© 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Zygotic repair of the paternal genome is a key event after fertilization. Spermatozoa accumulate DNA strand breaks during spermatogenesis and can suffer additional damage by different factors, including cryopreservation. Fertilization with DNA-damaged spermatozoa (DDS) is considered to promote implantation failures and abortions, but also long-term effects on the progeny that could be related with a defective repair. Base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the most active in zygotic DNA repair, but healthy oocytes contain enzymes for all repairing pathways. In this study, the effects of the inhibition of the BER pathway in the zygote were analyzed on the progeny obtained after fertilization with differentially DDS. Massive gene expression (GE; 61 657 unique probes) was analyzed after hatching using microarrays. Trout oocytes are easily fertilized with DDS and the high prolificacy allows live progeny to be obtained even with a high rate of abortions. Nevertheless, the zygotic inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, upstream of BER pathway, resulted in 810 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after hatching. DEGs are related with DNA repair, apoptosis, telomere maintenance, or growth and development, revealing a scenario of impaired DNA damage signalization and repair. Downregulation of the apoptotic cascade was noticed, suggesting a selection of embryos tolerant to residual DNA damage during embryo development. Our results reveal changes in the progeny from defective repairing zygotes including higher malformations rate, weight gain, longer telomeres, and lower caspase 3/7 activity, whose long-term consequences should be analyzed in depth.