Telomere Science Library

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about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

If the cap fits, wear it: an overview of telomeric structures over evolution.

Authors: Nick N. Fulcher, Elisa E. Derboven, Sona S. Valuchova, Karel K. Riha
Published: 09/17/2013, Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS


Genome organization into linear chromosomes likely represents an important evolutionary innovation that has permitted the development of the sexual life cycle; this process has consequently advanced nuclear expansion and increased complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Chromosome linearity, however, poses a major challenge to the internal cellular machinery. The need to efficiently recognize and repair DNA double-strand breaks that occur as a consequence of DNA damage presents a constant threat to native chromosome ends known as telomeres. In this review, we present a comparative survey of various solutions to the end protection problem, maintaining an emphasis on DNA structure. This begins with telomeric structures derived from a subset of prokaryotes, mitochondria, and viruses, and will progress into the typical telomere structure exhibited by higher organisms containing TTAGG-like tandem sequences. We next examine non-canonical telomeres from Drosophila melanogaster, which comprise arrays of retrotransposons. Finally, we discuss telomeric structures in evolution and possible switches between canonical and non-canonical solutions to chromosome end protection.

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