© 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The mitotic chromosomes of 11 species from the anuran families Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae were analyzed by means of conventional staining, banding techniques, and in situ hybridization. The amount, location, and fluorochrome affinities of constitutive heterochromatin, the number and positions of nucleolus organizer regions, and the patterns of telomeric DNA sequences were determined for most of the species. The karyotypes were found to be highly conserved with a low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20 and morphologically similar chromosomes. The sister group relationship between the Centrolenidae and Allophrynidae (unranked taxon Allocentroleniae) is clearly corroborated by the cytogenetic data. The existence of heteromorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes in an initial stage of morphological differentiation was confirmed in Vitreorana antisthenesi. The genome sizes of 4 centrolenid species were determined using flow cytometry. For completeness and for comparative purposes, all previously published cytogenetic data on centrolenids are included.