Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The regulation of 5' end resection at DSBs and telomeres prevents genome instability. DSB resection is positively and negatively regulated by ATM signaling through CtIP/MRN and 53BP1-bound Rif1, respectively. Similarly, telomeres lacking TRF2 undergo ATM-controlled CtIP-dependent hyper-resection when the repression by 53BP1/Rif1 is alleviated. However, telomere resection in the absence of 53BP1/Rif1 is more extensive upon complete removal of shelterin, indicating additional protection against resection by shelterin. Here we show that TPP1 and POT1a/b in shelterin block a resection pathway distinct from that repressed by TRF2. This second pathway is regulated by ATR signaling, involves Exo1 and BLM, and is inhibited by 53BP1/Rif1. Thus, mammalian cells have two distinct 5' end-resection pathways that are regulated by DNA damage signaling, in part through Rif1-mediated inhibition. The data show that telomeres are protected from hyper-resection through the repression of the ATM and ATR kinases by TRF2 and TPP1-bound POT1a/b, respectively.