Telomere Science Library

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about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

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Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerosis in adults and diminished survival in the elderly. The prevailing view is that LTL is associated with accelerated aging since it serves as a biomarker of the cumulative burden of inflammation and oxidative stress during adult life. However LTL dynamics are mainly defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age-dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined whether...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein...
Published 01/31/2016    Read More...
A major objective of biobehavioral research is defining the mechanisms that underlie linkages among behavior, biology, health, and disease. The genomic revolution has demonstrated the importance of studying the role of the environment in (epi)genetic mechanisms. The idea that interactions between environment and genetics influence health outcomes is a central concept of the exposome, a measure of environmental exposures throughout a lifetime. Research suggests that telomere length (TL) and...
Published 03/04/2014    Read More...
This perspective review focused on the Werner syndrome (WS) by addressing the issue of how a single mutation in a WRN gene encoding WRN DNA helicase induces a wide range of premature aging phenotypes accompanied by an abnormal pattern of tumors. The key event caused by WRN gene mutation is the dysfunction of telomeres. Studies on normal aging have identified a molecular circuit in which the dysfunction of telomeres caused by cellular aging activates the TP53 gene. The resultant p53 suppresses...
Published 12/17/2013    Read More...
Senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to aging as well as age-related diseases of the cardiovascular system. Senescent VSMCs have been shown to be present in atherosclerotic plaques. Both replicative (RS) and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) accompany cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to establish the signature of RS and SIPS of VSMCs, induced by a common anticancer drug, doxorubicin, and to discover the so far undisclosed features of senescent cells that are...
Published 11/16/2013    Read More...
Social control in the health domain refers to attempts by social network members to get an individual to modify their health behaviors. According to the dual effects model of social control, having one's health behavior controlled by others should be related to healthier behavioral change, but might arouse psychological distress as one may resent being controlled. Despite potential healthy behavior change, the stress of social control may thus be detrimental as interpersonal stress has been...
Published 08/11/2014    Read More...
Biomass smoke at higher concentrations is associated with respiratory symptoms and, after years of exposure, increased risk of respiratory disorders in adults, but its effects on cardiovascular diseases are not well characterized, particularly compared with other pollution sources like tobacco smoke or traffic....
Published 09/28/2014    Read More...
The enzyme telomerase, through its influence on telomere length, is associated with health and mortality. Four pioneering randomized control trials, including a total of 190 participants, provided information on the effect of mindfulness meditation on telomerase. A meta-analytic effect size of d=0.46 indicated that mindfulness meditation leads to increased telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest the need for further large-scale trials investigating...
Published 01/07/2014    Read More...
Ku70-dependent canonical nonhomologous end-joining (c-NHEJ) DNA repair system is fundamental to the genome maintenance and B-cell lineage. c-NHEJ is upregulated and error-prone in incurable forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia which also displays telomere dysfunction, multiple chromosomal aberrations and the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We identify in these cells a novel DNA damage inducible form of phospho-Ku70. In vitro in different cancer cell lines, Ku70 phosphorylation...
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major generator of cellular oxidative stress, thought to be an underlying cause of the carcinogenic and ageing process in many tissues including skin. Previous studies of the relative contributions of the respiratory chain (RC) complexes I, II and III towards production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have focussed on rat tissues and certainly not on human skin which is surprising as this tissue is regularly exposed to UVA in sunlight, a potent generator...
Published 08/28/2014    Read More...
The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women's greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender...
Published 10/25/2014    Read More...
The AKT protein is involved in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway and is a vital regulator of survival, proliferation and differentiation in various types of cells. Helicobacter pylori infection induces epithelial cell proliferation and oxidative stress in chronic gastritis. These alterations lead to telomere shortening, resulting in the activation of telomerase. AKT, in particular, is activated by H. pylori-induced inflammation. AKT then promotes the expression of human...
Published 05/25/2015    Read More...
Downstream factors that regulate the decision between senescence and cell death have not been elucidated. Cells undergo senescence through three pathways, replicative senescence (RS), stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) and oncogene-induced senescence. Recent studies suggest that the ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) kinase is not only a key protein mediating cellular responses to DNA damage, but also regulates cellular senescence induced by telomere end exposure (in RS) or persistent...
Published 06/17/2014    Read More...
Amanda K. Damjanovic, Yinhua Yang, Ronald Glaser, Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Huy Nguyen, Bryon Laskowski, Yixiao Zou, David Q. Beversdorf,_and Nan-ping Weng. The Journal of Immunology, 2007, 179: 4249-4254. Caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients endure chronic stress associated with a decline of immune function. To assess the psychological and...
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Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that early vascular dysfunction occurs in low-birth-weight subjects, especially preterm (PT) infants. We recently reported impaired angiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in this condition. We hypothesized that ECFC dysfunction in PT might result from premature senescence and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Compared with ECFCs from term neonates (n = 18), ECFCs isolated from PT (n = 29) display an accelerated...
Published 02/11/2014    Read More...
Elissa S. Epel, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jue Lin, Firdaus S. Dhabhar, Nancy E. Adler, Jason D. Morrow, and Richard M. Cawthon Numerous studies demonstrate links between chronic stress and indices of poor health, including risk factors for cardiovascular disease and poorer immune function. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of...
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β-Thalassemia/HbE disease is caused by a defective β-globin synthesis that leads to accumulation of excess unbound α-globins, and consequently oxidative stress, ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia. Cell replication and oxidative stress are factors contributing to erosion of telomeres responsible for maintaining genomic stability and cell replication capability. In this study, the rate of telomere shortening in β-thalassemia/HbE patients was compared to the rate of telomere...
Published 01/17/2015    Read More...
Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines....
Published 03/29/2014    Read More...
Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the "free radical theory of aging" to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem...
Published 03/28/2014    Read More...
With advancing age the left ventricle (LV) undergoes structural and functional changes, thereby creating the substrate for the development of diseases. One possible mechanism of the ageing heart is a cellular senescence. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of replicative ageing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structure and function of the LV in people of different ages free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and regular drug medication and to assess their relationship with...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered to be a determinant of biological ageing. Normal ageing itself is associated with telomere shortening. Here, critically short telomeres trigger senescence and eventually cell death. This shortening rate may be further increased by inflammation and oxidative stress and thus affect the ageing process. Apart from shortened or dysfunctional telomeres, cells undergoing senescence are...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
The intersection of aging and HIV/AIDS is a looming 'epidemic within an epidemic.' This paper reviews how HIV/AIDS and its therapy cause premature aging or contribute mechanistically to HIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses (HANA). Survival with HIV/AIDS has markedly improved by therapy combinations containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors (PIs) called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). Because...
Published 12/16/2013    Read More...
A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions,...
Published 06/03/2015    Read More...
Aging involves a deterioration of cell functions and changes that may predispose the cell to undergo an oncogenic transformation. The carcinogenic risks following radiation exposure rise with age among adults. Increasing inflammatory response, loss of oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, ongoing telomere attrition, decline in the DNA damage response efficiency, and deleterious nuclear organization are age-related cellular changes that trigger a serious threat to genomic integrity. In this review, we...
Published 02/02/2015    Read More...
Many adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), including spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), are associated with placental dysfunction. Recent clinical and experimental evidences suggest that premature aging of the placenta may be involved in these events. Although placental aging is a well-known concept, the mechanisms of aging during normal pregnancy and premature aging in APOs are still unclear. This review was conducted to assess the knowledge on placental aging related biochemical changes leading to...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Cell senescence contributes to organismal aging and is induced by telomere erosion and an ensuing DNA damage signal as cells reach the end of their replicative lifespan in vitro or in vivo. Stresses induced by oncogene or tumor suppressor hyperactivation, oxidative stress, ionizing radiation and other DNA damaging agents result in forms of stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) that show similarities to replicative senescence. Since replicative senescence and SIPS occur over many days and...
Published 11/10/2015    Read More...
Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex...
Published 06/19/2014    Read More...
Telomere shortening and alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in cellular aging. Childhood adversity is associated with telomere shortening, and several investigations have shown short telomeres in psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have examined whether mitochondria might be involved in neuropsychiatric conditions; findings are limited and no prior work has examined this in relation to stress exposure....
Published 01/15/2015    Read More...
The pathophysiological alterations of vascular endothelial cells induced by heat were studied. Human umbilical venous endothelial cells were cultured for 1 day at three different temperatures (37, 39, and 42 °C). The telomere lengths, the expressions of proteins associated with telomere length maintenance, apoptosis, heat shock, and vascular function were analyzed. The cell growth was not suppressed at 39 °C but suppressed at 42 °C. The mean telomere length did not change, whereas the...
Published 08/22/2014    Read More...
The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) have a conserved role in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin and gene silencing. Using a transgenic mouse model system we demonstrate that elevated expression of Suv39h1 increases global H3K9me3 levels in vivo. More specifically, Suv39h1 overexpression enhances the imposition of H3K9me3 levels at constitutive heterochromatin at telomeric and major satellite repeats in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chromatin...
Published 05/01/2015    Read More...
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an...
Published 11/21/2014    Read More...
8-Oxo-dGTP, an oxidised form of dGTP generated in the nucleotide pool, can be incorporated opposite adenine or cytosine in template DNA, which can in turn induce mutations. In this study, we identified a novel MutT homolog (NDX-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP. In addition, we found that NDX-1, NDX-2 and NDX-4 proteins have 8-oxo-GTPase or 8-oxo-GDPase activity. The sensitivity of ndx-2 knockdown C. elegans worms to methyl viologen and menadione bisulphite...
Published 01/16/2014    Read More...
Although telomere shortening occurs as a natural part of aging, there is now a robust body of research that suggests that there is a relationship between psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors and changes in telomere length. These factors need to be considered when integrating telomere measurement in biobehavioral research studies....
Published 12/16/2013    Read More...
Maintaining the length of the telomere tract at chromosome ends is a complex process vital to normal cell division. Telomere length is controlled through the action of telomerase as well as a cadre of telomere-associated proteins that facilitate replication of the chromosome end and protect it from eliciting a DNA damage response. In vertebrates, multiple poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) have been implicated in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and chromosome end...
Published 02/13/2014    Read More...
Telomeres can be considered a marker of biological aging. Studies have suggested that telomere shortening may be associated with aging related diseases and also psychiatric disorders....
Published 10/06/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres...
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
The use of targeted sequencing and unbiased whole exome sequencing has detected the presence of MDS-related mutations in nearly 20-25% of patients with bonafide AA, with mutations more commonly seen in epigenetic regulators such as DNMT3A, ASXL1 and BCOR. The implications of these mutations and their hierarchical order, especially in the context of predicting evolution to MDS, is still being explored and further data, especially with serial sampling at various time points during the course of...
Published 01/13/2015    Read More...
Anxiety disorders (AnxDs) are highly prevalent throughout the lifespan, with detrimental effects on daily-life functioning, somatic health, and quality of life. An emerging perspective suggested that AnxDs may be associated with accelerated aging. In this paper, we explored the association between AnxDs and hallmarks of accelerated aging, with a specific focus on neuroprogression. We reviewed animal and human findings that suggest an overlap between processes of impaired neurogenesis,...
Published 12/31/2015    Read More...
Njajou OT, Hsueh WC, Blackburn EH, Newman AB, Wu SH, Li R, Simonsick EM, Harris TM, Cummings SR, Cawthon RM; for the Health ABC study Although Telomere Length (TL) is known to play a critical role in cellular senescence, the relationship of TL to aging and longevity in...
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To examine the association between plasma concentrations of antioxidative micronutrients and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in elderly adults....
Published 01/15/2014    Read More...
The pathophysiological consequences of caregiving have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated how caregiving, stress, and caregiver strain were associated with shorter relative telomere length (RTL), a marker of cellular aging. Caregivers (n = 240) and some noncaregivers (n = 98) in the 2008-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, comprising a representative sample of Wisconsin adults aged 21-74 years, reported their sociodemographic, health, and psychological characteristics. RTL was assayed...
Published 04/29/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is a biomarker for aging. It is known that oxidative stress can accelerate telomere shortening, whereas antioxidants can delay their shortening. Carotenoids as antioxidants are favorably associated with health- and aging-related diseases caused by oxidative stress, but their association with telomere length is less certain. We investigated the association between blood carotenoid levels and leukocyte telomere length in a representative sample of US adults....
Published 01/27/2016    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive, gene-poor regions that cap the ends of DNA and help maintain chromosomal integrity. Their shortening is caused by inflammation and oxidative stress within the cellular environment and ultimately leads to cellular senescence. Shortened leukocyte telomere length is hypothesized to be a novel biomarker for age and age-related diseases, yet reports on its association with cardiometabolic outcomes in the literature are conflicting....
Published 11/18/2014    Read More...
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress might be considered the key mechanisms of aging. Insulin resistance (IR) is a phenomenon related to inflammatory and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that IR may be associated with cellular senescence, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and arterial stiffness (core feature of arterial aging), as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)....
Published 08/26/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the...
Published 07/27/2014    Read More...
Several psychiatric disorders may be characterized by peripheral telomere shortening. However, it is unclear whether telomere shortening is associated with these psychiatric disorders per se or, rather, with underlying dimensional parameters that are often, but not necessarily, associated with them. We explored the association between dimensional psychopathological measures and telomere length (TL) in granulocytes among veterans independent of psychiatric diagnosis....
Published 10/28/2015    Read More...
Introduction. Fatigue is often present in older adults with no identified underlying cause. The accruing burden of oxidative stress and inflammation might be underlying factors of fatigue. We therefore hypothesized that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is relatively short in older adults who experience fatigue. Materials and Methods. We assessed 439 older nondisabled Danish twins. LTL was measured using Southern blots of terminal restriction fragments. Fatigue was measured by the Mob-T Scale...
Published 02/16/2014    Read More...
Yoga is a mind-body modulation technique that has been shown to have beneficial effects on various diseases related to various systems in the body. However, the molecular basis of mechanism of action is not clear. Hence, this study was designed to study the leukocyte telomere biology and its relation with homocysteine and oxidative stress in yoga practitioners....
Published 03/01/2015    Read More...
Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were...
Published 04/03/2015    Read More...
Early life stress (ELS) poses a risk for mental disorders and aging-related diseases. Accelerated biological aging, reflected in shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), may underlie these risks. We examined whether objectively recorded ELS and retrospectively self-reported traumatic experiences across the lifespan are associated with LTL in later adulthood. Of 1486 participants, 215 had been exposed to ELS, namely to temporary separation from both parents in childhood. Participants...
Published 02/11/2014    Read More...
Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and...
Published 01/22/2014    Read More...
Stem cells are endowed with the awesome power of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation that allows them to be major contributors to tissue homeostasis. Owing to their longevity and self-renewal capacity, they are also faced with a higher risk of genomic damage compared to differentiated cells. Damage on the genome, if not prevented or repaired properly, will threaten the survival of stem cells and culminate in organ failure, premature aging, or cancer formation. It is therefore of...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Short leukocyte telomere length (TL) and accelerated telomere attrition have been associated with various deleterious health outcomes, although their determinants have not been explored collectively in a large-scale study....
Published 02/12/2016    Read More...
Cataracts in small animals are shown to be at least partially caused by oxidative damage to lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the internal lens; biomarkers of oxidative stress in the lens are considered as general biomarkers for life expectancy in the canine and other animals. Telomeres lengths and expressed telomerase activity in canine LECs may serve as important monitors of oxidative damage in normal LECs with documented higher levels of telomerase activity in cataractous LECs during cells'...
Published 03/31/2014    Read More...
Our understanding of the pathophysiology of aplastic anemia is undergoing significant revision, with implications for diagnosis and treatment. Constitutional and acquired disease is poorly delineated, as lesions in some genetic pathways cause stereotypical childhood syndromes and also act as risk factors for clinical manifestations in adult life. Telomere diseases are a prominent example of this relationship. Accelerated telomere attrition is the result of mutations in telomere repair genes and...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women, but some basic questions remain in breast cancer biology. To answer these, several cell models were developed. Recently, the use of improved cell-culture conditions has enabled the development of a new primary cell model with certain luminal characteristics. This model is relevant because, after the introduction of a specific set of genetic elements, the transformed cells yielded tumors resembling human adenocarcinomas in mice. The use...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Epel ES, Lin J, Wilhelm FH, Wolkowitz OM, Cawthon R, Adler NE, Dolbier C, Mendes WB, Blackburn EH. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006 Apr;31(3):277-87. We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a...
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Cell senescence is one of the major paradigms of aging research. It started with the demonstration by L. Hayflick of the limited number of divisions by normal, nontransformed cells, not shown by transformed malignant cells, this processes being largely regulated by the telomere-telomerase system. A complete renewal of this discipline came from the demonstration that cells can enter senescence at any time by an anti-oncogene-triggered pathway, enabling them to escape malignancy. The senescent...
Published 05/13/2014    Read More...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and aging is a major risk factor for CVD development. One of the major age-related arterial phenotypes thought to be responsible for the development of CVD in older adults is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is modulated by traditional CVD risk factors in young adults, but advancing age is independently associated with the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction...
Published 02/02/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest, caused by insults, such as: telomere erosion, oncogene activation, irradiation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and viral infection. Extrinsic stimuli such as cell culture stress can also trigger this growth arrest. Senescence is thought to have evolved as an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, as it acts as a tumor suppressor mechanism during the reproductive age, but can promote organismal aging by disrupting tissue renewal, repair, and...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is the state of permanent inhibition of cell proliferation. Senescent cells are characterized by several features including increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL) and senescenceassociated secretory phenotype (SASP). In vitro, 2 types of senescence have been described. One is telomere-dependent replicative senescence and the second is stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Despite some tissue-specific characteristics many kinds of cells,...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Since its first description over 50 years ago, cellular senescence has gained increasing attention. The number of research publications on cellular senescence last year alone is more than the number of publications in the decade in 1990s. Laboratories solely studying senescence, scientific conferences and organisations dedicated to field of cellular senescence are also on the rise. These not only indicate the growing interest in this field but also highlight the importance of cellular senescence...
Published 02/18/2015    Read More...
Judith Campis and Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna; Nature Reviews | Molecular Cell Biology Volume 8 | 729 Cells continually experience stress and damage from exogenous and endogenous sources, and their responses range from complete recovery to cell death. Proliferating cells can initiate an additional response by adopting a...
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Virtually all human cancers display chromosome instability (CIN), a condition in which chromosomes are gained or lost at a high rate. CIN occurs early in cancer development where it may undermine the advance of the neoplastic disease. With the aim of establishing the mechanisms underlying CIN in cancer, we investigated possible links between telomere-dysfunction and centrosome defects, which were seen to coincide in early in breast carcinogenesis using human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). In...
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes....
Published 10/25/2014    Read More...
Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited...
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
The telomerase complex and Telosome regulate, maintenance and repair telomeres. The telomerase complex is formed by complex of protein (TERT, Dyskerin, GAR, NHP2, NOP10) and nucleic acid (TERC) that together work as a reverse transcriptase. The Telosoma comprises a network of protein (TRF2, TRF1, TIN2, RAP1, TPP1 and POT1). Furthermore, dyskeratosis congenita (DC) (ORPHA1775) is a rare disease with similar characteristics to premature aging. DC is a genetically heterogeneous disease caused by...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length...
Published 06/08/2015    Read More...
Chromosomal instability is defined as a state of numerical and/or structural chromosomal anomalies in cells. Numerous studies have documented the incidence of chromosomal instability, which acutely or chronically may lead to accelerated ageing (tissue-wide or even organismal), cancer or other genetic disorders. Potential mechanisms leading to the generation of chromosome-genome instability include erroneous/inefficient DNA repair, chromosome segregation defects, spindle assembly defects, DNA...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
Large liver cell changes (LLCC) are characterized by pleomorphic large nuclei frequently found in liver diseases as chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The origin of this lesion remains cryptic, but the presence of LLCC is correlated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) is part of the shelterin complex and is essential for telomere protection. Ablation of TRF1 induces telomere fragility and fusions and chromosomal instability....
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
Tumorigenesis is a complex process of accumulated alteration in function of multiple genes and pathways. Wnt signalling pathway is involved in various differentiation events during embryonic development and is conserved in various species....
Published 01/15/2015    Read More...
Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline...
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk. The black South African population is witnessing a tremendous increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, part of which might be explained through urbanization. We compared telomere length between black South Africans and white South Africans and examined which biological and psychosocial variables played a role in ethnic difference in telomere length....
Published 01/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) has important consequences for early disease and lifelong health. However, few studies have examined determinants of TL at birth....
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
It is well established that ionizing radiation induces chromosomal damage, both following direct radiation exposure and via non-targeted (bystander) effects, activating DNA damage repair pathways, of which the proteins are closely linked to telomeric proteins and telomere maintenance. Long-term propagation of this radiation-induced chromosomal damage during cell proliferation results in chromosomal instability. Many studies have shown the link between radiation exposure and radiation-induced...
Published 01/31/2014    Read More...
Cryopreservation is the only method for long-term storage of viable cells and tissues used for cellular therapy, stem cell transplantation and/or tissue engineering. However, the freeze-thaw process strongly contributes to cell and tissue damage through several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, cell injury from intracellular ice formation and altered physical cellular properties. Our previous proteomics investigation was carried out on Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells (WJSCs) having similar...
Published 05/05/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are genomic structures that reflect both mitotic history and biochemical trauma to the genome. Metals inherent in fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were shown to be genotoxic via oxidative damage. However, few studies investigated the induction time of cumulative PM(2.5) exposure on telomere length in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the association between occupational PM(2.5) exposure in various time windows and telomere length. The study...
Published 03/17/2014    Read More...
Progress in improving animal welfare is currently limited by the lack of objective methods for assessing lifetime experience. I propose that telomere attrition, a cellular biomarker of biological age, provides a molecular measure of cumulative experience that could be used to assess the welfare impact of husbandry regimes and/or experimental procedures on non-human animals. I review evidence from humans that telomere attrition is accelerated by negative experiences in a cumulative and...
Published 12/08/2015    Read More...
The integrity of the nuclear lamina has emerged as an important factor in the maintenance of genome stability. In particular, mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins (lamin A/C), alter nuclear morphology and function, and cause genomic instability. LMNA gene mutations are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases and devastating premature aging syndromes such as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) and Restrictive Dermopathy (RD). HGPS is a severe laminopathy, with...
Published 06/12/2015    Read More...
Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and...
Published 10/31/2013    Read More...
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that is implicated in plethora of biological processes, including metabolism, aging, stress response, and tumorigenesis. Telomerase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. Activation of TERT is considered a crucial step in tumorigenesis, and therefore it is a potential therapeutic target against cancer. We have recently found that SIRT1 expression is highly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the...
Published 01/08/2014    Read More...
Several recent studies have investigated the relationship between telomere length and depression with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis examined whether telomere length and depression are associated and explored factors that might affect this association....
Published 12/02/2015    Read More...
Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative...
Published 09/02/2014    Read More...
Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed postmenopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors, including diet, exercise, and sleep. Here we followed...
Published 07/29/2014    Read More...
Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
In birds, there is evidence that adult cognitive traits can both run in families and be affected by early developmental influences. However, different studies use different cognitive tasks, which may not be measuring the same traits, and also focus on different developmental factors. We report results from a study in which we administered multiple cognitive tasks (autoshaping, discrimination learning, reversal learning, progressive ratio schedule, extinction learning and impulsivity) to a cohort...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Animals in a poor biological state face reduced life expectancy, and as a consequence should make decisions that prioritize immediate survival and reproduction over long-term benefits. We tested the prediction that if, as has been suggested, developmental telomere attrition is a biomarker of state and future life expectancy, then individuals who have undergone greater developmental telomere attrition should display greater choice impulsivity as adults. We measured impulsive decision-making in a...
Published 12/04/2014    Read More...
The cornea protects the anterior eye and accounts for two thirds of the eyes refractive capacity. The homeostasis of corneal epithelium is thought to be maintained by putative stem cells residing in the epithelial basal layer. As a tissue constantly exposed to environmental stress, the cornea is hypothesised to accumulate persistent DNA damage events with time in stem cell populations. Recently, telomere associated DNA damage foci (TAFs) have been suggested as a marker for persistent DNA damage...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be potential underlying mechanisms for telomere attrition. A lack of specific antioxidants is believed to increase free radical damage and a greater risk for telomere shortening. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between diet and leukocyte telomere length in a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents. We hypothesized that dietary total antioxidant capacity would be positively associated with telomere length....
Published 08/04/2014    Read More...
Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), suppressing oxidative stress, and...
Published 08/06/2015    Read More...
We have investigated the effects of hyperthermia (HT) on cell proliferation and telomerase activity of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compared with human leukemic cell lines (TF-1, K562 and HL-60). The cells were exposed to HT at 42 and 43 °C up to 120 min. The cells were incubated at 37 °C for 96 h. Then the cells were collected and assayed for cell proliferation, viability, telomerase activity, and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths. The enzyme activity from HSCs was...
Published 06/14/2014    Read More...
In viral hepatitis, inflammation is correlated with chronic oxidative stress, one of the biological events leading to DNA damage and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Aim of this study was to investigate the complex molecular network linking oxidative damage to telomere length and telomerase activity and regulation in hepatitis C and B virus-related liver carcinogenesis. We investigated 142 patients: 21 with HCC (in both tumor and peritumor tissues) and 121 with chronic viral hepatitis...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
African American men in the US experience disparities across multiple health outcomes. A common mechanism underlying premature declines in health may be accelerated biological aging, as reflected by leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of social stress reported by African American men, in tandem with poor mental health, may negatively impact LTL in this population. The current study examined cross-sectional associations between LTL, self-reported...
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality,...
Published 01/11/2016    Read More...
The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in...
Published 03/01/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a...
Published 09/28/2015    Read More...
Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6,...
Published 12/27/2013    Read More...
Psychosocial stress has been associated with an increased risk for mental and somatic health problems across the life span. Some studies in younger adults linked this to accelerated cellular aging, indexed by shortened telomere length (TL). In older adults, the impact of psychosocial stress on TL may be different due to the lifetime exposure to competing causes of TL-shortening. This study aims to assess whether early and recent psychosocial stressors (childhood abuse, childhood adverse events,...
Published 08/12/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is required for long-term telomere maintenance and protection. Using single budding yeast mother cell analyses we found that, even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast mother cells show transient DNA damage response (DDR) episodes, stochastically altered cell-cycle dynamics, and accelerated mother cell aging. The acceleration of ETI mother cell aging was not explained by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sir protein perturbation, or deprotected telomeres. ETI...
Published 02/28/2015    Read More...
Autoimmune cytopenia is a frequent manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies. Two siblings presented with Evans syndrome, viral infections, and progressive leukopenia. DNA available from one patient showed a homozygous frameshift mutation in tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) abolishing protein expression. TPP2 is a serine exopeptidase involved in extralysosomal peptide degradation. Its deficiency in mice activates cell death programs and premature senescence. Similar to cells from naïve,...
Published 11/20/2014    Read More...
Abused women, who suffer from chronic psychological stress, have been shown to have shorter telomeres than never abused women. Telomere shortening is associated with increased risk of cell death, and it is believed that adopting health-promoting behaviors can help to increase the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that counters telomere shortening. Qigong is an ancient Chinese mind-body integration, health-oriented practice designed to enhance the function of qi, an energy that sustains...
Published 08/15/2014    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with dementia and psychological stress, but its relationship with human brain size is unknown....
Published 10/14/2014    Read More...
African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans....
Published 11/16/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends, promoting chromosome stability. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex with a direct telomere protective function. Telomere shortening represents lifetime exposure to oxidative stress and is negatively correlated with age, smoking, and mortality. Smoking increases oxidative DNA modification and thus may influence telomere dynamics and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) activity....
Published 03/06/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a complex stress response that leads to an irreversible state of cell growth arrest. Senescence may be induced by different stimuli such as telomere shortening, DNA damage or oncogenic insult among others. Senescent cells are metabolically highly active producing a wealth of cytokines and chemokines that depending on the context may have a beneficial or deleterious impact on the organism. Senescence is considered a tightly regulated stress response that is largely governed...
Published 02/11/2016    Read More...
Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and...
Published 10/24/2015    Read More...
Telomerase contributes to cell proliferation and survival through both telomere-dependent and telomere-independent mechanisms. In this report, we discovered that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transiently activates the catalytic components of telomerase (TERT) expression in human cancer cell lines and murine primary neural cells. Importantly, we show that depletion of hTERT sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis under ER stress, whereas increased hTERT expression reduces ER stress-induced cell...
Published 10/22/2013    Read More...
More than 85% of all human cancers possess the ability to maintain chromosome ends, or telomeres, by virtue of telomerase activity. Loss of functional telomeres is incompatible with survival, and telomerase inhibition has been established in several model systems to be a tractable target for cancer therapy. As human tumour cells typically maintain short equilibrium telomere lengths, we wondered if enforced telomere elongation would positively or negatively impact cell survival. We found that...
Published 11/24/2014    Read More...
A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35-55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day), ubiquinone (300 mg/day),...
Published 09/17/2014    Read More...
Recently, a new research agenda emphasizing interactions between social factors and health has emerged. The term social determinant of health often refers to any nonmedical factor directly influencing health. Health across the life span is strongly and adversely affected by social disadvantage. Research in epigenetics indicates that alterations in DNA methylation may provide a causal link between social adversity and health disparity. Likewise, accelerated loss of telomeres is correlated with...
Published 08/31/2015    Read More...
Human genetic disorders and transgenic mouse models have shown that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and telomere dysfunction instigate the aging process. Epidemiologically, exercise is associated with greater life expectancy and reduced risk of chronic diseases. While the beneficial effects of exercise are well established, the molecular mechanisms instigating these observations remain unclear....
Published 01/31/2016    Read More...
Telomeres have recently been suggested to play important role in ageing and are considered to be a reliable ageing biomarkers. The life history theory predicts that costs of reproduction should be expressed in terms of accelerated senescence, and some empirical studies do confirm such presumption. Thus, a link between reproductive effort and telomere dynamics should be anticipated. Recent studies have indeed demonstrated that reproduction may trigger telomere loss, but actual impact of...
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a physiological process of irreversible cell-cycle arrest that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes of aging. Whereas replicative senescence is associated with telomere attrition after repeated cell division, stress-induced premature senescence occurs in response to aberrant oncogenic signaling, oxidative stress, and DNA damage which is independent of telomere dysfunction. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence provides a barrier to...
Published 02/25/2014    Read More...
Aprataxin (APTX) deficiency causes progressive cerebellar degeneration, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia in man. Cell free assays and crystal structure studies demonstrate a role for APTX in resolving 5'-adenylated nucleic acid breaks, however, APTX function in vertebrates remains unclear due to the lack of an appropriate model system. Here, we generated a murine model in which a pathogenic mutant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)) is expressed in an Aptx-/- mouse strain. We report a delayed...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Authors: A V AV. Beletsky, A N AN. Malyavko, M V MV. Sukhanova, E S ES. Mardanova, M E ME. Zvereva, A V AV. Mardanov, O A OA. Dontsova, O I OI. Lavrik, N V NV. Ravin Published: 07/12/2015, Doklady. Biochemistry and biophysics ...
Published 07/12/2015    Read More...
The predominant X-linked form of Dyskeratosis congenita results from mutations in DKC1, which encodes dyskerin, a protein required for ribosomal RNA modification that is also a component of the telomerase complex. We have previously found that expression of an internal fragment of dyskerin (GSE24.2) rescues telomerase activity in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) patient cells. Here we have found that an increased basal and induced DNA damage response occurred in X-DC cells in comparison...
Published 07/02/2014    Read More...
Asymptomatic relatives of patients with familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP), the inherited form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, carry increased risk for developing interstitial lung disease....
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Telomerase activity is essential for human cancer cells in order to maintain telomeres and provide unlimited proliferation potential and cellular immortality. However, additional non-telomeric roles emerge for the telomerase protein TERT that can impact tumourigenesis and cancer cell properties. This review summarises our current knowledge of non-telomeric functions of telomerase in human cells, with a special emphasis on cancer cells. Non-canonical functions of telomerase can be performed...
Published 10/22/2014    Read More...
Our genome contains many G-rich sequences, which have the propensity to fold into stable secondary DNA structures called G4 or G-quadruplex structures. These structures have been implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation and telomere maintenance. However, G4 sequences are prone to mutations particularly upon replication stress or in the absence of specific helicases. To investigate how G-quadruplex structures are resolved during DNA replication, we developed a model system using...
Published 09/05/2014    Read More...
'Cellular senescence', a term originally defining the characteristics of cultured cells that exceed their replicative limit, has been broadened to describe durable states of proliferative arrest induced by disparate stress factors. Proposed relationships between cellular senescence, tumour suppression, loss of tissue regenerative capacity and ageing suffer from lack of uniform definition and consistently applied criteria. Here, we highlight caveats in interpreting the importance of suboptimal...
Published 06/24/2015    Read More...
This study examined whether the forkhead transcription factors of O group 1 (FoxO1) might be involved in telomere biology during calorie restriction (CR). We used FoxO1-knockout heterozygous mice (FoxO1(+/-)) and wild-type mice (WT) as a control. Both WT and FoxO1(+/-) were subjected to ad libitum (AL) feeding or 30 % CR compared to AL for 20 weeks from 15 weeks of age. The heart-to-body weight ratio, blood glucose, and serum lipid profiles were not different among all groups of mice at the...
Published 12/26/2015    Read More...
Genotoxic stress causes a reduced stability of the plant genome and has a detrimental effect on plant growth and productivity. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most harmful of all DNA lesions because they cause the loss of genetic information on both strands of the DNA helix. In the presented study the coding and genomic sequences of the HvKu80 gene were determined. A mutational analysis of two fragments of HvKu80 using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) allowed 12 mutations...
Published 05/09/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest that has been involved in many gastrointestinal diseases, including human cholestatic liver disorders. Senescence may play a role in biliary atresia, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cellular rejection, and primary biliary cirrhosis, four liver diseases affecting cholangiocytes and the biliary system. In this review, we examine proposed mechanisms of senescence-related biliary diseases, including hypotheses associated with the...
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
Estrogens and antioxidants indirectly alleviate telomere attrition. However, available clinical data on the association between hormone exposure and telomere length are inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous estrogen use and of some genetic factors implicated in estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress response on mean leukocyte telomere length. We studied 259 postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695),...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
The G-quadruplex (G4) elements comprise a class of nucleic acid structures formed by stacking of guanine base quartets in a quadruple helix. This G4 DNA can form within or across single-stranded DNA molecules and is mutually exclusive with duplex B-form DNA. The reversibility and structural diversity of G4s make them highly versatile genetic structures, as demonstrated by their roles in various functions including telomere metabolism, genome maintenance, immunoglobulin gene diversification,...
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an invariably fatal brain tumor in which a small subpopulation of self-renewable glioma stem cells (GSCs) contributes to tumor propagation and relapse. Targeting GSCs could therefore have a significant clinical impact for GBM. Telomestatin is a naturally-occurring compound that preferentially impairs GSC growth by perturbing transcription and inducing a DNA damage response. Telomestatin stabilizes G-quadruplexes (G4s), which are guanine-rich four-strand nucleic acid...
Published 02/01/2016    Read More...
Objective - to estimate the possible effects of low dose ionizing radiation on human cognitive function in adult hood and in utero....
Published 12/23/2015    Read More...
Psychiatric diseases are associated with an increased rate of somatic age-related illness. A new study sheds light on putative mediating cellular mechanisms by linking increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and decreased telomere length to childhood stress and major depression....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Authors: Lorna L. Stewart Published: 10/16/2014, Nature PubMed Full Text...
Published 10/16/2014    Read More...
DNA damage and telomere dysfunction shorten organismal lifespan. Here we show that oral glucose administration at advanced age increases health and lifespan of telomere dysfunctional mice. The study reveals that energy consumption increases in telomere dysfunctional cells resulting in enhanced glucose metabolism both in glycolysis and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle at organismal level. In ageing telomere dysfunctional mice, normal diet provides insufficient amounts of glucose thus leading to...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth....
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
Clonospheres formed due to modified culture conditions are often studied for their stem cell like behaviour. The main objective of the current study is to compare the stem cell markers and link it to hTERT levels by monitoring their quantitative gene expression as they are potential targets for new generation combination therapeutics....
Published 05/06/2015    Read More...
The epigenetic writer Sir2 maintains the heterochromatin state of chromosome in three chromosomal regions, namely, the silent mating type loci, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism by which Sir2 is regulated under heat stress. Our study reveals that a transient heat shock causes a drastic reduction in the SIR2 transcript which results in sustained failure to initiate silencing for as long as 90 generations. Hsp82 overexpression, which is the usual...
Published 11/10/2014    Read More...
The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of...
Published 01/18/2016    Read More...
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, and telomere length (TL) may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. Hormone-brain-aging behavior-modulated telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state, and these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) is a telomere-associated complex that functions in telomere duplex replication and fill-in synthesis of the telomeric C-strand following telomerase action. CST also facilitates genome-wide replication recovery after HU-induced fork stalling by increasing origin firing. CTC1 and STN1 were originally isolated as a DNA polymerase α stimulatory factor. Here we explore how CST abundance affects recovery from drugs that cause different types of DNA damage and...
Published 01/09/2015    Read More...
Inflammation and oxidative stress generate free radicals that oxidize guanine (G) in DNA to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), and this reaction is prominent in the G-rich telomere sequence. In telomeres, OG is not efficiently removed by repair pathways allowing its concentration to build, surprisingly without any immediate negative consequences to stability. Herein, OG was synthesized in five repeats of the human telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n, at the 5'-G of the 5'-most, middle, and 3'-most G tracks,...
Published 12/29/2015    Read More...
Human dyskerin is an evolutively conserved protein that participates in diverse nuclear complexes: the H/ACA snoRNPs, that control ribosome biogenesis, RNA pseudouridylation, and stability of H/ACA snoRNAs; the scaRNPs, that control pseudouridylation of snRNAs; and the telomerase active holoenzyme, which safeguards telomere integrity. The biological importance of dyskerin is further outlined by the fact that its deficiency causes the X-linked dyskeratosis congenita disease, while its...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited...
Published 01/20/2016    Read More...
Break-induced replication (BIR) has been implicated in restoring eroded telomeres and collapsed replication forks via single-ended invasion and extensive DNA synthesis on the recipient chromosome. Unlike other recombination subtypes, DNA synthesis in BIR likely relies heavily on mechanisms enabling efficient fork progression such as chromatin modification. Herein we report that deletion of HST3 and HST4, two redundant de-acetylases of histone H3 Lysine 56 (H3K56), inhibits BIR, sensitizes...
Published 02/23/2015    Read More...
Clinical studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia may cause ageing in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) because ageing-associated alterations were found in peripheral blood cells and their bone marrow residing precursors in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia induces oxidant stress in hematopoietic stems cells that accelerates their ageing....
Published 01/27/2014    Read More...
Through elegant studies in fungal cells and complex organisms, we propose a unifying paradigm for the rapid evolution of telomere binding proteins (TBPs) that associate with either (or both) telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins. TBPs protect and regulate telomere structure and function. Four critical factors are involved. First, TBPs that commonly bind to telomeric DNA include the c-Myb binding proteins, OB-fold single-stranded binding proteins, and G-G base paired Hoogsteen structure (G4)...
Published 02/10/2016    Read More...
Selection for large body size in mink (Neovison vison) can result in obesity, which is associated with poor reproduction and metabolic disorders. Caloric restriction is effective in diminishing oxidative stress and delaying aging-related diseases. This study investigated the effects of moderate diet restriction on body condition, health, and reproductive success of mink breeder females. One-hundred control females were fed according to conventional feeding practice, while the feed allowance of...
Published 01/17/2014    Read More...
Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, that resemble TERRA in several key aspects. Those transcripts contain UUAGGG-repeats and are heterogeneous in size, fluctuate in abundance in a...
Published 09/03/2014    Read More...
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation of the FXN gene, resulting in decreased frataxin expression, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. A recent study has identified shorter telomeres in FRDA patient leukocytes as a possible disease biomarker....
Published 06/10/2015    Read More...
Conditions experienced during development and growth are of crucial importance as they can have a significant influence on the optimisation of life histories. Indeed, the ability of an organism to grow fast and achieve a large body size often confers short- and long-term fitness benefits. However, there is good evidence that organisms do not grow at their maximal rates as growth rates seem to have potential costs on subsequent lifespan. There are several potential proximate causes of such a...
Published 12/18/2014    Read More...
Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC....
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
To analyze whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is impaired in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....
Published 11/20/2014    Read More...
Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell...
Published 02/13/2016    Read More...
Previous evidences support that increased oxidative stress (OxS) may play an important role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and both are closely linked to vascular dysfunction. This study determined whether there is a relationship between endothelial function and relative telomere length (RTL) in MetS subjects. In this cross-sectional study from the LIPGENE cohort, a total of 88 subjects (36 men and 52 women) were divided into four groups by quartiles of telomere length. We measured ischemic...
Published 07/11/2014    Read More...
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fear of recurrence among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, the effects of MBSR (BC) on telomere length (TL) and telomerase activity (TA), known markers of cellular aging, psychological stress, and disease risk, are not known. This randomized, wait-listed, controlled study, nested within a larger trial, investigated the effects of MBSR (BC) on TL and TA. BC patients (142) with Stages 0-III cancer who had...
Published 01/30/2014    Read More...
Several studies reported that the mode of delivery may induce changes to the immune system. Our hypothesis was that the delivery mode may influence mainly the naive T cell subpopulation....
Published 10/26/2015    Read More...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a very heterogeneous disease resulting in huge differences in the treatment response. New individualized therapy strategies including molecular targeting might help to improve treatment success. In order to identify potential targets, we developed a HNSCC radiochemotherapy cell culture model of primary HNSCC cells derived from two different patients (HN1957 and HN2092) and applied an integrative microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA analysis in order to gain...
Published 09/02/2015    Read More...
Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated...
Published 04/16/2015    Read More...
There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated with accumulating cellular damage. We tested the association between the persistence of internalizing disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the prospective...
Published 01/14/2014    Read More...
Our previous in vivo study demonstrated that human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs) in aging discs exhibited characteristic senescent features such as an increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, shortened telomere, and decreased telomerase activity. The replicative p53-p21-pRB pathway, rather than the stress-induced p16-pRB pathway, played a more important role in the senescence of NPCs in an in vivo condition, although there is a situation in which both the...
Published 12/15/2013    Read More...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has major public health significance. Evidence that PTSD may be associated with premature senescence (early or accelerated aging) would have major implications for quality of life and healthcare policy. We conducted a comprehensive review of published empirical studies relevant to early aging in PTSD....
Published 05/07/2015    Read More...
It has been shown that severe stress in childhood is harmful to later health. New research aims to ascertain whether – and if so, how – the telomeres, the protective caps at the end of our chromosomes, may be one of the links between this type of experience and later morbidity. Here we present an overview of studies which have examined the association between stress in childhood and length of telomeres....
Published 08/25/2015    Read More...
In patients with renal disease, uremia raises oxidative stress and senescence in endothelial cells, which can lead to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Klotho protein is a β-glucuronidase capable of hydrolyzing steroid β-glucuronides. This protein is recognized as an antiaging gene, that modulate both stress-induced senescence and functional response. The aim of the study was to investigate how senescence and oxidative stress induced by uremia in endothelial cells affects...
Published 09/22/2014    Read More...
Authors: A A. Zietzer, P P. Hillmeister Published: 04/15/2014, Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) PubMed Full Text...
Published 04/15/2014    Read More...
The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl) were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio) was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative...
Published 04/29/2014    Read More...
Annette L. Fitzpatrick, Richard A. Kronmal, Jeffrey P. Gardner, Bruce M. Psaty, Nancy S. Jenny, Russell P. Tracy, Jeremy Walston, Masyuki Kimura, and Abraham Aviv. American Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 165:14-21. The telomere length of replicating somatic cells is inversely correlated with age and has been reported to...
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Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
Mastocytosisis a rare disease associated with chronic symptoms related to mast cell mediator release. Patients with mastocytosis display high level of negative emotionality such as depression and stress sensibility. Brain mast cells are mainly localized in the diencephalon, which is linked to emotion regulatory systems. Negative emotionality has been shown to be associated with telomere shortening. Taken together these observations led us to hypothesize that mast cells activity could be involved...
Published 08/01/2013    Read More...
Senescence is a non-proliferative state reached by normal cells in response to various stresses, including telomere uncapping, oxidative stress or oncogene activation. In previous reports, we have highlighted that senescent human epidermal keratinocytes have two opposite outcomes: either they die by autophagic programmed cell death or they evade in the form of neoplastic postsenescence emergent (PSNE) cells. Herein, we show that partially reducing macroautophagy in senescent keratinocytes using...
Published 12/18/2014    Read More...
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients and energy. They can disrupt early developmental processes and lead to increased susceptibility to disease/dysfunctions later in life. Presentations at the fourth Conference on Prenatal Programming and...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
SAUSALITO, Calif., Sept. 17 (UPI) -- Shorter telomeres -- DNA-protein complexes at the end of chromosomes -- increase disease risk, but this may be reversed via lifestyle, a U.S. researcher says. Dr. Dean Ornish of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute in Sausalito, Calif., and colleagues at the University...
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The nucleolus is speculated to be a regulator of cellular senescence in numerous biological systems (Guarente, Genes Dev 11(19):2449-2455, 1997; Johnson et al., Curr Opin Cell Biol 10(3):332-338, 1998). In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in nucleolar architecture, the redistribution of nucleolar protein and the accumulation of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles (ERCs) during replicative aging have been reported. However, little is known regarding rDNA stability and...
Published 04/08/2014    Read More...
Candida glabrata is a fungal pathogen frequently found as a commensal in humans. To colonize and disseminate successfully in the mammalian host, C. glabrata must detect signals within the host and reprogram gene expression to respond appropriately to hostile environmental conditions. One of the layers of regulation of expression of many virulence-related genes (adhesin-encoding genes, genes involved in response to oxidative stress and xenobiotics) is achieved through epigenetic mechanisms. Local...
Published 06/29/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is regarded as a marker of cellular aging due to the gradual shortening by each cell division, but is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress and inflammation. Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism occur mainly in the elderly, with oxidative stress and inflammation in afflicted cells. In this study the relationship between blood TL and prognosis of 168 patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (136 Parkinson's disease [PD], 17 Progressive...
Published 12/12/2014    Read More...
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of airway obstruction in α1-antitrypsin deficient patients. This may result in a shortening of telomere length, resulting in cellular senescence. To test whether telomere length differs in α1-antitrypsin deficient patients compared with controls, we measured telomere length in DNA from peripheral blood cells of 217 α1-antitrypsin deficient patients and 217 control COPD patients. We also tested for differences in telomere length between DNA from...
Published 04/24/2014    Read More...
Several studies have reported an association between traumatic stress and telomere length suggesting that traumatic stress has an impact on ageing at the cellular level. A newly derived tool provides an additional means to investigate cellular ageing by estimating epigenetic age based on DNA methylation profiles. We therefore hypothesise that in a longitudinal study of traumatic stress both indicators of cellular ageing will show increased ageing. We expect that particularly in individuals that...
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a strong impact on tumor cell biology and contributes to tumor progression in multiple ways. To date, only a few molecular key players in tumor hypoxia, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been discovered. The distribution of biomolecules is frequently heterogeneous in the tumor volume and may be driven by hypoxia and HIF-1α....
Published 06/04/2015    Read More...
The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were...
Published 05/14/2014    Read More...
Telomeres play a fundamental role in the protection of chromosomal DNA and in the regulation of cellular senescence. Recent work in human epidemiology and evolutionary ecology suggests adult telomere length (TL) may reflect past physiological stress and predict subsequent morbidity and mortality, independent of chronological age.Several different methods have been developed to measure TL, each offering its own technical challenges. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the...
Published 03/02/2014    Read More...
In ageing populations many patients have multiple diseases characterised by acceleration of the normal ageing process. Better understanding of the signalling pathways and cellular events involved in ageing shows that these are characteristic of many chronic degenerative diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and neurodegeneration. Common mechanisms have now been identified in these diseases, which show evidence of cellular...
Published 01/22/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK-MAPK) are mediators of impaired cerebral hemodynamics after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in piglets. Microparticles (MPs) are released into the circulation from a variety of cells during stress, are pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory, and may be lysed with polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEG-TB). We hypothesized that MPs released after traumatic brain...
Published 07/31/2015    Read More...
Changes in telomere length are believed to reflect changes in physiological state and life expectancy in animals. However, much remains unknown about the determinants of telomere dynamics in wild populations, and specifically the influence of conditions during highly mobile life-history stages, for example migration. We tested whether telomere dynamics were associated with migratory behaviour and/or with stress during reproduction in free-living seabirds. We induced short-term stress during...
Published 01/15/2014    Read More...
Group psychosocial interventions including mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) and supportive-expressive group therapy (SET) can help breast cancer survivors decrease distress and influence cortisol levels. Although telomere length (TL) has been associated with breast cancer prognosis, the impact of these two interventions on TL has not been studied to date....
Published 11/03/2014    Read More...
Authors: R Murali RM. Krishna Published: 03/20/2015, The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association PubMed...
Published 03/20/2015    Read More...
This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival....
Published 08/26/2013    Read More...
Mitotic cells inactivate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, but the rationale behind this suppression remains unknown. Here, we unravel how mitosis blocks DSB repair and determine the consequences of repair reactivation. Mitotic kinases phosphorylate the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 and the nonhomologous end joining factor 53BP1 to inhibit their recruitment to DSB-flanking chromatin. Restoration of RNF8 and 53BP1 accumulation at mitotic DSB sites activates DNA repair but is, paradoxically,...
Published 03/20/2014    Read More...
The Myb super-family of proteins contain a group of functionally diverse transcriptional activators found in plant, animal and fungus. Myb proteins are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and have crucial roles in telomeres. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biological function of Myb1 protein in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae....
Published 02/19/2015    Read More...
Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) (2n = 26) is one of the two vascular plants adapted to the harshest environment of the Antarctic. Although the species is a valuable model for study of environmental stress tolerance in plants, its karyotype is still poorly investigated. We firstly conducted a comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of D. antarctica collected on four islands of the Maritime Antarctic. D. antarctica karyotypes were studied by Giemsa C- and DAPI/C-banding, Ag-NOR...
Published 09/22/2015    Read More...
The aging kidney undergoes profound changes that lead to a reduction in stress resistance and impaired repair capacity. In order to improve the outcome of acute and chronic kidney damage, it is instrumental to understand the mechanisms that cause these changes. Cellular senescence has emerged as an important cellular process that contributes to age-associated kidney changes and chronic kidney disease progression....
Published 07/13/2015    Read More...
Western societies are aging due to an increasing life span, decreased birth rates, and improving social and health conditions. On the other hand, the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular (CBV) diseases rises with age. Thus, in view of the ongoing aging pandemic, it is appropriate to better understand the molecular pathways of aging as well as age-associated CV and CBV diseases. Oxidative stress contributes to aging of organs and the whole body by an accumulation of reactive...
Published 11/04/2015    Read More...
Human and other multicellular life species age, and ageing processes become dominant during the late phase of life. Recent studies challenge this dogma, suggesting that ageing does not occur in some animal species. In mammals, cell replicative senescence occurs as early as before birth (i.e. in embryos) under physiological conditions. How the molecular machinery operates and why ageing cells dominate under some circumstances are intriguing questions. Recent studies show that cell ageing involves...
Published 07/21/2014    Read More...
Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p =...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is the state of permanent proliferation cessation. There are two types of cell senescence. One is replicative senescence, which relies on telomere length-dependent limit of cell divisions. The second is stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is telomere- independent. Cell senescence is a barrier to cancer. Paradoxically senescent cells, which are metabolically active secrete factors which can be procancerogenic. The main culprit of cell senescence is DNA damage and...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
The acquisition of mutations is relevant to every aspect of genetics, including cancer and evolution of species on Darwinian selection. Genome variations arise from rare stochastic imperfections of cellular metabolism and deficiencies in maintenance genes. Here, we established the genome-wide spectrum of mutations that accumulate in a WT and in nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutator strains deficient for distinct genome maintenance processes: pol32Δ and rad27Δ (replication), msh2Δ (mismatch...
Published 01/21/2014    Read More...
In general, nanoparticle-based materials are promising candidates for use in biological systems for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, these materials' actions at the molecular level remain poorly understood. Nanoparticle (silica, silver and diamond)-induced oxidative stress and activation of the NF-κB pathway lead to the depletion of lamin B1 pools, which, in turn, results in upregulation of telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) protein expression and maintenance of telomere...
Published 03/12/2015    Read More...
The human telomere repeat sequence 5'-TTAGGG-3' is a hot spot for oxidation at guanine, yielding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), a biomarker of oxidative stress. Telomere shortening resulting from oxidation will ultimately induce cellular senescence. In this study, α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore technology was applied to detect and quantify OG in the human telomeric DNA sequence. This repeat sequence adopts a basket G-quadruplex in the NaCl electrolyte used for analysis that enters the α-HL...
Published 03/17/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres get shorter each time a cell divides, and critically shortened telomeres trigger cellular senescence. Thus, telomere length is hypothesized to be a biological marker of aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood characteristics and leukocyte telomere length. Using data from a subsample (n=978) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women...
Published 05/22/2014    Read More...
Developmental stressors often have long-term fitness consequences, but linking offspring traits to fitness prospects has remained a challenge. Telomere length predicts mortality in adult birds, and may provide a link between developmental conditions and fitness prospects. Here, we examine the effects of manipulated brood size on growth, telomere dynamics and post-fledging survival in free-living jackdaws. Nestlings in enlarged broods achieved lower mass and lost 21% more telomere repeats...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
Aging continuously remodels the immune system, a process known as immunosenescence. Here, we review evidence of premature immunosenescence in younger individuals under conditions of chronic psychological stress, chronic inflammation, or exposure to certain persistent viral infections. Chronic stress may accelerate various features of immunosenescence by activating key allostatic systems, notably the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased cortisol levels. Chronic stress is associated...
Published 05/05/2015    Read More...
Fibroblasts from the progeroid Nijmegen breakage syndrome that express a truncated version of the nibrin protein (NBN(p70)) undergo premature senescence and have an enlarged morphology with high levels of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, although they do not have F-actin stress fibres. Growth of these fibroblasts in the continuous presence of p38 inhibitors resulted in a large increase in replicative capacity and changed the cellular morphology so that the cells resembled young normal...
Published 09/12/2014    Read More...
Telomeres, DNA-protein structures that cap and protect chromosomes, are thought to shorten more rapidly when exposed to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Diet and nutritional status may be a source of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, relationships between telomere length (TL) and diet or adiposity have primarily been studied cross-sectionally among older, overweight/obese populations and yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about the relationship between diet or body...
Published 10/26/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to...
Published 05/09/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age-related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of nonsupportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in...
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is emerging as a biomarker for aging and survival is paternally inherited and associated with parental lifespan. Telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, including an increase in cancer incidence, wrinkling and diminished skin elasticity, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, weight loss, age-related cataract, glaucoma and others. Shorter telomere length in leukocytes was associated cross-sectionally with cardiovascular disorders and its...
Published 11/27/2014    Read More...
Forces generated by the cytoskeleton can be transmitted to the nucleus and chromatin via physical links on the nuclear envelope and the lamin meshwork. Although the role of these active forces in modulating prestressed nuclear morphology has been well studied, the effect on nuclear and chromatin dynamics remains to be explored. To understand the regulation of nuclear deformability by these active forces, we created different cytoskeletal states in mouse fibroblasts using micropatterned...
Published 12/22/2015    Read More...
As a scaffold, SLX4/FANCP interacts with multiple proteins involved in genome integrity. Although not having recognizable catalytic domains, SLX4 participates in diverse genome maintenance pathways by delivering nucleases where they are needed, and promoting their cooperative execution to prevent genomic instabilities. Physiological importance of SLX4 is emphasized by the identification of causative mutations of SLX4 genes in patients diagnosed with Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare recessive genetic...
Published 06/18/2014    Read More...
The short arms of the ten acrocentric human chromosomes share several repetitive DNAs, including ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). The rDNA arrays correspond to nucleolar organizing regions that coalesce each cell cycle to form the nucleolus. Telomere disruption by expressing a mutant version of telomere binding protein TRF2 (dnTRF2) causes non-random acrocentric fusions, as well as large-scale nucleolar defects. The mechanisms responsible for acrocentric chromosome sensitivity to dysfunctional...
Published 03/24/2014    Read More...
Life history theory (LHT) predicts a trade-off between reproductive effort and the pace of biological aging. Energy invested in reproduction is not available for tissue maintenance, thus having more offspring is expected to lead to accelerated senescence. Studies conducted in a variety of non-human species are consistent with this LHT prediction. Here we investigate the relationship between the number of surviving children born to a woman and telomere length (TL, a marker of cellular aging) over...
Published 01/05/2016    Read More...
Over twenty five years ago epidemiological studies revealed that there was a relationship between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, discordant siblings and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment plays an important role in mediating these relationships. Early nutrition is one such...
Published 12/10/2014    Read More...
Low birth weight and rapid postnatal growth increases risk of cardiovascular-disease (CVD); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero that underwent postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) have a programmed deficit in cardiac coenzyme Q (CoQ) that was associated with accelerated cardiac aging. It is unknown whether this deficit occurs in all tissues, including those that are clinically accessible. We...
Published 08/29/2014    Read More...
Telomere shortening is associated with increasing age, male gender and lifestyle factors such as obesity and smoking. Inflammation has also been implicated in cellular senescence and may promote telomere shortening in chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the relationship between markers of obesity and inflammation, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)....
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects...
Published 01/29/2016    Read More...
Most organisms, including ourselves, are exposed to environmental stressors at various points during life, and responses to such stressors have been optimised by evolution to give the best fitness outcomes. It is expected that environmental change will substantially increase long-term stress exposure in many animal groups in the coming decades. A major challenge for biologists is to understand and predict how this will influence individuals, populations and ecosystems, and over what time scale...
Published 12/19/2013    Read More...
Biomagnifying organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) may have adverse effects on the health of birds, especially marine avian top predators that accumulate high OHC loads. Contaminants may impair the humoral immunity and also influence the antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e. oxidative stress). Moreover, physical conditions and oxidative stress during development may reduce telomere lengths, one of the main mechanisms explaining cell senescence. To examine the potential effects of environmental...
Published 09/11/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress is a loss of balance between the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism and the mechanisms that clear these species to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Increased oxidative stress has been associated with muscular dystrophy, and many studies have proposed mechanisms that bridge these two pathological conditions at the molecular level. In this review, the evidence indicating a causal role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various muscular...
Published 12/22/2015    Read More...
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, including an increase in cancer incidence, wrinkling and diminished skin elasticity, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, weight loss, age-related cataract, glaucoma and others. Shorter telomere length in leukocytes was associated crosssectionally with cardiovascular disorders and their risk factors, including pulse pressure and vascular aging, obesity, vascular dementia, diabetes,...
Published 10/21/2014    Read More...
The histo-pathologic and molecular mechanisms leading to initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still ill-defined; however, there is increasing evidence that the gradual accumulation of mutations, genetic and epigenetic changes which occur in preneoplastic hepatocytes results in the development of dysplastic foci, nodules, and finally, overt HCC. As well as many other neoplasias, liver cancer is considered an "inflammatory cancer", arising from a context of...
Published 04/03/2014    Read More...
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases. Previous studies suggest roles of lipid peroxidation and oxysterols in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation-related cancer. Our recent studies identifying and characterizing...
Published 12/24/2014    Read More...
One main function of telomeres is to maintain chromosome and genome stability. The rate of telomere shortening can be accelerated significantly by chemical and physical environmental agents. Reactive oxygen species are a source of oxidative stress and can produce modified bases (mainly 8-oxoG) and single strand breaks anywhere in the genome. The high incidence of guanine residues in telomeric DNA sequences makes the telomere a preferred target for oxidative damage. Our aim in this work is to...
Published 10/29/2014    Read More...
Aged and degenerated intervertebral discs are characterised by a significant increase in the number of senescent cells, which may be associated with the deterioration of this tissue due to their catabolic phenotype. On the other hand, carboxymethyl-lysine has been found to be accumulated with ageing in the proteins of the disc, evidencing the existence of oxidative stress in this tissue. Accordingly, here we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on the physiology of human nucleus pulposus...
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Evidence suggests that exposure to welding fumes is a risk factor for lung cancer. We examined relationships between low-to-moderate occupational exposure to particles from welding fumes and cancer-related biomarkers for oxidative stress, changes in telomere length, and alterations in DNA methylation. We enrolled 101 welders and 127 controls (all currently nonsmoking men) from southern Sweden. We performed personal sampling of respirable dust and measured 8-oxodG concentrations in urine using a...
Published 05/27/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence and organismal aging predispose age-related chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders. These diseases emerge coincidently from elevated oxidative/electrophilic stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, and telomere dysfunction and shortening. Mechanistic linkages are incompletely understood. Here, we show that ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) accelerates vascular...
Published 08/20/2015    Read More...
Lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress (OS) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic systemic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Telomeres, repeated sequences that cap chromosome ends, undergo shortening with each cycle of cell division, resulting in cellular senescence. Research regarding telomere shortening has provided novel insight into the pathogenesis of various diseases. We hypothesized that OS damage leads to inflammatory reactions, which...
Published 11/26/2014    Read More...
Psychological stress contributes to numerous diseases and may do so in part through damage to telomeres, protective non-coding segments on the ends of chromosomes....
Published 02/04/2016    Read More...
Aging is associated with the onset of several diseases in various organ systems; however, different tissues may age differently, rendering some of them dysfunctional sooner than others. Placental membranes (fetal amniochorionic membranes) protect the fetus throughout pregnancy, but their longevity is limited to the duration of pregnancy. The age-associated dysfunction of these membranes is postulated to trigger parturition. Here, we investigated whether cellular senescence-the loss of cell...
Published 03/16/2016    Read More...
To investigate the associations of placental telomere length with placental abruption (PA) risk and interactions between placental telomere length and placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number on PA risk....
Published 11/26/2015    Read More...
The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence....
Published 05/25/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are long hexamer (TTAGGG) repeats at the ends of chromosomes, and contribute to maintenance of chromosomal stability. Telomere shortening has been linked to cancers and other chronic diseases in adults, although evidence for causal associations is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether nutritional factors are associated with telomere length (TL) in children....
Published 09/02/2014    Read More...
Telomeres at chromosome ends are normally masked from proteins that signal and repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Bulky DNA lesions can cause DSBs if they block DNA replication, unless they are bypassed by translesion (TLS) DNA polymerases. Here, we investigated roles for TLS polymerase η, (polη) in preserving telomeres following acute physical UVC exposure and chronic chemical Cr(VI) exposure, which both induce blocking lesions. We report that polη protects against cytotoxicity and...
Published 10/29/2014    Read More...
Damaged DNA can be repaired by removal and re-synthesis of up to 30 nucleotides during base or nucleotide excision repair. An important question is what happens when many more nucleotides are removed, resulting in long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) lesions. Such lesions appear on chromosomes during telomere damage, double strand break repair or after the UV damage of stationary phase cells. Here, we show that long single-stranded lesions, formed at dysfunctional telomeres in budding yeast, are...
Published 02/15/2016    Read More...
Many stress-related and depressive disorders have been shown to be associated with one or more of the following; shortened telomeres, raised cortisol levels and increased susceptibility to age-related dysfunction. It is suggested here that insufficient availability of the neurological peptide, carnosine, may provide a biochemical link between stress- and depression-associated phenomena: there is evidence that carnosine can enhance cortisol metabolism, suppress telomere shortening and exert...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) serves as both the unique gate between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and a major platform that coordinates nucleocytoplasmic exchanges, gene expression, and genome integrity. To understand how the NPC integrates these functional constraints, we dissected here the posttranslational modifications of the nuclear basket protein Nup60 and analyzed how they intervene to control the plasticity of the NPC. Combined approaches highlight the role of monoubiquitylation in...
Published 01/19/2016    Read More...
Aging, a time-dependent functional decline of biological processes, is the primary risk factor in developing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or degenerative diseases. There is a real need to understand the human aging process in order to increase the length of disease-free life, also known as "health span". Accumulation of progerin and prelamin A are the hallmark of a group of premature aging diseases but have also been found during normal cellular aging strongly suggesting similar...
Published 05/15/2014    Read More...
Defects in lamin A maturation result in premature aging syndromes and severe atherosclerosis as observed in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome. In age-related atherosclerosis, several features of cellular senescence have been characterized in endothelial cells including telomere shortening and increased oxidative stress. However, to date, very little is known about lamin A alterations in these cells....
Published 08/28/2014    Read More...
Aging is accelerated by metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and the risk of these diseases increases with age. Obesity is an important risk factor for many age-related diseases and is linked to reduced telomere length in white blood cells. We investigated whether cardiac senescence might be enhanced in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which we recently established as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. The heart of DS/obese rats was compared with that of homozygous lean...
Published 08/18/2014    Read More...
The developmental origin of the health and disease hypothesis is based on the premise that many chronic diseases have their roots in fetal development. Specifically, maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with altered fetal development and many adverse long-term health outcomes. Although the mechanisms underlying this effect are currently unclear, at the cellular level 1 possible mediator is the regulation of telomere length. Telomere dynamics appear to play a role in disease...
Published 01/30/2016    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with diminished TL associated with several chronic diseases of aging and with heightened mortality risk. Research has begun to focus on the ways in which stress contributes to telomere attrition. The purposes of this study were (a) to establish whether exposure to nonsupportive parenting, defined as high levels of conflict and rancor with low levels of warmth and emotional support, at age 17 would forecast TL 5 years later; and (b)...
Published 01/28/2015    Read More...
The caps on the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, keep the ends of chromosomes from appearing as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevent chromosome fusion. However, subtelomeric regions are sensitive to DSBs, which in normal cells is responsible for ionizing radiation-induced cell senescence and protection against oncogene-induced replication stress, but promotes chromosome instability in cancer cells that lack cell cycle checkpoints. We have previously reported that I-SceI...
Published 07/23/2015    Read More...
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays an important role in modulating mood and behavior by regulating 5-HTT expression and thereby controlling the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) in brain synapses: The homozygous shorter allele (S/S) in 5-HTTLPR results in lower 5-HTT expression coupled with stronger psycho-pathological reactions to stressful experiences compared to the homozygous long (L/L) and heterozygous (S/L) alleles. Psychological insults and...
Published 04/07/2014    Read More...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a pleiotropic immunomodulatory molecule, and its free radical catalyzed isoform, iso-PGE2, are frequently elevated in the context of cancer and chronic infection. Previous studies have documented the effects of PGE2 on the various CD4+ T cell functions, but little is known about its impact on cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, the immune cells responsible for eliminating virally infected and tumor cells. Here we provide the first demonstration of the dramatic effects of PGE2...
Published 06/11/2014    Read More...
Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating...
Published 12/01/2015    Read More...
The effects of stress on ill health have become evident in recent years. Under acute stress situations, a cascade of physiological events helps the body mount an appropriate adaptive response. However, under chronic stress situations, this physiological response may lead to wear and tear on the body that accelerates the decline in physiological functioning and increases the risk of chronic conditions. Recent evidence for social stress experienced during childhood suggests serious consequences...
Published 04/30/2014    Read More...
Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
The psychosomatic approach arose in antiquity as mankind looked for explanations for illness and death. With the rise of modern medicine, the links between emotions and medical conditions, such as cardiac disease and diabetes, were described by astute clinical observers, but the mechanisms for these conditions were based on correlation from observations rather than on experimental design. Psychoanalytic theory was often utilized to explain many common diseases. For example, peptic ulcer disease...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations....
Published 01/11/2016    Read More...
Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for...
Published 03/29/2014    Read More...
The small G-protein Rap1 plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial barrier function, a process controlled largely by cellâ€"cell adhesions and their connection to the actin cytoskeleton. During the various stages of barrier dynamics, different guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) control Rap1 activity, indicating that Rap1 integrates multiple input signals. Once activated, Rap1 induces numerous signaling cascades, together responsible for the increased endothelial barrier...
Published 10/07/2014    Read More...
Genome instability represents a primary hallmark of aging and cancer. RecQL helicases (i.e., RECQL1, WRN, BLM, RECQL4, RECQL5) as well as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs, in particular PARP1) represent two central quality control systems to preserve genome integrity in mammalian cells. Consistently, both enzymatic families have been linked to mechanisms of aging and carcinogenesis in mice and humans. This is in accordance with clinical and epidemiological findings demonstrating that defects...
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a simple and inexpensive parameter, which reflects the degree of heterogeneity of erythrocyte volume (conventionally known as anisocytosis), and is traditionally used in laboratory hematology for differential diagnosis of anemias. Nonetheless, recent evidence attests that anisocytosis is commonplace in human disorders such as cardiovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, cancer, diabetes, community-acquired pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Ageing is characterized by a progressive deterioration of multiple physiological and molecular pathways, which impair organismal performance and increase risks of death with advancing age. Hence, ageing studies must identify physiological and molecular pathways that show signs of age-related deterioration, and test their association with the risk of death and longevity. This approach necessitates longitudinal sampling of the same individuals, and therefore requires a minimally invasive sampling...
Published 09/08/2015    Read More...
Reproductive health disparities may be partly explained by the cumulative effects of chronic stress experienced by socially disadvantaged groups. Although, telomere length (TL) and allostatic load score have each been used as biological markers of stress, the relationship between these two measures is unknown....
Published 02/08/2016    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of cellular aging associated with longevity and psychosocial stress. We examine here the relationship between religious involvement and TL in 251 stressed female family caregivers recruited into a 2-site study. Religious involvement, perceived stress, caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and social support were measured and correlated with TL in whole blood leukocytes. Results indicated a U-shaped relationship between religiosity and TL. Those scoring in...
Published 12/25/2015    Read More...
Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual's biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual's chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates....
Published 02/13/2015    Read More...
Replication stress causes DNA damage at fragile sites in the genome. DNA damage at telomeres can initiate breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and chromosome instability, which can result in replicative senescence or tumor formation. Little is known about the extent of replication stress or telomere dysfunction in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). hESCs are grown in culture with the expectation of being used therapeutically in humans, making it important to minimize the levels of replication stress...
Published 10/31/2015    Read More...
A growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activation of alveolar epithelial cells and fibroblasts in an aging lung plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the biopathological processes linking aging with IPF and the mechanisms responsible for the abnormal activation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts have not been elucidated. Many of the hallmarks of aging (e.g., genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations,...
Published 05/16/2014    Read More...
SIRT1 (silent information regulator two protein) is a type III protein deacetylase that regulates a variety of important metabolic and physiologic processes including stress resistance, metabolism, apoptosis and energy balance. It reverses cholesterol transport and reduces risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The following review highlights the potential role of SIRT1 on cardiovascular biology and function....
Published 10/30/2014    Read More...
SIRT6, a member of the NAD(+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylase family, regulates genomic stability, metabolism, and lifespan. MYH glycosylase and APE1 are two base excision repair (BER) enzymes involved in mutation avoidance from oxidative DNA damage. Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint clamp promotes cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair. BER is coordinated with the checkpoint machinery and requires chromatin remodeling for efficient repair. SIRT6 is involved in DNA double-strand...
Published 06/11/2015    Read More...
SLX4 assembles a toolkit of endonucleases SLX1, MUS81 and XPF, which is recruited to telomeres via direct interaction of SLX4 with TRF2. Telomeres present an inherent obstacle for DNA replication and repair due to their high propensity to form branched DNA intermediates. Here we provide novel insight into the mechanism and regulation of the SLX4 complex in telomere preservation. SLX4 associates with telomeres throughout the cell cycle, peaking in late S phase and under genotoxic stress....
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Cancer cells overcome replicative senescence by exploiting mechanisms of telomere elongation, a process often accomplished by reactivation of the enzyme telomerase. However, a subset of cancer cells lack telomerase activity and rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway, a recombination-based mechanism of telomere elongation. Although the mechanisms regulating ALT are not fully defined, chronic replication stress at telomeres might prime these fragile regions for...
Published 01/28/2016    Read More...
The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique...
Published 11/17/2015    Read More...
Preterm birth is associated with abnormal respiratory functions throughout life. The mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences are still unclear. Shortening of telomeres was associated with many conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to search for an association between telomere length and lung function in adolescents born preterm. Lung function and telomere length were measured in 236 adolescents born preterm and 38 born full-term from the longitudinal...
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) is a well recognized etiopathogenetic factor in a cancer-like state in horses, namely equine sarcoid disease. Nevertheless, little is known about BPV-1-mediated cell transforming effects. It was shown that BPV-1 triggers genomic instability through DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress. In the present study, we further characterized BPV-1-positive fibroblasts derived from sarcoid tumors. The focus was on cancer-like features of sarcoid-derived fibroblasts,...
Published 10/19/2013    Read More...
The purpose of this study is to build a biological age (BA) equation combining telomere length with chronological age (CA) and associated aging biomarkers. In total, 139 healthy volunteers were recruited from a Chinese Han cohort in Beijing. A genetic index, renal function indices, cardiovascular function indices, brain function indices, and oxidative stress and inflammation indices (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were measured and analyzed. A BA equation was proposed based on selected parameters,...
Published 08/13/2014    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a multifactorial phenomenon of growth arrest and distorted function, which has been recognized as an important feature during tumor suppression mechanisms and a contributor to aging. Senescent cells have an altered secretion pattern called Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) that comprises a complex mix of factors including cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. SASP has been related with local inflammation that leads to cellular...
Published 02/11/2016    Read More...
Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two)...
Published 09/04/2015    Read More...
Age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, suggesting a causal relationship between age-related changes and vascular damage. Endothelial dysfunction is an early pathophysiological hallmark in the development of cardiovascular disease. Senescence, the cellular equivalent of aging, was proposed to be involved in endothelial dysfunction, but functional data showing a causal relationship are missing.Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was measured in aortic rings ex vivo. We investigated aortas...
Published 03/03/2015    Read More...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major disease of the lungs. It primarily occurs after a prolonged period of cigarette smoking. Chronic inflammation of airways and the alveolar space as well as lung tissue destruction are the hallmarks of COPD. Recently it has been shown that cellular senescence might play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Cellular senescence comprises signal transduction program, leading to irreversible cell cycle arrest. The growth arrest in senescence can...
Published 08/30/2014    Read More...
To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for TL analyses....
Published 02/11/2015    Read More...
At a cellular level, oxidative stress is known to increase telomere attrition, and hence cellular senescence and risk of disease. It has been proposed that dietary micronutrients play an important role in telomere protection due to their antioxidant properties. We experimentally manipulated dietary micronutrients during early life in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found no effects of micronutrient intake on telomere loss during chick growth. However, females given a diet high in...
Published 02/26/2015    Read More...
The nucleolus is considered to be a stress sensor and rDNA-based regulation of cellular senescence and longevity has been proposed. However, the role of rDNA in the maintenance of genome integrity has not been investigated in detail. Using genomically diverse industrial yeasts as a model and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we show that chromosome level may be balanced during passages and as a response to alcohol stress that may be associated with changes in rDNA pools....
Published 11/14/2015    Read More...
Stress has been associated with biological aging and numerous age-related diseases. This may be due, in part, to accelerated shortening of telomeres, which are critical genomic structures that cap and protect chromosomal ends. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may indirectly contribute to telomere shortening if an animal reacts too strongly or weakly to a stressor, leading to accelerated biological aging. In this study, outbred Rideau-Arcott sheep were stress challenged with...
Published 01/21/2016    Read More...
Shortened telomeres have been linked to poorer health outcomes. Exposure to psychological stress is associated with accelerated telomere shortening, and a well-established body of evidence indicates that families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience heightened levels of psychological stress. Also, alterations in a number of biological processes implicated in telomere length dynamics (i.e., oxidative stress, DNA methylation) have been linked to ASD susceptibility. We...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Accelerated telomere shortening is associated with stress-related cell damage and aging. Patients with depression have been shown to have shortened life expectancy and to be associated with multiple age-related systemic diseases. Previous studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in patients with depression, but have shown inconsistent results....
Published 02/04/2016    Read More...
Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell populations (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) known to have different vulnerabilities to a key mediator of telomere shortening, oxidative...
Published 06/26/2014    Read More...
Successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not always result in complete CD4 T-cell recovery despite the effective control of HIV replication. Because telomere dysregulation can lead to an abnormal cell proliferation, we hypothesized that the lack of CD4 recovery may be related to telomere defects; We thus evaluated the association between telomere length (TL) and CD4 T-cell recovery 48 weeks after cART initiation in virologically suppressed patients, and its possible relationship to...
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a...
Published 08/28/2014    Read More...
Recent work has linked psychological stress with premature cellular aging as indexed by reduced leukocyte telomere length. The combination of shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity (TA) may be indicative of active cell stress. We hypothesized that older individuals characterized by shorter telomeres with high TA in unstimulated leukocytes would show signs of high allostatic load and low levels of protective psychosocial resources. We studied 333 healthy men and women aged 54-76 y who...
Published 03/10/2014    Read More...
Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and its consequences, including accelerated ageing and mortality. The underlying factor could be accumulation of certain lipid moieties, such as ceramides (CER) and diacylgycerol (DAG) within muscle tissue, which are known to promote insulin resistance (IR), induce inflammation and oxidative injury, ultimately altering muscle function....
Published 03/26/2015    Read More...
The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin...
Published 03/01/2015    Read More...
Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative...
Published 12/18/2014    Read More...
Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to...
Published 04/07/2014    Read More...
Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26) and pair-housed (n = 19) captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative...
Published 04/04/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are regarded as important biomarkers of ageing and serve as useful tools in revealing how stress acts at the cellular level. However, the effects of social and ecological factors on telomere length remain poorly understood, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated the influences of within-group dominance rank and group membership on telomere length in wild adult spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We found large effects of both factors; high-ranking hyenas exhibited...
Published 02/26/2015    Read More...
Immunosenescence, characterized by complex modifications of immunity with age, could be related to frailty syndrome in elderly individuals, leading to an inadequate response to minimal aggression. Functional decline (i.e., the loss of ability to perform activities of daily living) is related to frailty and decreased physiological reserves and is a frequent outcome of hospitalization in older patients. Links between immunosenescence and frailty have been explored and 20 immunological parameters,...
Published 08/18/2015    Read More...
The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon DNA damage generation to promote DNA repair and inhibit cell cycle progression in the presence of a lesion. Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest characterized by persistent DDR activation. However, some reports suggest that DDR activation is a feature only of early cellular senescence that is then lost with time. This challenges the hypothesis that cellular senescence is caused by persistent DDR activation. To address this issue, we...
Published 10/23/2014    Read More...
A trade-off between resource investment into growth rate and body self-maintenance is likely to occur, but the underlying molecular mediators of such a trade-off remain to be determined. In many altricial birds, hatching asynchrony creates a sibling competitive hierarchy within the brood, with first-hatched nestlings enjoying substantial advantages compared to last-hatched nestlings. We used this opportunity to test for a trade-off between growth and self-maintenance processes (oxidative stress,...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
The skin is the body's largest organ and it is able to self-repair throughout an individual's life. With advanced age, skin is prone to degenerate in response to damage. Although cosmetic surgery has been widely adopted to rejuvinate skin, we are far from a clear understanding of the mechanisms responsible for skin aging. Recently, adult skin-resident stem/progenitor cells, growth arrest, senescence or apoptotic death and dysfunction caused by alterations in key signaling genes, such as...
Published 11/07/2014    Read More...
Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely...
Published 02/14/2015    Read More...
Caseinolytic protease L (ClpL) is a member of the HSP100/Clp chaperone family, which is found mainly in Gram-positive bacteria. ClpL is highly expressed during infection for refolding of stress-induced denatured proteins, some of which are important for adherence. However, the role of ClpL in modulating pneumococcal virulence is poorly understood. Here, we show that ClpL impairs pneumococcal adherence to A549 lung cells by inducing and activating Rap1 and Rac1, thus increasing phosphorylation of...
Published 06/30/2014    Read More...
Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called "WEIRD" societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-Western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people--the Sahariya--who...
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently...
Published 03/19/2014    Read More...
Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is a relative extension to the concept of exogenous cellular insult. Besides persistent double strand (ds) DNA breaks and increased β-galactosidase activity, biological significance of telomeric attrition in conjunction with senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has been highlighted in SIPS. To gain insight on the potential role of this unique phenomenon invoked upon environmental stress, we sequentially validated the molecular repercussions...
Published 02/12/2015    Read More...
Mutations accumulate as a result of DNA damage and imperfect DNA repair machinery. In higher eukaryotes the accumulation and spread of mutations is limited in two primary ways: through p53-mediated programmed cell death and cellular senescence mediated by telomeres. Telomeres shorten at every cell division and cell stops dividing once the shortest telomere reaches a critical length. It has been shown that the rate of telomere attrition is accelerated when cells are exposed to DNA damaging...
Published 03/01/2014    Read More...
It has been hypothesized that chronic psychological stress is associated with shorter telomere length; however, the mechanisms that link stress and telomere length are not well understood. To examine the interplay between biochemical factors related to stress arousal and cellular aging, we investigate the association between anabolic/catabolic (A/C) imbalance and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS), conducted in Taiwan (N = 925). SEBAS...
Published 10/25/2014    Read More...
Telomere malfunction and other types of DNA damage induce an activin A-dependent stress response in mortal nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells that subsequently induces desmoplastic-like phenotypes in neighboring fibroblasts. Some characteristics of this fibroblast/stromal response, such as reduced adipocytes and increased extracellular matrix content, are observed not only in tumor tissues but also in disease-free breast tissues at high risk for developing cancer, especially high...
Published 08/29/2014    Read More...
Telomere attrition might be one of the mechanisms through which psychosocial stress leads to somatic disease. To date it is unknown if exposure to adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere shortening prospectively. In the current study we investigated whether life events are associated with shortening of telomere length (TL)....
Published 07/29/2015    Read More...
Dermal fibroblasts provide a paradigmatic model of cellular adaptation to long-term exogenous stress and ageing processes driven thereby. Here we addressed whether fibroblast ageing analysedex vivo entails genome instability. Dermal fibroblasts from human female donors aged 20-67 years were studied in primary culture at low population doubling. Under these conditions, the incidence of replicative senescence and rates of age-correlated telomere shortening were insignificant. Genome-wide gene...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Telomeres and tumor suppressor protein TP53 (p53) function in genome protection, but a direct role of p53 at telomeres has not yet been described. Here, we have identified non-canonical p53-binding sites within the human subtelomeres that suppress the accumulation of DNA damage at telomeric repeat DNA. These non-canonical subtelomeric p53-binding sites conferred transcription enhancer-like functions that include an increase in local histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and stimulation of...
Published 12/12/2015    Read More...
Reductions in DNA integrity, genome stability, and telomere length are strongly associated with the aging process, age-related diseases as well as the age-related loss of muscle mass. However, in people reaching an age far beyond their statistical life expectancy the prevalence of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or dementia, is much lower compared to "averagely" aged humans. These inverse observations in nonagenarians (90-99 years), centenarians (100-109 years) and...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
Our aim was to examine whether chronic social stress is associated with telomere length throughout the life course, following our protocol published in 2014. Structured searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey from their start date onwards. Reference lists of retrieved citations were hand searched for relevant studies. Eighteen studies published until May 1, 2015 investigating the association between chronic social...
Published 12/28/2015    Read More...
Photoageing represents the addition of extrinsic chronic ultraviolet radiation-induced damage on intrinsic ageing and accounts for most age-associated changes in skin appearance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 38% BPF, a highly concentrated extract of the bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia) on UVB-induced photoageing by examining inflammatory cytokine expression, telomere length/telomerase alterations and cellular viability in human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results suggest...
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Next-generation sequencing has drawn the genetic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma and several signaling pathways are altered at the DNA level in tumors: Wnt/β-catenin, cell cycle regulator, epigenetic modifier, histone methyltransferase, oxidative stress, ras/raf/map kinase and akt/mtor pathways. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process starting with the exposure to different risk factors, followed by the development of a chronic liver disease and cirrhosis precede in the vast majority...
Published 08/31/2015    Read More...
The semiconservative replication of telomeres is facilitated by the shelterin component TRF1. Without TRF1, replication forks stall in the telomeric repeats, leading to ATR kinase signaling upon S-phase progression, fragile metaphase telomeres that resemble the common fragile sites (CFSs), and the association of sister telomeres. In contrast, TRF1 does not contribute significantly to the end protection functions of shelterin. We addressed the mechanism of TRF1 action using mouse conditional...
Published 10/24/2014    Read More...
Cellular DNA is organized into chromosomes and capped by a unique nucleoprotein structure, the telomere. Both oxidative stress and telomere shortening/dysfunction cause aging-related degenerative pathologies and increase cancer risk. However, a direct connection between oxidative damage to telomeric DNA, comprising <1% of the genome, and telomere dysfunction has not been established. By fusing the KillerRed chromophore with the telomere repeat binding factor 1, TRF1, we developed a novel...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
The heat shock 70 family protein, mortalin, has pancytoplasmic distribution pattern in normal and perinuclear in cancer human cells. Cancer cells when induced to senesce by either chemicals or stress showed shift in mortalin staining pattern from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic type. Using such shift in mortalin staining as a reporter, we screened human shRNA library and identified nine senescence-inducing siRNA candidates. An independent Comparative Genomic Hybridization analysis of 35 breast...
Published 04/18/2014    Read More...
The causal role of aneuploidy in cancer initiation remains under debate since mutations of euploidy-controlling genes reduce cell fitness but aneuploidy strongly associates with human cancers. Telomerase activation allows immortal growth by stabilizing telomere length, but its role in aneuploidy survival has not been characterized. Here, we analyze the response of primary human cells and murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to aneuploidy induction and the role of telomeres and the telomerase...
Published 03/27/2015    Read More...
Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements...
Published 10/14/2015    Read More...
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the...
Published 09/02/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of each chromosome, maintained primarily by the enzyme telomerase. Shortening of the blood leukocyte telomeres is associated with aging, several chronic diseases, and stress, eg, major depression. Hippocampus is pivotal in the regulation of cognition and mood and the main brain region of telomerase activity. Whether there is telomere dysfunction in the hippocampus of depressed subjects is unknown. Lithium, used in the treatment and...
Published 01/24/2015    Read More...
Reactivation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is found in more than 85% of human cancers. The remaining cancers rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a recombination-based mechanism for telomere-length maintenance. Prevalence of TERT reactivation over the ALT mechanism was linked to secondary TERT function unrelated to telomere length maintenance. To characterize this non-canonical function, we created a panel of ALT cells with recombinant expression of...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Visual impairment broadly impacts the ability of affected people to maintain their function and to remain independent during their daily occupations as they grow older. Visual impairment affects survival of older patients, quality of life, can affect a person's self-ranking of health , may be associated with social and functional decline, use of community support services, depression , falls , nursing home placement , and increased mortality. It has been hypothesized that senile cataract may...
Published 06/17/2015    Read More...
Oxidative stress (OS)-induced senescence of the amniochorion has been associated with parturition at term. We investigated whether telomere fragments shed into the amniotic fluid (AF) correlated with labor status and tested if exogenous telomere fragments (T-oligos) could induce human and murine amnion cell senescence. In a cross-sectional clinical study, AF telomere fragment concentrations quantitated by a validated real-time PCR assay were higher in women in labor at term compared to those not...
Published 09/23/2015    Read More...
Ramin Farzaneh-Far1,2*, Jue Lin3, Elissa Epel4, Kyle Lapham3, Elizabeth Blackburn3, Mary A. Whooley2,5,6 1 Division of Cardiology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, United States of America, 2 Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, 3 Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics,...
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Telomere shortening to a critical limit is associated with replicative senescence. This process is prevented by the enzyme telomerase. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are factors accelerating telomere loss. Chronic hemodialysis, typically accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation, may be also associated with replicative senescence. To test this hypothesis, we determined telomere length and telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a cross-sectional...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Although little is known on the impact of environment on telomere length dynamics, it has been suggested to be affected by stress, lifestyle and/or life-history strategies of animals. We here compared telomere dynamics in erythrocytes of hatchlings and fledglings of the brood parasite great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) and of magpies (Pica pica), their main host in Europe. In magpie chicks, telomere length decreased from hatching to fledging, whereas no significant change in telomere...
Published 07/14/2015    Read More...
Although exposure to stressors is known to increase disease susceptibility and accelerate ageing, evidence is accumulating that these effects can span more than one generation. Stressors experienced by parents have been reported to negatively influence the longevity of their offspring and even grand offspring. The mechanisms underlying these long-term, cross-generational effects are still poorly understood, but we argue here that telomere dynamics are likely to play an important role. In this...
Published 11/05/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures, essential for chromosome stability and cell survival. Telomeres are progressively shortened with each cell division and by environmental factors. Telomere loss has been linked to age and stress-induced premature senescence. Dysfunctional telomeres tend to form aggregates, which consist of the end-to-end fusion of telomeres. Telomere elongation is carried out by telomerase, which is a specific reverse transcriptase capable of adding telomeric repeats to...
Published 08/28/2015    Read More...
Telomeres play a central role in cell fate and aging by adjusting the cellular response to both biological and psychological stress. Human telomeres are regions of tandem TTAGGG repeats at chromosomal ends that protect chromosomes from degradation, fusion, and recombination. They are made up of approximately 1000-2500 copies of the repeated DNA sequence. Over time, at each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter. Thus, telomere length (TL) has been considered a cellular marker for...
Published 05/09/2014    Read More...
Hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Hypercortisolism also occurs in chronic depressive disorders and stress, where telomere length (TL) is shorter than in controls. We hypothesized that shortening of telomere might occur in CS and contribute to premature aging and morbidity....
Published 04/17/2014    Read More...
A growing body of research demonstrates that individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by shortened telomere length, which has been posited to underlie the association between depression and increased instances of medical illness. The temporal nature of the relation between MDD and shortened telomere length, however, is not clear. Importantly, both MDD and telomere length have been associated independently with high levels of stress, implicating dysregulation...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Telomere shortening, a biomarker of cellular aging, has been associated with aging-related diseases. While psychological stress has been implicated in the process of telomere shortening, associations with activity of physiological stress systems have remained elusive. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychosocial stress in elderly adults....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are located at the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes and protect them from deleterious events such as inappropriate DNA repair, illegitimate recombination or improper segregation of the chromosomes during mitotic or meiotic divisions. However, telomeres gradually shorten primarily due to successive rounds of genomic DNA replication and also as the result of the adverse effects of oxidative stress, genotoxic agents, diseases related to ageing and environmental factors on the nuclear...
Published 08/08/2013    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of cellular turnover and oxidative stress. Studies suggest major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with oxidative stress, but examinations of MDD and LTL have yielded mixed results, likely because of differences in measurement methods and unmeasured confounding. This study examined LTL and telomerase activity in 166 individuals with MDD compared to 166 age- and gender-matched matched controls free of any psychiatric disorder, using well-validated...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
The aim of the present study was to explore the telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes from a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the expression level of telomere-binding protein in the hippocampal CA1 region....
Published 02/09/2016    Read More...
Telomere shortening is strongly associated with higher mortality rates and has been shown in a number of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress is known to induce DNA breaks and genome instability. Telomeric DNA rich in guanosine is particularly sensitive to such oxidative damages. Psychosis is associated with a disequilibrium between free radical production and antioxidative defense. Although...
Published 06/22/2015    Read More...
Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007-2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide spectrum of sporadic and familial cohorts of ILD and compare TL between patient cohorts and control subjects....
Published 10/06/2015    Read More...
Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
Telomere length provides an estimate of cellular aging and is influenced by oxidative stress and health behaviors such as diet and exercise. This article describes relationships between telomere length and sleep parameters that included total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and self-reported sleep quality in a sample of adults with chronic illness....
Published 01/01/2014    Read More...
Telomere length (TL) is highly heritable, and a shorter telomere at birth may increase the risk of age-related problems. Additionally, a shorter TL may represent a biomarker of chronic stress and has been associated with psychiatric disorders. However, no study has explored whether there is an association between TL and the symptoms of one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood: Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). We evaluated 61 (range, 6-16 years) ADHD children...
Published 07/10/2015    Read More...
Authors: Brittany B. Fair, Synthia H SH. Mellon, Elissa S ES. Epel, Dóra D. Révész, Josine E JE. Verhoeven, Brenda W BW. Penninx, Victor I VI. Reus, Laura L. Mahan, Christina C. Hough, Rebecca R. Rosser, Heather M HM. Burke, Jue J. Lin, Elizabeth H EH. Blackburn, Owen M OM....
Published 08/08/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
The negative health effects caused by lead (Pb) exposure are widely recognized; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational Pb exposure on telomere length and to investigate the potential mechanisms leading to telomere shortening. A cohort of 334 male Pb smelters (exposed group) and 60 age-adjusted males unexposed to Pb (control group) were examined. Assessments of relative telomere length (rTL) and telomerase reverse...
Published 09/17/2015    Read More...
Trisomies 18 and 21 are genetic disorders in which cells possess an extra copy of each of the relevant chromosomes. Individuals with these disorders who survive birth generally have a shortened life expectancy. As telomeres are known to play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by protecting the chromosomal ends, we conducted a study to determine whether there are differences in telomere length at birth between individuals with trisomy and diploidy, and between trisomic...
Published 09/29/2013    Read More...
Telomere regression has been shown to be associated with several complex disorders like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cataract etc. Diabetic retinopathy develops as a complication of chronic hyperglycemia leading to increased oxidative stress that may potentially lead to shortening of telomeres. We sought to determine whether there is any association between telomere mean length (TML) of peripheral blood monocytes with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. The study involved 120...
Published 12/16/2015    Read More...
Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
There is increasing evidence that chronic stress accelerates telomere erosion in leukocytes/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, functional changes associated with telomere shortening are poorly understood. We hypothesized that war veterans with PTSD would have shorter telomeres in PBMCs and that these cells might exhibit changes in measures of immune reactivity such as proliferation, cytokine production and expression of regulators of immune responses....
Published 06/28/2014    Read More...
Shortened telomere length (TL) and oxidative stress have been described in several vascular disorders at both the tissue and circulating level. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports about TL associated with varicose vein (VV) disease. This paper aimed to evaluate, at the tissue and circulating level, TL and oxidative stress in VV disease, compared to the corresponding counterparts from abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients and control healthy subjects. TL was measured using...
Published 02/20/2014    Read More...
Excessive shortening of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is a marker of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress and nutritional deficiency may influence this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation on telomeric shortening in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)....
Published 10/03/2013    Read More...
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks) and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere length requires telomerase, the specialized reverse transcriptase capable of maintaining telomere length via template-mediated addition of telomeric...
Published 11/24/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that form protective caps at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. They constitute the safeguards of chromosome degradation and are responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. The multifactorial nature of telomere length (TL) regulation increases the perplexity of studies in the field. TL is characterized by a high variability among individuals (birth and later life) and among species but it is unknown whether this is associated with their lifespan potential....
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Aging phenotypes are dictated by myriad cellular changes including telomere shortening. In most tissues, telomere shortening is accelerated during replication if unrepaired oxidative damage to telomere sequences is present. However, the effect of reactive oxygen species exposure on skeletal muscle telomeres is unknown. We sought to determine if oxidative stress shortens telomeres in isolated adult rodent skeletal muscle fibers. Flexor digitorum brevis muscles were dissected from male mice...
Published 01/13/2014    Read More...
A consistent association has been observed between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are still not well understood. Premature biology aging was evident in atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by reduced cell proliferation, irreversible growth arrest and apoptosis, and telomere attrition. As atherosclerosis is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress, shortened LTL in patients with...
Published 08/08/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are structures of tandem TTAGGG repeats that are found at the ends of chromosomes and preserve genomic DNA by serving as a disposable buffer to protect DNA termini during chromosome replication. In this process, the telomere itself shortens with each cell division and can consequently be thought of as a cellular 'clock', reflecting the age of a cell and the time until senescence. Telomere shortening and changes in the levels of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, occur in...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
The TLO genes are a family of telomere-associated ORFs in the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis that encode a subunit of the Mediator complex with homology to Med2. The more virulent pathogen C. albicans has 15 copies of the gene whereas the less pathogenic species C. dubliniensis has only two (CdTLO1 and CdTLO2). In this study we used C. dubliniensis as a model to investigate the role of TLO genes in regulating virulence and also to determine whether TLO paralogs have...
Published 10/30/2014    Read More...
Authors: Alexander K AK. Koliada, Dmitry S DS. Krasnenkov, Alexander M AM. Vaiserman Published: 03/16/2015, Frontiers in genetics PubMed Full Text...
Published 03/16/2015    Read More...
Chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is related to worse somatic health. This association applies both to stressors early in life, such as childhood adversities, and more recent life stress, such as stressful life events. This study examined whether accelerated telomere shortening, as an indicator of cellular aging, might be an explanatory mechanism....
Published 10/10/2015    Read More...
Emerging evidence suggests that Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 (CST), an RPA-like ssDNA-binding complex, may regulate primase-Pol α (PP) activity at telomeres constitutively, and at other genomic locations under conditions of replication stress. Here we examine the mechanisms of PP stimulation by CST using purified complexes derived from Candida glabrata. While CST does not enhance isolated DNA polymerase activity, it substantially augments both primase activity and primase-to-polymerase switching. CST also...
Published 12/12/2014    Read More...
Strong and consistent evidence exists that physical activity reduces breast cancer risk by 10-25 %, and several proposed biologic mechanisms have now been investigated in randomized, controlled, exercise intervention trials. Leading hypothesized mechanisms relating to postmenopausal breast cancer include adiposity, endogenous sex hormones, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. In addition, other pathways are emerging as potentially important, including those involving...
Published 12/15/2013    Read More...
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and short telomere length is associated with poor health and mortality. This study reports a meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between perceived stress and telomere length, including results from eight studies with a total of 1143 participants. A meta-analytic effect size of r = -0.25, p 𰀼 0.001, indicated that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with shorter telomere length. Examination of the studies for...
Published 11/13/2014    Read More...
Both short telomere length and mitochondrial dysfunction have been associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers of oxidative stress, during pregnancy, is unknown. This study investigated the association of leukocyte telomere length with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, an indicator of mitochondrial density and possible mitochondrial dysfunction, using maternal blood samples...
Published 05/15/2015    Read More...
The purpose of the study is to examine the objective association between sleep stability and leukocyte telomere lengths (LTL) using cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis, which is an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based technique to quantify physiologic sleep stability....
Published 01/28/2015    Read More...
To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course....
Published 06/16/2014    Read More...
The increased oxidative stress in patients with smoking-associated disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is the result of an increased burden of inhaled oxidants as well as increased amounts of reactive oxygen species generated by various inflammatory, immune and epithelial cells of the airways. Nicotine sustains tobacco addiction, a major cause of disability and premature death. In addition to the neurochemical effects of nicotine, behavioural factors also affect the severity...
Published 11/12/2013    Read More...
Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play, including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds: inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate...
Published 11/05/2013    Read More...
Sleep apnea poses an elevated risk for chronic age-related diseases. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker and factor associated with accelerated cellular aging processes, may serve as a novel mechanism underlying these disease risks. We investigated if a history of clinician-diagnosed sleep apnea or primary snoring was associated with LTL in later adulthood....
Published 12/01/2013    Read More...
Historically, biophysical studies of nucleic acids have been carried out under near ideal conditions, i.e., low buffer concentration (e.g., 10 mM phosphate), pH 7, low ionic strength (e.g., 100 mM) and, for optical studies, low concentrations of DNA (e.g., 1×10⁻⁶ M). Although valuable structural and thermodynamic data have come out of these studies, the conditions, for the most, part, are inadequate to simulate realistic cellular conditions. The increasing interest in studying biomolecules...
Published 01/06/2014    Read More...
Epidemiological studies, including those in identical twins, and in individuals in utero during periods of famine have provided robust evidence of strong correlations between low birth-weight and subsequent risk of disease in later life, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), CVD, and metabolic syndrome. These and studies in animal models have suggested that the early environment, especially early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these associations. The concept of early life programming...
Published 01/10/2014    Read More...
Oxidative stress can be induced by increased concentrations of iron in the body and consequently can cause shortening of telomeres. Telomeres, called mitotic clocks, are non-coding fragments at the end of chromosomes. During the replication of genetic material they are shortened, playing the role of ageing biomarkers in eukaryotes. In human endothelial cells, oxidative stress causes a decrease in telomerase activity. Shortening of chromosomes in telomeric parts was found in patients with primary...
Published 10/23/2015    Read More...
The telomere-telomerase system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of diabetes mellitus as well as in its vascular complications. Recent studies suggest that telomere shortening and abnormal telomerase activity occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, and targeting the telomere-telomerase system has become a prospective treatment for diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. This review highlights the significance of the telomere-telomerase system and...
Published 02/13/2015    Read More...
Authors: L L. Zhang, X-Z XZ. Hu, D M DM. Benedek, C S CS. Fullerton, R D RD. Forsten, J A JA. Naifeh, X X. Li, H H. Li, K N KN. Benevides, S S. Smerin, T T. Le, K K. Choi, R J RJ. Ursano Published: 11/05/2013, ...
Published 11/05/2013    Read More...
We previously identified and characterized TELO2 as a human protein that facilitates efficient DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. A subsequent yeast 2-hybrid screen identified LARG; Leukemia-Associated Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (also known as Arhgef12), as a potential novel TELO2 interactor. LARG was previously shown to interact with Pericentrin (PCNT), which, like TELO2, is required for efficient replication stress signaling. Here we confirm interactions between LARG, TELO2 and...
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...
ScienceDirect Abstract Background It has recently been hypothesized that bipolar disorders are associated with accelerated aging. Telomere dysfunction, a biomarker of aging, is determined by the load of short telomeres, rather than by the mean telomere length. To our knowledge, the load of short telomeres has not been reported in any psychiatric...
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Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
Age-associated cardiovascular diseases are at least partially ascribable to vascular cell senescence. Replicative senescence (RS) and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) are provoked respectively by endogenous (telomere erosion) and exogenous (H2O2, UV) stimuli resulting in cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phases. In both scenarios, mitochondria-derived ROS are important players in senescence initiation. We aimed to define whether a mtDNA-transcribed long-non-coding-RNA (lncRNA),...
Published 01/29/2015    Read More...
Spermatocytes of MRL/MpJ mice are more heat resistant than those of C57BL/6 mice in experimental cryptorchidism. This phenotype depends in part on the locus at the 81-cM region of MRL/MpJ-type chromosome 1 (Chr 1). To evaluate the function of this locus, we examined pathological changes in mouse testes resulting from transient scrotal heat stress. Immediately after scrotal heat stress, meiosis progression and blood-testis barrier integrity were preserved in MRL/MpJ but not in C57BL/6 mice, nor...
Published 07/18/2014    Read More...
Both COPD and lung cancer are major worldwide health concerns owing to cigarette smoking, and represent a huge, worldwide, preventable disease burden. Whilst the majority of smokers will not develop either COPD or lung cancer, they are closely related diseases, occurring as co-morbidities at a higher rate than if they were independently triggered by smoking. Lung cancer and COPD may be different aspects of the same disease, with the same underlying predispositions, whether this is an underlying...
Published 08/29/2015    Read More...
Chronic inflammation from recurring trauma is an underlying pathophysiological basis of numerous diseases. Furthermore, it may result in cell death, scarring, fibrosis, and loss of tissue function. In states of inflammation, subsequent increases in oxidative stress and cellular division may lead to the accelerated erosion of telomeres, crucial genomic structures which protect chromosomes from decay. However, the association between plasma inflammatory marker concentrations and telomere length...
Published 01/27/2014    Read More...
The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear substructure assigned to produce ribosomes; molecular machines that are responsible for carrying out protein synthesis. To meet the increased demand for proteins during cell growth and proliferation the cell must increase protein synthetic capacity by upregulating ribosome biogenesis. While larger nucleolar size and number have been recognized as hallmark features of many tumor types, recent evidence has suggested that, in addition to overproduction of...
Published 12/23/2015    Read More...
This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
The telomerase reverse transcriptase protein TERT has recently been demonstrated to have a variety of functions both in vitro and in vivo, which are distinct from its canonical role in telomere extension. In different cellular systems, TERT protein has been shown to be protective through its interaction with mitochondria. TERT has previously been found in rodent neurons, and we hypothesize that it might have a protective function in adult human brain. Here, we investigated the expression of TERT...
Published 01/29/2015    Read More...
The induction of apoptosis is recognized to be a major mechanism of tributyltin (TBT) toxicity. However, the underlying signaling pathways for TBT-induced apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we examined whether DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are involved in TBT-induced germline apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrated that exposing worms to TBT at the dose of 10nM...
Published 02/15/2014    Read More...
Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been conceptualized as both a cyclic and a progressive disorder. Mechanisms involved in neuroprogression in BD remain largely unknown although several non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed as explanatory frameworks. In the present paper, we propose that the pathophysiological changes observed in BD (e.g. brain structural alterations, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress imbalance, amyloid metabolism, immunological deregulation, immunosenescence, neurotrophic...
Published 02/15/2014    Read More...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle critical for the proper folding and assembly of secreted and transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of ER functions cause ER stress, which activates a coordinated system of transcriptional and translational controls called the unfolded protein response (UPR), to cope with accumulation of misfolded proteins and proteotoxicity. It results in ER homeostasis restoration or in cell death. Senescence is a complex cell phenotype induced by...
Published 12/24/2014    Read More...
Telomeres were originally believed to be passive players in cellular replication, but recent research has highlighted their more active role in epigenetic patterning and promotion of cellular growth and survival. Furthermore, literature demonstrates that telomere length (TL) is responsive to environmental manipulations such as prenatal stress and dietary programming. As the search for a prognostic biomarker of concussion has had limited success, this study sought to examine whether or not...
Published 12/17/2015    Read More...
One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of...
Published 04/11/2015    Read More...
Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied...
Published 12/20/2014    Read More...
Accumulated data indicate that wound-care products should have a composition equivalent to that of the skin: a combination of particular growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins endogenous to the skin, together with viable epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Strategies consisting of bioengineered dressings and cell-based products have emerged for widespread clinical use; however, their performance is not optimal because chronic wounds persist as a...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
A considerable fraction of the eukaryotic genome is made up of satellite DNA constituted of tandemly repeated sequences. These elements are mainly located at centromeres, pericentromeres, and telomeres and are major components of constitutive heterochromatin. Although originally satellite DNA was thought silent and inert, an increasing number of studies are providing evidence on its transcriptional activity supporting, on the contrary, an unexpected dynamicity. This review summarizes the...
Published 11/17/2015    Read More...
Exposure to an adverse early-life environment leads to long-term health problems, many of which are recapitulated in subsequent generations. The female reproductive tract is particularly sensitive to early-life influences, and plays a pivotal role in programming the conceptus. We examine the influence of suboptimal grandmaternal diet on reproductive potential of granddaughters in the absence of any further dietary manipulations in the daughters in a rat low-protein diet model. Exposure to...
Published 11/03/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that normal cells undergo in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, including progressive telomere shortening, changes in telomeric structure or other forms of genotoxic as well nongenotoxic stress. Senescence is thought to have originated as a remodelling program that is active in embryonic development and acts as a key tumour suppressor mechanism during the reproductive stage in early adult life, by leading to the removal of...
Published 12/29/2014    Read More...
Pulmonary fibrosis is the main cause of severe morbidity and mortality in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). In the past years, there has been major progress in the discovery of genetic factors that contribute to disease. Genes with highly penetrant mutations or strongly predisposing common risk alleles have been identified in familial and sporadic IIP. This review summarizes genes harbouring causative rare mutations and replicated common predisposing alleles. To date, rare mutations in...
Published 10/11/2015    Read More...
Stress can be a predisposing factor to psychiatric disorders and has been associated with decreased neurogenesis and reduced hippocampal volume especially in depression. Similarly, in white blood cells chronic psychological stress has been associated with telomere shortening and with mood disorders and schizophrenia (SZ). However, in previous post-mortem brain studies from occipital cortex and cerebellum, no difference in telomere length was observed in depression. We hypothesized that in...
Published 09/15/2015    Read More...
Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions...
Published 01/23/2015    Read More...
Accelerated aging has been proposed as a pathologic mechanism of various chronic diseases, including COPD. This concept has almost exclusively been approached by analyses of individual markers. We investigated whether COPD is associated with accelerated aging using a panel of markers representing various interconnected aspects of the aging process....
Published 01/06/2016    Read More...
Authors: Laura A LA. Villalobos, Anna A. Uryga, Tania T. Romacho, Alejandra A. Leivas, Carlos F CF. Sánchez-Ferrer, Jorge D JD. Erusalimsky, Concepción C. Peiró Published: 05/17/2014, International journal of cardiology PubMed Full Text...
Published 05/17/2014    Read More...
Telomere shortening is physiologically associated with ageing but it may be influenced by oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, linked to obesity. Thus, obesity might represent an additional cause of telomere attrition. We aim to study relative telomere length (RTL) in obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome and to assess the effect of weight loss induced by bariatric surgery....
Published 11/07/2014    Read More...
Liver transplantation is used to treat patients with irreversible liver failure from a variety of causes. Long-term survival has been reported, particularly in the paediatric population, with graft survival longer than 20 years now possible. The goal for paediatric liver transplantation is to increase the longevity of grafts to match the normal life expectancy of the child. This paper reviews the literature on the current understanding of ageing of the liver and biomarkers that may predict...
Published 09/28/2014    Read More...
Telomeres, DNA-protein structures at chromosome ends, shorten with age, and telomere length has been linked to age-related diseases and survival. In vitro studies revealed that the shortest telomeres trigger cell senescence, but whether the shortest telomeres are also the best biomarker of ageing is not known. We measured telomeres in erythrocytes of wild common terns Sterna hirundo using terminal restriction fragment analysis. This yields a distribution of telomere lengths for each sample, and...
Published 12/28/2013    Read More...
Oxidative stress is believed to be an important inducer of cellular senescence and aging. Zinc finger protein 637 (Zfp637), which belongs to the Krüppel-like protein family, has been hypothesized to play a role in oxidative stress. Nevertheless, the precise function of Zfp637 has seldom been reported, and it remains unclear whether Zfp637 is involved in oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. In this study, we show that the endogenous expression levels of Zfp637 and mouse telomerase...
Published 07/17/2014    Read More...
In Belgium and in other countries, the Cancer Registry data show an increased incidence of cancers related to age, the majority of tumors being diagnosed beyond 60 years. However, the mechanisms responsible for this increase are not clear. Cancer could be chronologically associated with aging because of the long latency period between the exposition to carcinogenic agents and the appearance of clinical signs. Aging could also predispose directly to cancer by different mechanisms (impaired immune...
Published 07/28/2014    Read More...
The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement in different cancers, named "chromothripsis" (chromo for chromosome, thripsis for shattering) has questioned the established models for a progressive development of tumors. Indeed, this phenomenon, which is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome segments followed by a random reassembly of the fragments generated, occurs during one unique cellular event. The same phenomenon was identified in...
Published 03/31/2014    Read More...
TO summarize the researcn situation or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) senescence, including the characteristics and mechanisms of senescence....
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
To study the impact of simulated climatic conditions of the 2010 summer in Moscow on the telomere repeats of chromosomes in human blood cells....
Published 03/25/2015    Read More...
It is often accepted that various factors modulate ageing and longevity in a linear way, a higher/lower level of the factor delaying ageing and/or increasing longevity. However, many examples (e.g. the effects of diet restriction or antioxidants and of telomere attrition) show that this view can be wrong. For instance, mild stress has often positive effects on ageing and longevity, and severe stress opposite effects. The dose-response relationship is thus not linear but has an inverted U-shape....
Published 09/07/2015    Read More...
Cellular senescence is a complex process associated with irreversible cell cycle arrest. We can distinguish replicative senescence, which is telomere dependent and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), which is telomere independent. Replicative senescence can be observed in culture after a few weeks or months, depending on the cell type. On the other hand SIPS can be observed a few days after treating with a senescence inducing agent. Till now a universal marker of senescence has not been...
Published 08/19/2014    Read More...
For hundreds of years natural compounds have been used in herbal medicine. They have been known for their antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer activities as well as for enhancing wound healing and improving immunity. Recently growing interest in natural compounds has been observed, due to their ability to modulate cellular senescence. Particularly interesting are these compounds that can induce tumor senescence, delay senescence of normal cells or reverse changes associated with senescence -...
Published 08/19/2014    Read More...
The mesothelium is a specific group of cells having characteristics of both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. One of the most unique properties of these cells is a low proliferative capacity and a small number of achievable division. The purpose of this paper was to present the current state of knowledge on the causes of premature senescence of peritoneal mesothelial cells and to discuss the molecular events involved in this process. Particular attention was paid to the role of telomeres, the...
Published 08/19/2014    Read More...
Telomeres which are formed by double-strand breaks and DNA under replication, cause cell cycle arrest resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. The erosion of telomeres is an important mechanism for regulating the aging process by limiting cell proliferation. Over the last decade, many investigations in the field of telomeric biology showed that telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of some human diseases. The aim of the study was to compare telomere length...
Published 10/27/2014    Read More...