromosome differentiation. By contrast, the neo-sex chromosomes generated by sex-autosome fusions of recent origin in Tokudaia muenninki are expected to be evolutionarily 'young', and therefore provide a good model in which to elucidate the early phases of eutherian sex chromosome evolution. Here we describe the genomic evolution of T. muenninki in neo-sex chromosome differentiation....
Published 10/29/2015    Read More...
African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei....
Published 05/11/2015    Read More...
The apoptotic actions of p53 require its phosphorylation by a family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related-kinases (PIKKs), which include DNA-PKcs and ATM. These kinases are stabilized by the TTT (Tel2, Tti1, Tti2) cochaperone family, whose actions are mediated by CK2 phosphorylation. The inositol pyrophosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are generated by a family of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), of which IP6K2 has been implicated in p53-associated cell...
Published 03/20/2014    Read More...
Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are aggressive cancers originating in the cortex of the adrenal gland. Despite overall poor prognosis, ACC outcome is heterogeneous. We performed exome sequencing and SNP array analysis of 45 ACCs and identified recurrent alterations in known driver genes (CTNNB1, TP53, CDKN2A, RB1 and MEN1) and in genes not previously reported in ACC (ZNRF3, DAXX, TERT and MED12), which we validated in an independent cohort of 77 ACCs. ZNRF3, encoding a cell surface E3 ubiquitin...
Published 04/20/2014    Read More...
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have characterized 13 loci associated with melanoma, which only account for a small part of melanoma risk. To identify new genes with too small an effect to be detected individually but which collectively influence melanoma risk and/or show interactive effects, we used a two-step analysis strategy including pathway analysis of genome-wide SNP data, in a first step, and epistasis analysis within significant pathways, in a second step. Pathway analysis,...
Published 05/26/2015    Read More...
Molecular profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is enabling the advancement of novel approaches to disease diagnosis and management. Accurate prognosis prediction in HCC is specially critical. Clinical staging systems for HCC support clinical decision-making (e.g., BCLC algorithm) might be complemented by molecular-based information in the near future. Molecular signatures derived from tumour and non-tumour samples are associated with patient recurrence an outcome. Single nucleotide...
Published 08/23/2014    Read More...
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV can interact with telomerase and inhibits telomere shortening, contributing in leukemogenesis and tumour induction. The role of telomerase in BLV-induced lymphosarcoma and aging has been extensively studied. To date, the interaction of both BLV and aging on telomerase mis-regulation have, however, not been investigated. In the present study, telomerase activity in BLV positive and negative cows was compared...
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
The 3' human telomeric overhang provides ample opportunities for the formation and interaction of G-quadruplexes, which have shown impacts on many biological functions including telomerase activities in the telomere region. However, in the few investigations on DNA constructs that approach to the full length of the human telomeric overhang, the presence of higher-order quadruplex-quadruplex interactions is still a subject of debate. Herein, we employed dynamic splint ligation (DSL) to prepare a...
Published 12/15/2014    Read More...
There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated with accumulating cellular damage. We tested the association between the persistence of internalizing disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the prospective...
Published 01/14/2014    Read More...
Many of the mechanisms by which organelles are inherited by spores during meiosis are not well understood. Dramatic chromosome motion and bouquet formation are evolutionarily conserved characteristics of meiotic chromosomes. The budding yeast bouquet genes (NDJ1, MPS3, CSM4) mediate these movements via telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we report that during meiosis the NE is in direct contact with vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole junctions (NVJs). We show that in meiosis NVJs...
Published 12/04/2013    Read More...
A large and diverse set of proteins, including CST complex, nonsense mediated decay (NMD), and DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, play important roles at the telomere in mammals and yeast. Here, we report that NMD, like the DDR, affects single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) production at uncapped telomeres. Remarkably, we find that the requirement for Cdc13, one of the components of CST, can be efficiently bypassed when aspects of DDR and NMD pathways are inactivated. However, identical genetic...
Published 05/15/2014    Read More...
Recent research indicates that hundreds of thousands of G-rich sequences within the human genome have the potential to form secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. Telomeric regions, consisting of long arrays of TTAGGG/AATCCC repeats, are among the most likely areas in which these structures might form. Since G-quadruplexes assemble from certain G-rich single-stranded sequences, they might arise when duplex DNA is unwound such as during replication. Coincidentally, these bulky structures...
Published 01/14/2014    Read More...
Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining...
Published 11/13/2013    Read More...
Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can jointly regulate transcriptional networks in the form of recurrent circuits or motifs. A motif can be divided into a feedforward loop (FFL) and a feedback loop (FBL). Incoherent FFLs have been the recent focus due to their potential to dampen gene expression noise in maintaining physiological norms. However, a cell is not only able to manage noise but also able to exploit it during development or tumorigenesis to initiate radical...
Published 10/29/2014    Read More...
Telomerase, a unique ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the telomerase RNA component (TERC) and the TERC-binding protein dyskerin, is required for continued cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells. Here we identify SRSF11 as a novel TERC-binding protein that localizes to nuclear speckles, subnuclear structures that are enriched in pre-messenger RNA splicing factors. SRSF11 associates with active telomerase enzyme through an interaction...
Published 08/18/2015    Read More...
Mosaicism for an autosomal structural rearrangement that does not involve ring or marker chromosomes is rare. The mechanisms responsible for genome instability have not always been explained. Several studies have shown that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), involved in some mosaic constitutional anomalies, are potent sources of genomic instability. Here we describe two cases of mosaicism for uncommon constitutional autosomal rearrangements, involving ITSs, identified by karyotyping and...
Published 11/26/2014    Read More...
The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates DNA repair and halts cell cycle. If damage is not resolved, cells can enter into an irreversible state of proliferative arrest called cellular senescence. Organismal ageing in mammals is associated with accumulation of markers of cellular senescence and DDR persistence at telomeres. Since the vast majority of the cells in mammals are non-proliferating, how do they age? Are telomeres involved? Also oncogene activation causes cellular senescence due to...
Published 08/11/2014    Read More...
Authors: Carmen M CM. Martin-Ruiz, Duncan D. Baird, Laureline L. Roger, Petra P. Boukamp, Damir D. Krunic, Richard R. Cawthon, Martin M MM. Dokter, Pim P. Van Der Harst, Sofie S. Bekaert, Tim T. De Meyer, Goran G. Roos, Ulrika U. Svenson, Veryan V. Codd, Nilesh J NJ. Samani, Liane...
Published 09/24/2015    Read More...
Asthma is prospectively associated with age-related chronic diseases and mortality, suggesting the hypothesis that asthma may relate to a general, multisystem phenotype of accelerated aging....
Published 08/16/2014    Read More...
Authors: Hilario H. Nunes, Isabelle I. Monnet, Caroline C. Kannengiesser, Yurdagul Y. Uzunhan, Dominique D. Valeyre, Marianne M. Kambouchner, Jean-Marc JM. Naccache Published: 03/17/2014, American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/17/2014    Read More...
When telomeres become critically short, DNA damage response factors are recruited at chromosome ends, initiating a cellular response to DNA damage. We performed proteomic isolation of chromatin fragments (PICh) in order to define changes in chromatin composition that occur upon onset of acute telomere dysfunction triggered by depletion of the telomere-associated factor TRF2. This unbiased purification of telomere-associated proteins in functional or dysfunctional conditions revealed the dynamic...
Published 05/09/2014    Read More...
Standard treatment for glioblastoma comprises surgical resection, chemotherapy with temozolomide, and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, majority of glioblastoma patients have recurrence from resistance to the cytotoxic conventional therapies. We examined combinational effects of KML001, an arsenic compound targeting telomeres of chromosomes with temozolomide or irradiation, in glioblastoma cell lines and xenograft models, to overcome the therapeutic limitation of chemoradiation therapy for...
Published 09/10/2014    Read More...
Rock lizards of the genus Iberolacerta constitute a promising model to examine the process of sex chromosome evolution, as these closely related taxa exhibit remarkable diversity in the degree of sex chromosome differentiation with no clear phylogenetic segregation, ranging from cryptic to highly heteromorphic ZW chromosomes and even multiple chromosome systems (Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W). To gain a deeper insight into the patterns of karyotype and sex chromosome evolution, we performed a cytogenetic...
Published 11/28/2013    Read More...
Cucumis metuliferus (2n = 24) is a cultivated species of the Cucumis genus which is a potential genetic resource for Cucumis crops. Although some cytogenetic research has been reported, there is no study of karyotyping in this species. Here, we used 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and chromomycin A3 staining to identify 12 pairs of chromosomes in early-metaphase cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the chromosomal distribution patterns of the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes,...
Published 11/15/2014    Read More...
Hypsiboas species have been divided into seven groups using morphological and genetic characters, but for most of the species, there is no cytogenetic information available. A cytogenetic analysis using conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric sequence probes were used to investigate the karyotype of seven Amazon species of the genus Hypsiboas belonging to the following intrageneric groups: H. punctatus (H. cinerascens), H....
Published 04/04/2014    Read More...
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ramamoorthy and Smith report that cancer cells that maintain their chromosome ends through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) display persistent sister telomere cohesion. This delayed resolution of sister telomere cohesion depends upon the loss of ATRX and its histone-sequestering function and is associated with increased recombination between sister telomeres....
Published 09/16/2015    Read More...
Telomerase activation and an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism are two telomere-lengthening cancer cell survival mechanisms elicited by both chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Telomere lengthening interferes with cell lethality and results in the immortalization of cancer cells. To counteract these mechanisms, we developed a drug delivery system (DDS) consisting of a polymeric implant that is inserted directly into tumors. The DDS releases, continuously and gradually, a cationic...
Published 07/30/2014    Read More...
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are highly polymorphic members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which influence the response of natural killer cells and some T-lymphocyte subsets. Analysis of a cohort of previously human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-negative patients, who developed primary HCMV infection following HCMV-positive renal transplant (n=76), revealed an increase in the frequency of KIR genes located on the telomeric region of B haplotypes (Tel B). The presence of Tel B in...
Published 09/25/2014    Read More...
Kinetochores in multicellular eukaryotes are usually associated with heterochromatin. Whether this heterochromatin simply promotes the cohesion necessary for accurate chromosome segregation at cell division or whether it also has a role in kinetochore assembly is unclear. Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important experimental system for investigating centromere function, but all of the previous work with this species has exploited a single strain or its derivatives. The laboratory strain and...
Published 01/21/2014    Read More...
To investigate the effects of TRF2 depletion on radiosensitivity in both the telomerase-positive cell lines (A549) and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) cell lines (U2OS)....
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and Burkitt lymphoma are both germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas. To assess the consequences of permanent latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) expression as observed in tumor cells of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -associated HL, we analyzed 3-dimensional (3D) telomere dynamics and measured the expression of shelterin proteins at the transcriptional and translational level and their topographic distribution in the EBV-negative Burkitt cell line BJAB stably transfected with an...
Published 01/07/2015    Read More...
To investigate the association between genetic variation in telomerase RNA component (TERC) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)....
Published 01/19/2014    Read More...
Torpor is thought to slow age-related processes and to sustain growth and fattening of young individuals. Energy allocation into these processes represents a challenge for juveniles, especially for those born late in the season. We tested the hypothesis that late-born juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) fed ad libitum ('AL', n = 9) or intermittently fasted ('IF', n = 9) use short torpor bouts to enhance growth and fat accumulation to survive winter. IF juveniles displayed more frequent...
Published 11/07/2014    Read More...
Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated...
Published 01/14/2015    Read More...
In the absence of telomerase, telomeres progressively shorten with every round of DNA replication, leading to replicative senescence. In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the shortest telomere triggers the onset of senescence by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and recruiting homologous recombination (HR) factors. Yet, the molecular structures that trigger this checkpoint and the mechanisms of repair have remained elusive. By tracking individual telomeres, we show that telomeres...
Published 01/06/2014    Read More...
Short telomeres have been linked to various age-related diseases. We aimed to assess the association of telomere length with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prospective cohort studies....
Published 11/12/2014    Read More...
Authors: A A. Zietzer, P P. Hillmeister Published: 04/15/2014, Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) PubMed Full Text...
Published 04/15/2014    Read More...
Authors: Emma R ER. Drašar, Jie J. Jiang, Kate K. Gardner, Jo J. Howard, Tom T. Vulliamy, Nisha N. Vasavda, Swee Lay SL. Thein Published: 02/14/2014, British journal of haematology PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/14/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are regions at the ends of chromosomes that maintain chromosomal structural integrity and genomic stability. In studies of mainly older, white populations, shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and increased risks of mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD). On average, African Americans (AfAm) have longer LTL than whites, but the LTL-CHD relationship in AfAm is unknown. We investigated the relationship of LTL with CHD and mortality...
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
Patients with histories of myocardial infarction display shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), but conflicting findings have been reported on the relation between LTL and subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis, as expressed by coronary artery calcium (CAC). The aim of this study was to examine the relation between LTL, measured by Southern blots, and CAC in 3,169 participants in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Participants consisted of 2,556 whites,...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
Incident atherothrombotic disease is predicted by leukocyte telomere length, a marker of biological age, and hemostatic factor levels, indicating a hypercoagulable state. We hypothesized that shorter telomeres are associated with elevated circulating levels of hemostatic factors....
Published 10/13/2014    Read More...
Elevated mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor but the mechanisms underlying the association are poorly understood. High MD and breast cancer risk may reflect cumulative exposures to factors that promote epithelial cell division. One marker of cellular replicative history is telomere length, but its association with MD is unknown. We investigated the relation of telomere length, a marker of cellular replicative history, with MD and biopsy diagnosis....
Published 10/30/2015    Read More...
Depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, possibly as a consequence of accelerated cellular aging. Cellular aging, indexed by telomere length (TL) shortening, has been linked to depression in adults younger than 60 years; however, it remains unclear whether this is the case in late-life depression (age >60 years). The objective of this study was to assess differences in TL between persons with current late-life depression and never-depressed...
Published 06/19/2014    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with coronary artery disease and heart failure. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length is associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)....
Published 04/04/2015    Read More...
Centenarians and their offspring are increasingly considered a useful model to study and characterize the mechanisms underlying healthy aging and longevity. The aim of this project is to compare the prevalence of age-related diseases and telomere length (TL), a marker of biological age and mortality, across five groups of subjects: semisupercentenarians (SSCENT) (105-109years old), centenarians (CENT) (100-104years old), centenarians' offspring (CO), age- and gender-matched offspring of parents...
Published 06/27/2014    Read More...
Human leukocyte telomere length (LTL) decreases with age and shorter LTL has previously been associated with increased prospective mortality. However, it is not clear whether LTL merely marks the health status of an individual by its association with parameters of immune function, for example, or whether telomere shortening also contributes causally to lifespan variation in humans....
Published 01/14/2014    Read More...
A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period....
Published 09/18/2015    Read More...
Mastocytosisis a rare disease associated with chronic symptoms related to mast cell mediator release. Patients with mastocytosis display high level of negative emotionality such as depression and stress sensibility. Brain mast cells are mainly localized in the diencephalon, which is linked to emotion regulatory systems. Negative emotionality has been shown to be associated with telomere shortening. Taken together these observations led us to hypothesize that mast cells activity could be involved...
Published 08/01/2013    Read More...
Schizophrenia has been suggested as a syndrome of accelerated aging. Telomere length (TL) decrease is considered one biological marker associated with age and can be accelerated by pathological characteristics present in schizophrenia. Several studies evaluated TL in schizophrenia, but the results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the existing results of TL in leukocytes of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. A search was...
Published 05/12/2015    Read More...
Several studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a possible predictor for cancer at various organ sites. The hypothesis originally motivating many of these studies was that shorter telomeres would be associated with an increase in cancer risk; the results of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, however, and suggested positive, negative, or null associations. Two studies have addressed the association of LTL in relation to pancreatic cancer risk and the results are...
Published 08/07/2014    Read More...
Telomeres located at the ends of chromosomes are involved in genomic stability and play a key role in various cancers and age-related diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disease, which includes the geographic atrophy (GA) subtype and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype. To better understand how leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is related to AMD, we conducted an association study in 197 AMD patients and 259...
Published 06/04/2015    Read More...
Age-related progressive loss of muscle mass is an increasing problem in our aging society, affecting physical ability, risk of falls, and need for health care. Telomere length has been recognized as a marker of biological age on the population level. The relation between muscle mass in advanced age and telomere length, however, has rarely been examined....
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308...
Published 11/03/2014    Read More...
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that leukocyte telomere length is associated with the developing risk of various malignancies, including glioma. However, its prognostic value in glioma patients has never been investigated....
Published 02/22/2015    Read More...
With the identification of mutations in the conserved telomere maintenance component 1 (CTC1) gene as the cause of Coats plus (CP) disease, it has become evident that leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is a distinct genetic entity....
Published 01/09/2014    Read More...
We present a clinical, neuro-radiological and genetic study on a family with members suffering from an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterised by epilepsy, cerebral calcifications and cysts, bone abnormalities; progressive neuro-cognitive deterioration and paranasal sinusitis. This syndrome shares several features with leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts also called Labrune syndrome and the condition of cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts...
Published 07/18/2014    Read More...