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Differential localisation of PARP-1 N-terminal fragment in PARP-1(+/+) and PARP-1(-/-) murine cells.

Authors: Ida Rachel IR. Rajiah, Jeremy J. Skepper
Published: 07/31/2014, Molecules and cells


Human PARP family consists of 17 members of which PARP-1 is a prominent member and plays a key role in DNA repair pathways. It has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) encompassing the nuclear localisation signal (NLS), central automodification domain and C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP-1 accounts for majority of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymer synthesis that upon binding to numerous proteins including PARP itself modulates their activity. Reduced PARP-1 activity in ageing human samples and its deficiency leading to telomere shortening has been reported. Hence for cell survival, maintenance of genomic integrity and longevity presence of intact PARP-1 in the nucleus is paramount. Although localisation of full-length and truncated PARP-1 in PARP-1 proficient cells is well documented, subcellular distribution of PARP-1 fragments in the absence of endogenous PARP-1 is not known. Here we report the differential localisation of PARP-1 N-terminal fragment encompassing NLS in PARP-1(+/+) and PARP-1(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts by live imaging of cells transiently expressing EGFP tagged fragment. In PARP-1(+/+) cells the fragment localises to the nuclei presenting a granular pattern. Furthermore, it is densely packaged in the midsections of the nucleus. In contrast, the fragment localises exclusively to the cytoplasm in PARP-1(-/-) cells. Flourescence intensity analysis further confirmed this observation indicating that the N-terminal fragment requires endogenous PARP-1 for its nuclear transport. Our study illustrates the trafficking role of PARP-1 independently of its enzymatic activity and highlights the possibility that full-length PARP-1 may play a key role in the nuclear transport of its siblings and other molecules.

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