Telomere Science Library

Publications, Presentations, and Videos
about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

FISH (Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization)

Sort by:
The nuclear envelope (NE) plays an essential role in meiotic telomere behavior and links the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm during homologous chromosome pairing and recombination in many eukaryotic species. Resident NE proteins including SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-homology) domain proteins are known to interact forming the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex that connects chromatin to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible cross-kingdom conservation...
Published 07/11/2014    Read More...
This study reports on a unique balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation detected in a phenotypically normal cattle dam and her calf. CBG-, GTG-banding and FISH using bovine whole-chromosome and telomere probes were applied. The analyses showed that the breakpoints were located near to the centromere in chromosome 26 (q11) and exceptionally close to the telomere in chromosome 13 (q24). The whole euchromatin segment of chromosome 26 was translocated onto chromosome 13. The distal end of...
Published 11/13/2014    Read More...
The combined 1p-/19q- deletions in oligodendrogliomas originate from translocation between both chromosomes. In the few cases of oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) where only 1p deletion was described, the origin remains unknown. We report the first case of GBMO, in which a single 1p deletion was detected and was linked to a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7. Fresh surgical specimens were collected during surgery and the samples were used for...
Published 09/30/2013    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited disorder with mutations affecting telomerase or telomeric proteins. DC patients usually die of bone marrow failure. Here we show that genetic depletion of the telomerase RNA component (TR) in the zebrafish results in impaired myelopoiesis, despite normal development of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The neutropenia caused by TR depletion is independent of telomere length and telomerase activity. Genetic analysis shows that TR modulates the...
Published 02/05/2014    Read More...
Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here, we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally short-lived African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de-novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9...
Published 02/12/2015    Read More...
Alterations in pathways including BRAF, CDKN2A, and TERT contribute to the development of melanoma, but the sequence in which the genetic alterations occur and their prognostic significance remains unclear. To clarify the role of these pathways, we analyzed a primary melanoma and its metastasis....
Published 12/11/2014    Read More...
Some healthy individuals carry human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) within a host chromosome, which is called inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6). Because iciHHV-6 is generally considered a non-pathogenic condition, it is important to distinguish iciHHV-6 from HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised hosts because both conditions manifest high copy numbers of the HHV-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a reliable...
Published 11/06/2015    Read More...
We report the case of a patient with a clinical phenotype consistent with Down Syndrome (DS) who has a novel karyotypic abnormality. Karyotypic analyses were performed to investigate the cause of two spontaneous abortions. A balanced translocation between chromosomes 4 and 21 was identified, along with an additional abnormal chromosome 21. We performed high-resolution banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and FISH studies in both the patient and her mother to define the abnormality...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
β-Thalassemia/HbE disease is caused by a defective β-globin synthesis that leads to accumulation of excess unbound α-globins, and consequently oxidative stress, ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia. Cell replication and oxidative stress are factors contributing to erosion of telomeres responsible for maintaining genomic stability and cell replication capability. In this study, the rate of telomere shortening in β-thalassemia/HbE patients was compared to the rate of telomere...
Published 01/17/2015    Read More...
Phylogenetic divergence in Asparagales plants is associated with switches in telomere sequences. The last switch occurred with divergence of the genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae) from the other Allioideae (formerly Alliaceae) genera, resulting in uncharacterized telomeres maintained by an unknown mechanism. To characterize the unknown Allium telomeres, we applied a combination of bioinformatic processing of transcriptomic and genomic data with standard approaches in telomere biology such as BAL31...
Published 01/30/2016    Read More...
Inverted duplication 8p associated with deletion of the short arms of chromosome 8 (invdupdel[8p]) is a relatively uncommon complex chromosomal rearrangement, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000-30,000 live borns. The chromosomal rearrangement consists of a deletion of the telomeric region (8p23-pter) and an inverted duplication of the 8p11.2-p22 region. Clinical manifestations of this disorder include severe to moderate intellectual disability and characteristic facial features. In most...
Published 02/25/2015    Read More...
This method makes it possible to measure the fluorescence of a DNA probe in cells with known division number and targeted surface antigen. In fact, this method is a combination or consistent application of three other methods: cell tracking by vital dye, surface immunophenotyping, and flow-FISH. The idea in developing this method was to study telomere length changes in cells with known surface antigen after every new cell division. First, the in vitro cell culturing and staining with CFSE vital...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
We have reported that telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) of established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human amnion (hAM933) and fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, and that the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among clones without chromosomal instability, although the telomeres of other iPSCs derived from MRC-5 became shorter as the number of passages increased along with chromosomal abnormalities...
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
To identify potential biomarkers that may provide new therapeutic targets or prognostic indicators for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated the three-dimensional (3D) organization of telomeres and cytoband 17q25.3 copy number in NSCLC tissues....
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
BDNF plays an important role in the development and maintenance of visual circuitries in the retina and brain visual centers. In adulthood, BDNF signaling is involved in neural protection and regeneration of retina. In this survey, we investigated the expression of BDNF in the retina of adult Nothobranchius furzeri, a teleost fish employed for age research. After describing the retina of N. furzeri and confirming that the structure is organized in layers as in all vertebrates, we have studied...
Published 02/06/2014    Read More...
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women, but some basic questions remain in breast cancer biology. To answer these, several cell models were developed. Recently, the use of improved cell-culture conditions has enabled the development of a new primary cell model with certain luminal characteristics. This model is relevant because, after the introduction of a specific set of genetic elements, the transformed cells yielded tumors resembling human adenocarcinomas in mice. The use...
Published 01/13/2016    Read More...
Direct visualization of genomic loci in the 3D nucleus is important for understanding the spatial organization of the genome and its association with gene expression. Various DNA FISH methods have been developed in the past decades, all involving denaturing dsDNA and hybridizing fluorescent nucleic acid probes. Here we report a novel approach that uses in vitro constituted nuclease-deficient clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated caspase 9 (Cas9)...
Published 08/31/2015    Read More...
Repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes, especially in sex chromosome differentiation. The genus Triportheus represents an interesting model for such studies because all of its species analyzed so far contain a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A close relationship has been found between the differentiation of the W chromosome and heterochromatinization, with the involvement of different types of repetitive DNA in this process. This...
Published 03/14/2014    Read More...
Rineloricaria is the most species-rich genus of the Loricariinae (armored catfish) with 65 valid species. However, the karyotype structure is known only for eight species in this group. This study provides cytogenetic data for Rineloricaria lanceolata collected from the upper Paraguay basin (Mato Grosso do Sul). The specimens revealed extensive chromosomal polymorphism constituting 10 karyotypes, which differed in the diploid number (48 to 45 chromosomes) and fundamental number (FN) between 52...
Published 07/29/2014    Read More...
Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that HBV might accelerate hepatocyte ageing and investigated the effect of HBV on hepatocyte cell cycle state and biological age. We also investigated the relation between inflammation, fibrosis and cell cycle phase....
Published 05/29/2015    Read More...
Since the advent of molecular phylogenetics, numerous attempts have been made to infer the evolutionary trajectories of chromosome numbers on DNA phylogenies. Ideally, such inferences should be evaluated against cytogenetic data. Towards this goal, we carried out phylogenetic modelling of chromosome number change and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a medium sized genus of Araceae to elucidate if data from chromosomal markers would support maximum likelihood-inferred changes in...
Published 02/04/2014    Read More...
A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the...
Published 08/04/2015    Read More...
Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage...
Published 04/25/2014    Read More...
The spatial distribution of parental genomes has attracted much interest because intranuclear chromosome distribution can modulate the transcriptome of cells and influence the efficacy of meiotic homologue pairing. Pairing of parental chromosomes is imperative to sexual reproduction as it translates into homologue segregation and genome haploidization to counteract the genome doubling at fertilization. Differential FISH tagging of parental pericentromeric genome portions and specific painting of...
Published 08/15/2014    Read More...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers,...
Published 02/06/2014    Read More...
Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis of human telomeres was used to calibrate flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FF) measures of telomere lengths to expand the range of measures and increase power of resolution of our previously published protocol. TRF data used as the gold standard should be obtained by electrophoresis with suitable resolution applied to appropriately isolated genomic DNA. When we considered TRF attained by correct methods, we found our method to be insufficiently...
Published 01/23/2014    Read More...
We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located...
Published 02/20/2015    Read More...
To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over...
Published 04/18/2015    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is associated with impaired telomere maintenance and with clinical features of premature aging. In this study, we analysed global DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of DKC patients. Age-associated DNAm changes were not generally accelerated in DKC, but there were significant differences to DNAm patterns of healthy controls, particularly in CpG sites related to an internal promoter region of PR domain containing 8 (PRDM8). Notably, the same genomic region was also...
Published 02/17/2016    Read More...
The extent of clinical expression in cases of segmental aneuploidy often varies depending on the size of the chromosomal region involved. Here we present clinical and cytogenetic findings in a 5-month old boy with a duplication of a chromosomal segment 4p16.1-->4pter and a deletion of a chromosomal segment 8p23.1-->8pter. His karyotype was determined by applying classical GTG banding and FISH method (WHCR region, centromere 4, centromere 8, telomere 8p) as 46,XY,der(8)t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1).ish...
Published 05/23/2014    Read More...
The cornea protects the anterior eye and accounts for two thirds of the eyes refractive capacity. The homeostasis of corneal epithelium is thought to be maintained by putative stem cells residing in the epithelial basal layer. As a tissue constantly exposed to environmental stress, the cornea is hypothesised to accumulate persistent DNA damage events with time in stem cell populations. Recently, telomere associated DNA damage foci (TAFs) have been suggested as a marker for persistent DNA damage...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
TP53 mutations are the most common mutations in human cancers, and TP53-R175H and TP53-R273H are the most frequent. The impact of these mutations on genomic instability after tumor initiation is still uncovered. To gain insight into this, we studied the effects of three specific TP53 mutants (TP53-V143A, TP53-R175H, and TP53-R273H) on genomic instability using four isogenic lines of LoVo cells. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), three-dimensional (3D) quantitative FISH...
Published 07/25/2014    Read More...
Chromosomal evolution, including numerical and structural changes, is a major force in plant diversification and speciation. This study addresses genomic changes associated with the extensive chromosomal variation of the Mediterranean Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae), which includes four diploid cytotypes each with a unique combination of chromosome number (x = 5, 6, 7), rDNA loci and genome size....
Published 08/28/2014    Read More...
Nuclear α-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) loss and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) are linked in distinct malignancies. We therefore aimed to determine the nuclear ATRX expression correlated with ALT in a comprehensive series of sarcomas....
Published 10/21/2015    Read More...
Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to...
Published 11/19/2014    Read More...
The telomere shortening in chromosomes implies the senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of cells. Since detecting telomeres in aging and diseases like cancer, is important, the direct detection of telomeres has been a very useful biomarker. We propose a telomere detection method using a newly synthesized quantum dot (QD) based probe with oligonucleotide conjugation and direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). QD-oligonucleotides were prepared with metal coordination...
Published 10/09/2015    Read More...
Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal,...
Published 07/04/2014    Read More...
Given finite resources, intense investment in one life history trait is expected to reduce investment in others. Although telomere length appears to be strongly tied to age in many taxa, telomere maintenance requires energy. We therefore hypothesize that telomere maintenance may trade off against other life history characters. We used natural variation in laboratory populations of Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) to study the relationship between growth, fecundity, life expectancy, and...
Published 05/04/2015    Read More...
Approximately 1 percent of healthy individuals carry human herpesvirus-6 within a host chromosome. This is referred to as chromosomally integrated herpesvirus-6 (CIHHV-6). In this study, we investigated the chromosomal integration site in six individuals harboring CIHHV-6B. Using FISH, we found that HHV-6B signals are consistently located at the telomeric region. The proximal endpoints of the integrated virus were mapped at one of two telomere-repeat-like sequences (TRSs) within the DR-R in all...
Published 04/02/2014    Read More...
Migration of the telomere of the short arm of rye chromosome 5R (5RS) during bouquet organization is dependent on the conformation that this chromosome adopts in its intact, submetacentric, or truncated, metacentric, form. In order to establish whether the telomere migration dependence on chromosome conformation is a common feature of all rye chromosomes, the behavior of the telomeres of 2 other rye chromosomes, 1R and 6R, with apparent differences in the arm ratio, has been studied at the...
Published 06/21/2014    Read More...
A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and established a simple model of cancer risk that can be applied to CAG surveillance....
Published 06/28/2014    Read More...
Reduced telomere length in placental mesenchymal core cells has been reported during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. To estimate telomere length, a precise, accurate and reproducible technique must be used....
Published 05/20/2015    Read More...
Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable...
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibility between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes, and is characterized by the inability to produce viable pollen. The restoration of male fertility generally involves the introgression of nuclear genes, termed restorers of fertility (Rf). CMS has been widely used for hybrid seed production in many crops but not in wheat, partly owing to the complex genetics of fertility restoration. In this study, an acrocentric chromosome that restores pollen...
Published 09/30/2014    Read More...
Telomeric repeats are general and significant structures of eukaryotic chromosomes. However, nothing is known about the molecular structure of telomeres in the enigmatic hemipteran suborder Coleorrhyncha (moss bugs) commonly considered as the sister group to the suborder Heteroptera (true bugs). The true bugs are known to differ from the rest of the Hemiptera in that they display an inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions in male meiosis, the so-called sex chromosome post-reduction. To...
Published 09/02/2015    Read More...
Baerlocher GM, Vulto I, de Jong G, Lansdorp PM Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 1L3, Canada. . Nat Protoc. 2006;1(5):2365-76. Telomeres have emerged as crucial cellular elements in aging and various diseases including cancer. To measure the...
Published     Read More...
The essential role of dietary micronutrients for genome stability is well documented, yet the effect of folate deficiency or excess on telomeres is not known. Accordingly, human WIL2-NS cells were maintained in medium containing 30, 300, or 3,000 nmol/L folic acid (FA) for 42 days to test the hypothesis that chronic folate deficiency would cause telomere shortening and dysfunction. After 14 days, telomere length (TL) in FA-deficient (30 nmol/L) cultures was 26% longer than that of 3,000 nmol/L...
Published 11/19/2013    Read More...
It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory....
Published 12/21/2013    Read More...
The cell nucleus comprises a number of chromatin-associated domains. Certain chromatin-associated domains are nucleated by nascent RNA and accumulate non-nascent transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) aggregates. In the transcriptionally active nucleus of the growing avian oocyte, RNP-rich structures, here termed giant terminal RNP aggregates (GITERA), form at the termini of lampbrush chromosomes. Using GITERA as an example, we aimed to explore mechanisms of RNP aggregate formation...
Published 12/12/2015    Read More...
The growth factor heregulin (HRG) promotes breast cancer (BC) tumorigenesis and metastasis and differentially modulates BC cell responses to DNA-damaging agents via its dual extracellular and nuclear localization. Given the central role of telomere dysfunction to drive carcinogenesis and to alter the chemotherapeutic profile of transformed cells, we hypothesized that an unanticipated nuclear function of HRG might be to regulate telomere length. Engineered overexpression of the HRGβ2 isoform in...
Published 12/03/2015    Read More...
Telomerase inactivation causes loss of the male germline in worms, fish, and mice, indicating a conserved dependence on telomere maintenance in this cell lineage. Here, using telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) reporter mice, we found that very high telomerase expression is a hallmark of undifferentiated spermatogonia, the mitotic population where germline stem cells reside. We exploited these high telomerase levels as a basis for purifying undifferentiated spermatogonia using...
Published 11/19/2015    Read More...
How does regulation of telomerase activity (TA) in human endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) by ovarian hormones impact on telomere lengths (TL) and cell proliferation?...
Published 10/25/2015    Read More...
Accumulating evidence suggests that RNAs interacting with genomic regions play important roles in the regulation of genome functions, including X chromosome inactivation and gene expression. However, to our knowledge, no non-biased methods of identifying RNAs that interact with a specific genomic region have been reported. Here, we used enChIP-RNA-Seq, a combination of engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), to perform a...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
In addition to their applications in genome editing and gene expression regulation, programmable DNA recognition systems, including both CRISPR and TALE, have been recently engineered for the visualization of endogenous genomic elements in living cells. This capability greatly helps the study of genome function regulation by its physical organization and interaction with other nuclear structures. This chapter first discusses the general considerations in designing and implementing the imaging...
Published 11/15/2014    Read More...
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by the presence of short telomeres at presentation. Mutations in ten different genes, whose products are involved in the telomere maintenance pathway, have been shown to cause DC. The X-linked form is the most common form of the disease and is caused by mutations in the gene DKC1, encoding the protein dyskerin. Dyskerin is required for the assembly and stability of telomerase and is also involved in ribosomal...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase...
Published 06/18/2015    Read More...
The family Parodontidae presents a conserved diploid number of 54 chromosomes and different stages associated with ZW sex chromosome differentiation. For the great majority of species in this family it was proposed that the karyotypic diversification is mostly due to repetitive DNA mobility and accumulation. In this study, 2 repetitive probes, (GATA)n and (TTAGGG)n, were used to assess probable mechanisms of chromosome diversification, especially those related to molecular differentiation of the...
Published 02/03/2015    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction is important in carcinogenesis, and recently, stathmin and elongation factor 1α (EF1α) were reported to be up-regulated in telomere dysfunctional mice....
Published 05/31/2014    Read More...
Zygotic repair of the paternal genome is a key event after fertilization. Spermatozoa accumulate DNA strand breaks during spermatogenesis and can suffer additional damage by different factors, including cryopreservation. Fertilization with DNA-damaged spermatozoa (DDS) is considered to promote implantation failures and abortions, but also long-term effects on the progeny that could be related with a defective repair. Base excision repair (BER) pathway is considered the most active in zygotic DNA...
Published 11/29/2014    Read More...
Sex chromosomes of extant eutherian species are too ancient to reveal the process that initiated sex-chromosome differentiation. By contrast, the neo-sex chromosomes generated by sex-autosome fusions of recent origin in Tokudaia muenninki are expected to be evolutionarily 'young', and therefore provide a good model in which to elucidate the early phases of eutherian sex chromosome evolution. Here we describe the genomic evolution of T. muenninki in neo-sex chromosome differentiation....
Published 10/29/2015    Read More...
The purpose of the work was to investigate telomere length (TL) and mechanisms involved in TL maintenance in individual neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Primary NB tumors from 102 patients, ninety Italian and twelve Spanish, diagnosed from 2000 to 2008 were studied. TL was investigated by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (IQ-FISH) that allows to analyze individual cells in paraffin-embedded tissues. Fluorescence intensity of chromosome 2 centromere was used as internal control to...
Published 04/30/2015    Read More...
Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining...
Published 11/13/2013    Read More...
Mosaicism for an autosomal structural rearrangement that does not involve ring or marker chromosomes is rare. The mechanisms responsible for genome instability have not always been explained. Several studies have shown that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), involved in some mosaic constitutional anomalies, are potent sources of genomic instability. Here we describe two cases of mosaicism for uncommon constitutional autosomal rearrangements, involving ITSs, identified by karyotyping and...
Published 11/26/2014    Read More...
Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzuspersicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in...
Published 10/31/2014    Read More...
Hypsiboas species have been divided into seven groups using morphological and genetic characters, but for most of the species, there is no cytogenetic information available. A cytogenetic analysis using conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric sequence probes were used to investigate the karyotype of seven Amazon species of the genus Hypsiboas belonging to the following intrageneric groups: H. punctatus (H. cinerascens), H....
Published 04/04/2014    Read More...
Sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare and genetically heterogeneous. Chromosome instability (CIN) has been detected in pNETs from patients with poor outcomes, but no specific genetic factors have been associated with CIN. Mutations in death domain-associated protein gene (DAXX) or ATR-X gene (ATRX) (which both encode proteins involved in chromatin remodeling) have been detected in 40% of pNETs, in association with activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres. We...
Published 10/19/2013    Read More...
Nuclear lamin B1 (LMNB1) constitutes one of the major structural proteins in the lamina mesh. We silenced the expression of LMNB1 by RNA interference in the colon cancer cell line DLD-1 and showed a dramatic redistribution of H3K27me3 from the periphery to a more homogeneous nuclear dispersion. In addition, we observed telomere attrition and an increased frequency of micronuclei and nuclear blebs. By 3D-FISH analyses, we demonstrated that the volume and surface of chromosome territories were...
Published 04/14/2014    Read More...
Centromeres usually consist of hundreds of kilobases of repetitive sequence which renders them difficult to assemble. As a consequence, centromeres are often missing from assembled genomes and their locations on physical chromosome maps have to be inferred from flanking sequences via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Alternatively, centromere positions can be mapped using linkage analyses in accidentally triploid individuals formed by half-tetrads (resulting from the inheritance of two...
Published 12/15/2015    Read More...
A new repeated DNA from Microtus thomasi, Mth-Alu2.2, was cloned and characterized and is presented here for the first time. Digestion of genomic DNA from M. thomasi with AluI restriction enzyme revealed a 2.2-kb repetitive DNA sequence with a high AT content (69%). This sequence consists of a tandemly repeated nonanucleotide of the consensus sequence CACAATGTA, which constitutes approximately 93-95% of the total unit length. The location of the Mth-Alu2.2 sequence in the karyotype was...
Published 11/08/2014    Read More...
Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of...
Published 06/10/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive DNA repeats that cap the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes. Their proper maintenance is essential for genomic stability and cellular viability. Dysfunctional telomeres could arise through natural attrition of telomeric DNA or due to the removal of shelterin components. These uncapped chromosomal ends are recognized as DSBs by the DDR pathway, leading to the accumulation of DNA damage sensors at telomeres. The association of these DDR proteins with dysfunctional...
Published 09/30/2015    Read More...
Antigen-specific multifunctional T cells that secrete interferon-γ, interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α simultaneously after activation are important for the control of many infections. It is unclear if these CD8(+) T cells are at an early or late stage of differentiation and whether telomere erosion restricts their replicative capacity. We developed a multi-parameter flow cytometric method for investigating the relationship between differentiation (CD45RA and CD27 surface phenotype),...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Formamide has long been one of the most widely used reagents in the study of nucleic acids. However, the use of formamide for treating cells to be analyzed by flow cytometry is a recent development and is restricted to measuring telomere lengths by flow-FISH. In this field, we have published several papers in order to observe the effects of formamide treatment on cells at room temperature. We therefore discovered that, with suitable modifications, a short and simple incubation in this ionizing...
Published 02/11/2016    Read More...
Telomeres, DNA-protein structures that cap and protect chromosomes, are thought to shorten more rapidly when exposed to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Diet and nutritional status may be a source of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, relationships between telomere length (TL) and diet or adiposity have primarily been studied cross-sectionally among older, overweight/obese populations and yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about the relationship between diet or body...
Published 10/26/2015    Read More...
Chromosomal organization and the evolution of genome architecture can be investigated by physical mapping of the genes for 45S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and by the analysis of telomeric sequences. We studied 12 species of bats belonging to four subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae in order to correlate patterns of distribution of heterochromatin and the multigene families for rDNA. The number of clusters for 45S gene ranged from one to three pairs, with exclusively location in autosomes,...
Published 12/25/2013    Read More...
Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple...
Published 10/27/2014    Read More...
Real time qPCR has become the method of choice for rapid large-scale telomere length measurements. Large samples sizes are critical for clinical trials, and epidemiological studies. QPCR has become such routine procedure that it is often used with little critical analysis. With proper controls, the mean telomere size can be derived from the data and even the size can be estimated. But there is a need for more consistent and reliable controls that will provide closer to the actual mean size can...
Published 08/12/2015    Read More...
Obesity and inactivity have been associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine whether telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity, and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically...
Published 05/19/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive nucleoproteins that help maintain chromosomal stability by inhibiting exonucleolytic degradation, prohibiting inappropriate homologous recombination, and preventing chromosomal fusions by suppressing double-strand break signals. We recently observed that men treated for clinically localized prostate cancer with shorter telomeres in their cancer-associated stromal cells, in combination with greater variation in cancer cell telomere lengths, were significantly more likely...
Published 04/20/2015    Read More...
Ageing is linked to a number of changes in how the body and its organs function. On a molecular level, ageing is associated with a reduction of telomere length, changes in metabolic and gene-transcription profiles and an altered DNA-methylation pattern. Lifestyle factors such as smoking or stress can impact some of these molecular processes and thereby affect the ageing of an individual. Here we demonstrate by analysis of 77 plasma proteins in 976 individuals, that the abundance of circulating...
Published 12/01/2015    Read More...
The 9p trisomy is a relatively frequent disorder, while pure 9p trisomies are less frequent and usually derived from 9;22 translocations, duplications or 9p extra chromosomes. Here we report a patient with pure trisomy 9p derived from a terminal balanced unreciprocal translocation. The patient derived to the genetic service by psychomotor delay, presented at 2 years and 11 months: short stature, open anterior fontanelle, dysplastic ears, facial dysmorphisms, long and broad first toes with...
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether...
Published 04/11/2014    Read More...
Chromosomal and genomic instability due to telomere dysfunction is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. To study telomere shortening in the epidermis surrounding actinic keratosis, we measured telomere lengths of basal, parabasal, and suprabasal cells in epidermis with actinic keratosis (actinic keratosis group, n = 18) and without actinic keratosis (sun-protected, n = 15, and sun-exposed, n = 13 groups) and in actinic keratosis itself as well as in dermal fibroblasts in the 3...
Published 10/19/2013    Read More...
The genetic disorder Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Dominant mutations in the chromatin regulators lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) (also known as MLL2) and lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A) underlie the majority of cases. Although the functions of these chromatin-modifying proteins have been studied extensively, the physiological systems regulated by them are largely unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing, we...
Published 08/17/2015    Read More...
Defective DNA repair leads to increased genomic instability, which is the root cause of mutations that lead to tumorigenesis. Analysis of the frequency and type of chromosome aberrations in different cell types allows defects in DNA repair pathways to be elucidated. Understanding mammalian DNA repair biology has been greatly helped by the production of mice with knockouts in specific genes. The goal of this protocol is to quantify genomic instability in mouse B lymphocytes. Labeling of the...
Published 08/19/2014    Read More...
Individuals rarely grow as fast as their physiologies permit despite the fitness advantages of being large. One reason may be that rapid growth is costly, resulting for example in somatic damage. The chromosomal ends, the telomeres, are particularly vulnerable to such damage, and telomere attrition thus influences the rate of ageing. Here, we used a transgenic salmon model with an artificially increased growth rate to test the hypothesis that rapid growth is traded off against the ability to...
Published 08/14/2015    Read More...
Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric repeats are important parts of eukaryotic genome. However, little is known about their organization and localization in karyotypes of organisms with holocentric chromosomes. Here we present first cytogenetic study of these molecular structures in seven blue butterflies of the genus Polyommatus Latreille, 1804 with low and high chromosome numbers (from n=10 to n=ca.108) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric...
Published 05/11/2015    Read More...
Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila,...
Published 07/24/2014    Read More...
Evaluation of the relationships existing among 3 histologic types of urothelial tumors, chromosomal instability, and telomere length....
Published 03/17/2013    Read More...
This study investigated the correlation of the extent of chromosomal aberrations including uniparental disomies (UPDs) by SNP-chip analysis and FISH to telomere length in 46 patients with CLL. CLL harboring high risk aberrations, i.e. deletions of 11q22-23 or 17p13, had significantly shorter telomeres (higher ΔTL) compared to patients with CLL without such abnormalities. Patients with high chromosomal aberration rates had a worse overall survival compared to cases with lower aberration rates....
Published 10/12/2015    Read More...
In this study the 3-D distribution of centromeres and telomeres was analysed in the interphase nuclei of three Brachypodium species, i.e. B. distachyon (2n=10), B. stacei (2n=20) and B. hybridum (2n=30), which is presumably a hybrid between the first two species. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromeric and telomeric DNA probes, it was observed that the majority of B. distachyon nuclei in the root tip cells displayed the Rabl configuration while both B. stacei and B....
Published 07/24/2015    Read More...
The spatiotemporal behavior of chromatin is an important control mechanism of genomic function. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have broadly contributed to demonstrate the functional importance of nuclear organization. Although in the wild yeast survival depends on their ability to withstand adverse conditions, most of these studies were conducted on cells undergoing exponential growth. In these conditions, as in most eukaryotic cells, silent chromatin that is mainly found at the 32...
Published 09/23/2015    Read More...
Heterochromatin plays an important role in the spatial arrangement and evolution of the eukaryotic genetic apparatus. The closely related species Drosophila virilis (phyla virilis) and D. kanekoi (phyla montana) differ in the amount of heterochromatin along the chromosomes as well as by the presence of the metacentric chromosome 2, which emerged as a result of a pericentric inversion during speciation, in the D. kanekoi karyotype. The purpose of this study was to establish if chromosome...
Published 02/27/2015    Read More...
Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called "WEIRD" societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-Western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people--the Sahariya--who...
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
Assessing telomere length is of vital importance since telomere length is closely related with several fatal diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Here, we present a strategy to assess/measure telomere length, that is, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based in situ hybridization (SISH). The SISH method uses two kinds of SERS nanoprobes to hybridize in situ with telomeres and centromeres, respectively. The telomere specific SERS nanoprobe is called the Telo-probe, while the...
Published 01/28/2016    Read More...
Efficient oligonucleotide probe design and synthesis based on polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) is demonstrated for detection of telomeres in human monocyte and Leishmania major, a protozoan pathogenic parasite. The highly photoluminescent polymer-coated QDs conjugated with various length of telomere probe sequences were prepared via carbodiimide chemistry and characterized. Specific detection of telomere was observed when DNA sequence was (CCCAAT)n (n = 5 or 3) probe sequence, rather...
Published 09/10/2015    Read More...
Purpose - to explore the role of radiation dose on gene regulation of telomere length and its influence on the patho-genesis of cerebrovascular neurocognitive deficit at the remote period of low-dose irradiation as a result of the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. We performed a study of TERF1, TERF2 and TERT genes expression (GE) by RT-PCR, and relative telomere length (RTL) by flow-FISH in 258 clean-up workers of Chornobyl accident divided by radiation dose groups (range 22-2800 mSv)...
Published 12/23/2014    Read More...
Pediatric ependymomas are highly recurrent tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein critical in permitting limitless replication, has been found to be critically important for the maintenance of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). These TICs are chemoresistant, repopulate the tumor from which they are identified, and are drivers of recurrence in numerous cancers. In this study, telomerase enzymatic activity was directly measured and inhibited to assess the...
Published 08/06/2014    Read More...
Gabriela M. Baerlocher1 and Peter M. Lansdorp. . Cytometry Part A 55A:1-6, 2003. Telomeres are essential protein-DNA structures at the end of chromosomes which are implicated in genome stability and cell replication. The average length of telomere repeats can be measured by in situ hybridization and flow cytometry...
Published     Read More...
Structural and functional analysis of telomeres is very important for understanding basic biological functions such as genome stability, cell growth control, senescence and aging. Recently, serious concerns have been raised regarding the reliability of current telomere measurement methods such as Southern blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Since telomere length is associated with age related pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, both at the individual and...
Published 03/18/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are located at ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and can affect proper chromosomal positioning. During spermatogenesis, the appropriate dynamics and behavior of chromosomes is crucial to generate haploid cells through meiosis. Here, we describe telomere distribution patterns during spermatogenesis in zebrafish, especially during meiotic prophase I, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This was combined with synaptonemal complex protein 3 immunostaining, which allows the staging of...
Published 07/31/2014    Read More...
After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived...
Published 02/20/2015    Read More...
Telomere lengths in normal human cells are tightly regulated within a narrow range. Telomere length abnormalities are prevalent genetic alterations in malignant transformation. We studied telomere length abnormalities, telomerase RNA component (TERC) expression, alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATRX) expression, and death domain-associated protein (DAXX) expression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). We used tissue microarrays to perform telomere fluorescent...
Published 05/30/2015    Read More...
This is a retrospective study aiming to assess telomere length in human embryos 4 days post fertilization and to determine whether it is correlated to chromosomal ploidy, embryo developmental rate and patient age. Embryos were donated from patients undergoing treatment in the assisted conception unit. Seven couples took part, generating 35 embryos consisting of 1130 cells. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) measured the telomere length of every cell using a pan-telomeric...
Published 01/24/2014    Read More...
Trisomies 18 and 21 are genetic disorders in which cells possess an extra copy of each of the relevant chromosomes. Individuals with these disorders who survive birth generally have a shortened life expectancy. As telomeres are known to play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by protecting the chromosomal ends, we conducted a study to determine whether there are differences in telomere length at birth between individuals with trisomy and diploidy, and between trisomic...
Published 09/29/2013    Read More...
Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
While global chromatin conformation studies are emerging, very little is known about the chromatin conformation of human telomeres. Most studies have focused on the role of telomeres as a tumor suppressor mechanism. Here we describe how telomere length regulates gene expression long before telomeres become short enough to produce a DNA damage response (senescence). We directly mapped the interactions adjacent to specific telomere ends using a Hi-C (chromosome capture followed by high-throughput...
Published 11/18/2014    Read More...
Shortened telomere length (TL) and oxidative stress have been described in several vascular disorders at both the tissue and circulating level. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports about TL associated with varicose vein (VV) disease. This paper aimed to evaluate, at the tissue and circulating level, TL and oxidative stress in VV disease, compared to the corresponding counterparts from abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients and control healthy subjects. TL was measured using...
Published 02/20/2014    Read More...
Ring chromosome 17 syndrome is a rare disease that arises from the breakage and reunion of the short and long arms of chromosome 17. Usually this abnormality results in deletion of genetic material, which explains the clinical features of the syndrome. Moreover, similar phenotypic features have been observed in cases with complete or partial loss of the telomeric repeats and conservation of the euchromatic regions. We studied two different cases of ring 17 syndrome, firstly, to clarify, by...
Published 01/07/2014    Read More...
Telomeric dysfunction has been proposed as an emerging prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have explored the relationship between telomere length (TL) and chromosome alterations studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytogenetics in 107 newly diagnosed CLL patients; 61 normal controls were also evaluated. Results were correlated with clinical parameters and outcome. Absolute TL measurement was carried out on DNA samples by real-time...
Published 05/26/2015    Read More...
Telomeres are involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. Telomere alteration has been observed in most human cancer types, and is known to be a feature of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the telomere length of breast cancer cells correlates with TNM stage and several pathological features. We investigated a total of 44 breast cancers, including 17 scirrhous, 15 papillotubular and 12 solid-tubular carcinomas. Telomere lengths were determined by tissue...
Published 06/15/2015    Read More...
Placentas from pregnancies complicated with IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) express altered telomere homeostasis. In the current study, we examined mechanisms of telomere shortening in these placentas....
Published 07/07/2014    Read More...
The intrauterine environment, including the placenta, is influenced by a variety of factors, among which is diabetes during pregnancy. These factors can affect lifetime morbidity. Senescence is a state of cellular metabolic arrest, known to be correlated with age-related diseases and is usually accompanied by short telomeres. This study evaluated telomere characteristics in placentas and in cord blood from term pregnancies complicated by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus....
Published 11/25/2014    Read More...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is able to accumulate genetic p53 mutations and may be considered co-oncogenic. This study investigates 1p36.3 telomere deletion in B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients with chronic HCV infection using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in relation to survival to assess Ki-67 antigen expression. A study group and a control group of 100 patients with B-NHL (50 HCV positive and 50 HCV negative) and 60 control bone marrow biopsies were subjected to...
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Telomeric attrition has repeatedly been found to correlate with the ageing of organisms; however, recent research is increasingly showing that the determinants of attrition dynamics are not well understood. This study examined the relative telomere lengths in Eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, kept at different temperatures and at different ages. Newly born fry were randomly selected for one of four treatment groups: 20, 30, 20-30, and 30-20 °C, where the third and fourth treatment...
Published 01/22/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are ribonucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes composed of telomeric DNA, specific-binding proteins, and noncoding RNA (TERRA). Despite their importance in preventing chromosome instability, little is known about the cross talk between these three elements during the formation of the germ line. Here, we provide evidence that both TERRA and the telomerase enzymatic subunit (TERT) are components of telomeres in mammalian germ cells. We found that TERRA colocalizes with...
Published 04/09/2014    Read More...
All human chromosomes are capped by tandem repeat (TTAGGG)n sequences that protect them against end-to-end fusion and are essential to chromosomal replication and integrity. Therefore, after a chromosomal breakage, the deleted chromosomes must be stabilized by retaining the telomere or acquiring a new cap, by telomere healing or telomere capture. There are few reports with molecular approaches on the mechanisms involved in stabilization of 18q terminal deletions....
Published 05/13/2015    Read More...
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with poor health. Depression may be associated with the shortening of leukocyte telomeres. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of depression and telomere length and to identify moderators of the relationship between depression and telomere length....
Published 02/24/2015    Read More...
The wide variation in chromosome number found in species of the genus Linum (2n = 16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 42, 72, 84) indicates that chromosomal mutations have played an important role in the speciation of this taxon. To contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and species relationships in this genus, comparative studies of karyotypes and genomes of species within section Syllinum Griseb. (2n = 26, 28) were carried out. Elongated with 9-aminoacridine chromosomes of...
Published 04/02/2015    Read More...
We analyzed chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres in the progeny of mammalian cells exposed to the methylating agent and antineoplastic/diabetogenic drug streptozotocin (STZ), to test whether it induces long-term telomere instability (by chromosome end loss and/or telomere dysfunction). Rat cells (ADIPO-P2 cell line, derived from Sprague-Dawley rat adipose cells) were treated with a single concentration of STZ (2mM). Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed 18h, 10 days, and 15 days after...
Published 10/01/2015    Read More...
We analyzed the chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres in the progeny of mammalian cells exposed to the radiomimetic compound streptonigrin (SN) in order to determine if this antineoplastic drug induces long-term telomere instability. To this end, rat cells (ADIPO-P2 cell line, derived from adipose cells from Sprague-Dawley rat) were treated with a single concentration of SN (100ng/ml), and chromosomal aberrations were analyzed 18h and 10 and 15 days after treatment by using PNA-FISH with a...
Published 01/06/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG)n located at the ends of chromosomes that function to preserve chromosomal integrity and prevent terminal end-to-end fusions. Telomere loss or dysfunction results in breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, aneuploidy, gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to genomic instability and promote carcinogenesis. Evaluating the hypothesis that changes in telomeres contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
Published 01/27/2015    Read More...
Over the last decade, annual incidence rates for thyroid cancer have been among the highest of all cancers in the Western world. However, the genomic mechanisms impacting thyroid carcinogenesis remain elusive....
Published 09/04/2013    Read More...
The frequency of dicentric chromosomes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes at metaphase is considered as the "gold-standard" method for biological dosimetry and, presently, it is the most widely used for dose assessment. Yet, it needs lymphocyte stimulation and a 2-day culture, failing the requirement of rapid dose estimation, which is a high priority in radiation emergency medicine and triage biodosimetry. In the present work, we assess the applicability of cell fusion mediated premature...
Published 06/25/2015    Read More...
Using amino-labeled oligonucleotide probes, we established a simple, robust and low-noise method for simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization, a highly useful tool to study the large pool of long non-coding RNAs being identified in the current research. With probes either chemically or biologically synthesized, we demonstrate that the method can be applied to study a wide range of RNA and DNA targets at the single-cell and single-molecule level in cellular...
Published 09/16/2014    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction-induced loss of genome integrity and its associated DNA damage signaling and checkpoint responses are well-established drivers that cause tissue degeneration during ageing. Cancer, with incidence rates greatly increasing with age, is characterized by short telomere lengths and high telomerase activity. To study the roles of telomere dysfunction and telomerase reactivation in ageing and cancer, the protocol shows how to generate two murine inducible telomerase knock-in...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres...
Published 02/08/2015    Read More...
Sex determination can be robustly genetic, strongly environmental, or genetic subject to environmental perturbation. The genetic basis of sex determination is unknown for zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model for development and human health. We used RAD-tag population genomics to identify sex-linked polymorphisms. After verifying this "RAD-sex" method on medaka (Oryzias latipes), we studied two domesticated zebrafish strains (AB and TU), two natural laboratory strains (WIK and EKW), and two recent...
Published 09/18/2014    Read More...
This study was aimed to investigate the genetic characteristics of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt-4, and evaluate its application in measuring telomere length by Flow-FISH. Molt-4 cell line was cultured in suspension and subcultured regularly. Eight different passages of Molt-4 cells in exponential stage were selected.The growth curves were drawn by cell counting method, meanwhile calculating the population doubling times of cells,DNA ploidies were determined by flow...
Published 04/25/2014    Read More...
To analysze genotype and measure telomere length in two Chinese patients with dyskeratosis congenita(DC)....
Published 02/17/2015    Read More...
The non-coding and repetitive sequences constitute a great amount of higher eukaryotes genomes, but the elucidation of its role and mechanisms of action is now at the very beginning. Here we found, that internal telomeric repeats in Danio rerio are colocalized with some repetitive elements, namely, hAT and EnSpm repeats, which are highly represented in vertebrate genome. While investigating one of genome regions, containing two pairs of such repeats in close proximity we found, that it is...
Published 04/06/2015    Read More...
Rye (Secale cereale L., RR) is a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD). Transferring alien rye genes into wheat by distant hybridization and automatic chromosome doubling is an important and efficient method to boost agronomic traits, disease resistance and widening the gene pool in wheat. In this study, an octoploid triticale CD-13 (AABBDDRR) was obtained via automatic chromosome doubling by crossing landrace Penganbaimaizi (T. aestivum L.,...
Published 09/09/2015    Read More...
The structure of telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n was determined and the length of telomeric DNA (tDNA) was measured in three species of gastropods from the family Benedictiidae that are endemic to Lake Baikal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the localization of a telomeric repeat at the chromosome ends. The sizes of tDNA in "giant" eurybathic, psammo-pelobiontic species Benedictia fragilis and shallow water litho-psammobiontic species B. baicalensis with medium shell sizes were...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
To investigate the changes of relative telomere length (RTL) of peripheral blood (PB) CD3⁺, CD3⁺CD4⁺, CD3⁺CD8⁺T lymphocytes, CD19⁺B lymphocytes and bone marrow (BM) CD34⁺ cells and its association with disease severity in untreated patients with immuno-related pancytopenia (IRP)....
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
The presence of γH2AX foci on apparently intact mitotic chromosomes is controversial because they challenge the assumed relationship between γH2AX foci and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this work, we show that after irradiation during interphase, a variety of γH2AX foci are scored in mitotic cells. Surprisingly, approximately 80% of the γH2AX foci spread over apparently undamaged chromatin at Terminal or Interstitial positions and they can display variable sizes, thus being classified...
Published 12/09/2014    Read More...