© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aplastic anemia is a disease in which the hematopoietic stem cell fails to adequately produce peripheral blood cells, causing pancytopenia. In some cases of acquired aplastic anemia and in inherited type of aplastic anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, telomere biology gene mutations and telomere shortening are etiologic. Telomere erosion hampers the ability of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to adequately replicate, clinically resulting in bone marrow failure. Additionally, telomerase mutations and short telomeres are genetic risk factors for the development of some hematologic cancers, including myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.