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Studies on non-covalent interaction of coumarin attached pyrimidine and 1-methyl indole 1,2,3 triazole analogues with intermolecular telomeric G-quadruplex DNA using ESI-MS and spectroscopy.

Authors: G G. Raju, R R. Srinivas, M Damoder MD. Reddy, Ch Raji ChR. Reddy, N N. Nagesh
Published: 06/28/2014, Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids


In the present study, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the non-covalent interaction, stoichiometry, and selectivity of two synthetic coumarin-attached nucleoside and non-nucleoside 1,2,3-triazoles, namely, (1-(5-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(4-((2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)5-methyl pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (Tr1) and 4-((1-((-1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one (Tr2) with two different human telomeric intermolecular G-quadruplex DNA structures formed by d(T2AG3) and d(T2AG3)2 sequences. ESI-MS studies indicate that Tr1 specifically interacts with four-stranded intermolecular parallel quadruplex complex, whereas Tr2 interacts with two hairpin as well as four-stranded intermolecular parallel quadruplex complexes. UV-Visible spectroscopic studies suggest that Tr1 and Tr2 interact with G-quadruplex structure and unwind them. Job plots show that stoichiometry of ligand:quadruplex DNA is 1:1. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of G-quadruplex DNA and Tr1/Tr2 ligands manifest that they unfold DNA on interaction. Fluorescence studies demonstrate that ligand molecules intercalate between the two stacks of quadruplex DNA and non-radiative energy transfer occurs between the excited ligand molecules (donor) and quadruplex DNA (acceptor), resulting in enhancement of fluorescence emission intensity. Thus, these studies suggest that nucleoside and non-nucleoside ligands efficiently interact with d(T2AG3) and d(T2AG3)2 G-quadruplex DNA but the interaction is not alike with all kinds of quadruplex DNA, this is probably due to the variation in the pharmacophores and structure of the ligand molecules.

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