Telomere Science Library

Publications, Presentations, and Videos
about the Nobel-Prize Winning Science of Telomere Biology

brain

Sort by:
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our previous data demonstrated that two SNPs (rs398652 on 14q21 and rs621559 on 1p34.2) were associated with LTL and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese. However, the role of these genetic variants on glioma risk is still unknown. Therefore, we examined if these genetic variants have impact on the genetic susceptibility of glioma in...
Published 05/21/2014    Read More...
DOK1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated glioma cell motility. Mechanisms regulating tumour cell motility are essential for invasion and metastasis. We report here that PDGF-BB-mediated glioma cell invasion and migration are dependent on the adaptor protein downstream of kinase 1 (DOK1). DOK1 is expressed in several glioma cell lines and in tumour biopsies from high-grade gliomas. DOK1 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon PDGF-BB stimulation of human glioma cells....
Published 04/24/2014    Read More...
The combined 1p-/19q- deletions in oligodendrogliomas originate from translocation between both chromosomes. In the few cases of oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) where only 1p deletion was described, the origin remains unknown. We report the first case of GBMO, in which a single 1p deletion was detected and was linked to a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7. Fresh surgical specimens were collected during surgery and the samples were used for...
Published 09/30/2013    Read More...
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4, and is characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, congenital malformations, and typical facial appearance including 'Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose. The form and the severity of clinical manifestations vary according to the size and location of the deletion. Major complications are severe growth retardation, developmental delay, seizures, feeding difficulties due to...
Published 11/04/2014    Read More...
The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that...
Published 07/23/2015    Read More...
Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase...
Published 10/21/2015    Read More...
Authors: Emily E. Anthes Published: 04/03/2014, Nature PubMed Full Text...
Published 04/03/2014    Read More...
Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected...
Published 10/15/2014    Read More...
Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication...
Published 01/16/2015    Read More...
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent...
Published 03/10/2015    Read More...
Naturally occurring telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) isoforms may regulate telomerase activity, and possibly function independently of telomeres to modulate embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and differentiation....
Published 02/18/2016    Read More...
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of exogenous estrogen on telomerase activity in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats....
Published 09/05/2015    Read More...
Anxiety disorders (AnxDs) are highly prevalent throughout the lifespan, with detrimental effects on daily-life functioning, somatic health, and quality of life. An emerging perspective suggested that AnxDs may be associated with accelerated aging. In this paper, we explored the association between AnxDs and hallmarks of accelerated aging, with a specific focus on neuroprogression. We reviewed animal and human findings that suggest an overlap between processes of impaired neurogenesis,...
Published 12/31/2015    Read More...
To examine the association between plasma concentrations of antioxidative micronutrients and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in elderly adults....
Published 01/15/2014    Read More...
Compelling epidemiological evidence indicates that alterations of telomere length are associated with risks of many malignancies in a tumor-specific manner, such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the association between leukocyte telomere length and glioma risk has not been investigated....
Published 12/22/2013    Read More...
Glioma is the most devastating type of malignant brain tumors in adults. Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of glioma. In recent years, some studies found that there were significant association between regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 rs6010620 polymorphism and glioma susceptibility, however, the results were controversial. The aim of this study was to obtain a more exact estimation of the association between regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 rs6010620...
Published 01/15/2015    Read More...
Several psychiatric disorders may be characterized by peripheral telomere shortening. However, it is unclear whether telomere shortening is associated with these psychiatric disorders per se or, rather, with underlying dimensional parameters that are often, but not necessarily, associated with them. We explored the association between dimensional psychopathological measures and telomere length (TL) in granulocytes among veterans independent of psychiatric diagnosis....
Published 10/28/2015    Read More...
Associations between the rs6010620 polymorphism in the regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) gene and glioma have been widely reported but the results were not inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the rs6010620 polymorphism in RTEL1 gene and risk of glioma by meta-analysis....
Published 09/17/2014    Read More...
To uncover the genetic events leading to transformation of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) to secondary high-grade glioma (sHGG)....
Published 02/09/2015    Read More...
BDNF plays an important role in the development and maintenance of visual circuitries in the retina and brain visual centers. In adulthood, BDNF signaling is involved in neural protection and regeneration of retina. In this survey, we investigated the expression of BDNF in the retina of adult Nothobranchius furzeri, a teleost fish employed for age research. After describing the retina of N. furzeri and confirming that the structure is organized in layers as in all vertebrates, we have studied...
Published 02/06/2014    Read More...
Authors: Jolan E JE. Walter, Mary M. Armanios, Uzma U. Shah, Alison M AM. Friedmann, Thomas T. Spitzer, Steven M SM. Sharatz, Catherine C. Hagen Published: 12/31/2015, The New England journal of medicine PubMed Full Text...
Published 12/31/2015    Read More...
CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63-deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death, and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is...
Published 07/09/2015    Read More...
Cerebro-retinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) or Coats plus syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder affecting the eyes, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pathogenesis involves small vessel obliterative microangiopathy. Recently, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in CTC1 have been reported in CRMCC patients. We herein report an adolescent referred to our hospital following new seizures in a context of an undefined multisystem disorder. Cerebral imaging...
Published 04/02/2015    Read More...
For the first time, a plant (rice) translin was characterized. The rice translin protein, which was octameric in native state, bound efficiently to single-stranded DNA and RNA. Translin, a DNA-/RNA-binding protein, is expressed in brain, testis and in certain malignancies. It is involved in chromosomal translocation, mRNA metabolism, transcriptional regulation and telomere protection. Studies from human, mice, drosophila and yeast have revealed that it forms an octameric ring, which is important...
Published 05/27/2014    Read More...
With the continued extension of lifespan, aging and age-related diseases have become a major medical challenge to our society. Aging is accompanied by changes in multiple systems. Among these, the aging process in the central nervous system is critically important but very poorly understood. Neurons, as post-mitotic cells, are devoid of replicative associated aging processes, such as senescence and telomere shortening. However, because of the inability to self-replenish, neurons have to...
Published 08/14/2014    Read More...
Authors: Andrew R AR. Raymond, Gavin R GR. Norton, Lois M LM. Harden, Angela J AJ. Woodiwiss, Richard L RL. Brooksbank Published: 05/02/2014, International journal of cardiology PubMed Full Text...
Published 05/02/2014    Read More...
It is supposed that the development and aging of multicellular animals and humans are controlled by a special form of the clock mechanism - a chronograph. The development of animals and their aging are interconnected by the program of the species lifespan that has been selected in the evolution of each species to fit the resources of its ecological niche. The theory is based on the idea about a controlled loss by the neurons in the brain of hypothetical organelles - chronomeres that represent...
Published 04/22/2015    Read More...
It is supposed that the development and aging of multicellular animals and humans are controlled by a special form of the clock mechanism - a chronograph. The development of animals and their aging are interconnected by the program of the species lifespan that has been selected in the evolution of each species to fit the resources of its ecological niche.
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
The relative length of telomeres measured in peripheral blood leukocytes is a commonly used system marker for biological aging and can also be used as a biomarker of cardiovascular aging. However, to what extent the telomere length in peripheral leukocytes reflects telomere length in different organ tissues is still unclear. Therefore, we have measured relative telomere length (rTL) in twelve different human tissues (peripheral blood leukocytes, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, brain, skin,...
Published 11/27/2014    Read More...
We studied potential changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAM-P8) aging model. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays with longtime survival revealed a lower number of label-retaining stem cells in the SAM-P8 SVZ compared with the SAM-Resistant 1 (SAM-R1) control strain. We also found that in SAM-P8 niche signaling is attenuated and the stem cell pool is less responsive to the self-renewal niche factor pigmented epithelium-derived factor...
Published 01/30/2015    Read More...
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered...
Published 09/28/2014    Read More...
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research has made minimal progress diagnosing who will suffer from lingering symptomology or generating effective treatment strategies. Research demonstrates that dietary intake affects many biological systems including brain and neurological health. This study determined if exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) or caloric restriction (CR) altered post-concussion susceptibility or resiliency using a rodent model of pediatric concussion. Rats were...
Published 02/05/2015    Read More...
The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in...
Published 03/01/2014    Read More...
Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6,...
Published 12/27/2013    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with dementia and psychological stress, but its relationship with human brain size is unknown....
Published 10/14/2014    Read More...
Genetic mutations in microcephalin1 (MCPH1) cause primary autosomal recessive microcephaly which is characterized by a marked reduction in brain size. MCPH1 encodes a centrosomal protein with three BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains. Also, it is a key regulator of DNA repair pathway and cell cycle checkpoints. Interestingly, in the past few years, many research studies have explored the role of MCPH1, a neurodevelopmental gene in several cancers and its tumor suppressor functions have been...
Published 01/29/2014    Read More...
A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35-55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day), ubiquinone (300 mg/day),...
Published 09/17/2014    Read More...
Microglia are a proliferative population of resident brain macrophages that under physiological conditions self-renew independent of hematopoiesis. Microglia are innate immune cells actively surveying the brain and are the earliest responders to injury. During aging, microglia elicit an enhanced innate immune response also referred to as 'priming'. To date, it remains unknown whether telomere shortening affects the proliferative capacity and induces priming of microglia. We addressed this issue...
Published 08/03/2015    Read More...
Authors: Aric A AA. Prather, Frederick M FM. Hecht, Elissa S ES. Epel Published: 02/02/2016, Brain, behavior, and immunity PubMed Full Text...
Published 02/02/2016    Read More...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an invariably fatal brain tumor in which a small subpopulation of self-renewable glioma stem cells (GSCs) contributes to tumor propagation and relapse. Targeting GSCs could therefore have a significant clinical impact for GBM. Telomestatin is a naturally-occurring compound that preferentially impairs GSC growth by perturbing transcription and inducing a DNA damage response. Telomestatin stabilizes G-quadruplexes (G4s), which are guanine-rich four-strand nucleic acid...
Published 02/01/2016    Read More...
Objective - to estimate the possible effects of low dose ionizing radiation on human cognitive function in adult hood and in utero....
Published 12/23/2015    Read More...
Cre/loxP system-mediated site-specific recombination is utilized to study gene function in vivo. Successful conditional knockout of genes of interest is dependent on the availability of Cre-driver mice. We produced and characterized pancreatic β cell-specific Cre-driver mice for use in diabetes mellitus research. The gene encoding Cre was inserted into the second exon of mouse Ins1 in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Five founder mice were produced by microinjection of linearized BAC...
Published 04/28/2014    Read More...
Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate...
Published 12/07/2014    Read More...
Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute...
Published 06/30/2014    Read More...
Chromosomal telomere length shortens with repeated cell divisions. Human leukocyte DNA telomere length (LTL) has been shown to shorten during aging. LTL shortening has correlated with decreased longevity, dementia, and other age-associated processes. Because LTL varies widely between individuals in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have...
Published 06/18/2015    Read More...
Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines three grades, predictive of the risk of recurrence. These tumors can relapse frequently and sometimes undergo malignant transformation. Maintenance of telomere length is a key process in malignant progression, and mutations in TERT promoter have recently been identified in various types of cancer. We sequenced the TERT promoter in 85 meningiomas from 73 patients. We found a high incidence of TERT...
Published 12/23/2013    Read More...
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, and telomere length (TL) may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. Hormone-brain-aging behavior-modulated telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state, and these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome is a severe multisystem disorder that is characterized by bone-marrow failure, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, immunodeficiency, and cerebellar atrophy. This rare disease shares clinical features with dyskeratosis congenita and, together, they are recognized as a group of disorders caused by telomere dysfunction. As the genetic background of dyskeratosis congenita or Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome has expanded rapidly, multiple causative genes and...
Published 06/07/2014    Read More...
The molecular basis to overcome therapeutic resistance to treat glioblastoma remains unclear. The anti-apoptotic b cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene is associated with treatment resistance, and is transactivated by the paired box transcription factor 8 (PAX8). In earlier studies, we demonstrated that increased PAX8 expression in glioma cell lines was associated with the expression of telomerase. In this current study, we more extensively explored a role for PAX8 in gliomagenesis....
Published 03/06/2014    Read More...
Following adverse childhood experiences, high quality maternal care can protect against accelerated telomere shortening in peripheral cells. It is less clear, however, how telomere length in the brain is influenced by early caregiving experiences. Using rats, we investigated if quality of care (i.e., aversive or nurturing care outside of the homecage) during the first seven days of postnatal (PN) life affected telomere length in the adult brain (PN90) of male and female rats. At PN90, we found...
Published 07/01/2014    Read More...
The apoptotic actions of p53 require its phosphorylation by a family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related-kinases (PIKKs), which include DNA-PKcs and ATM. These kinases are stabilized by the TTT (Tel2, Tti1, Tti2) cochaperone family, whose actions are mediated by CK2 phosphorylation. The inositol pyrophosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are generated by a family of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), of which IP6K2 has been implicated in p53-associated cell...
Published 03/20/2014    Read More...
Synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates through activation of Kcs1 plays an important role in the signalling response required for cell cycle progression after mating pheromone arrest. Overexpression of Kcs1 doubled the level of inositol pyrophosphates when compared to wild type cells and 30 min following the release from α-factor block further increase in inositol pyrophosphates was observed, which resulted that cells overexpressing Kcs1 reached G2/M phase earlier than wild type cells. Similar...
Published 09/26/2015    Read More...
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with a reduced life expectancy compared to the general population mainly due to a high prevalence of comorbid somatic illnesses. A model of accelerated aging has been proposed as a potential explanation to these epidemiological findings. Nevertheless, studies measuring telomere length (TL) in patients with BD compared to healthy controls have provided mixed results....
Published 07/26/2015    Read More...
Age and short leukocyte telomeres have been associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inflammation is involved in AD and it is suggested that anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) may partly antagonize these processes....
Published 09/25/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A...
Published 10/15/2015    Read More...
Telomere length has been associated with coronary artery disease and heart failure. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length is associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)....
Published 04/04/2015    Read More...
Mastocytosisis a rare disease associated with chronic symptoms related to mast cell mediator release. Patients with mastocytosis display high level of negative emotionality such as depression and stress sensibility. Brain mast cells are mainly localized in the diencephalon, which is linked to emotion regulatory systems. Negative emotionality has been shown to be associated with telomere shortening. Taken together these observations led us to hypothesize that mast cells activity could be involved...
Published 08/01/2013    Read More...
With the identification of mutations in the conserved telomere maintenance component 1 (CTC1) gene as the cause of Coats plus (CP) disease, it has become evident that leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is a distinct genetic entity....
Published 01/09/2014    Read More...
We present a clinical, neuro-radiological and genetic study on a family with members suffering from an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterised by epilepsy, cerebral calcifications and cysts, bone abnormalities; progressive neuro-cognitive deterioration and paranasal sinusitis. This syndrome shares several features with leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts also called Labrune syndrome and the condition of cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts...
Published 07/18/2014    Read More...
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key gene in DNA double-strand break (DSB), and therefore, most of its disabling genetic alterations play an important initiative role in many types of cancer. However, the exact role of ATM gene and its epigenetic alterations, especially promoter methylation in different grades of brain tumors, remains elusive. The current study was conducted to query possible correlations among methylation statue of ATM gene, ATM/ retinoblastoma (RB) protein expression,...
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Several studies have reported an association between traumatic stress and telomere length suggesting that traumatic stress has an impact on ageing at the cellular level. A newly derived tool provides an additional means to investigate cellular ageing by estimating epigenetic age based on DNA methylation profiles. We therefore hypothesise that in a longitudinal study of traumatic stress both indicators of cellular ageing will show increased ageing. We expect that particularly in individuals that...
Published 07/23/2014    Read More...
Telomere length is hypothesised to be a biological marker of both cognitive and physical ageing. Here we measure telomere length, and cognitive and physical abilities at mean ages 70, 73 and 76 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), and at mean ages 79, 87, 90 and 92 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). We investigate whether telomere length change predicts change in cognitive and physical abilities. In LBC1936 telomere length decreased by an average of 65 base pairs per...
Published 02/10/2016    Read More...
Shorter telomere length (TL) has found to be associated with lower birth weight and with lower cognitive ability and psychiatric disorders. However, the direction of causation of these associations and the extent to which they are genetically or environmentally mediated are unclear. Within-pair comparisons of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins can throw light on these questions. We investigated correlations of within pair differences in telomere length, IQ, and anxiety/depression in an...
Published 03/06/2015    Read More...
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered as the marker of biological aging and may be related to environmental factors. The current study aimed to examine the relation between Mediterranean-type diet and LTL. We used a cross-sectional study of 1743 multi-ethnic community residents of New York aged 65 years or older. Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) was calculated from dietary information collected using a food frequency questionnaire. LTL was measured from leukocyte DNA using a real-time PCR...
Published 03/08/2015    Read More...
Monosomy 1p36 syndrome is the most commonly observed subtelomeric deletion syndrome. Patients with this syndrome typically have common clinical features, such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, and characteristic craniofacial features....
Published 08/27/2014    Read More...
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK-MAPK) are mediators of impaired cerebral hemodynamics after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in piglets. Microparticles (MPs) are released into the circulation from a variety of cells during stress, are pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory, and may be lysed with polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEG-TB). We hypothesized that MPs released after traumatic brain...
Published 07/31/2015    Read More...
Western societies are aging due to an increasing life span, decreased birth rates, and improving social and health conditions. On the other hand, the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular (CBV) diseases rises with age. Thus, in view of the ongoing aging pandemic, it is appropriate to better understand the molecular pathways of aging as well as age-associated CV and CBV diseases. Oxidative stress contributes to aging of organs and the whole body by an accumulation of reactive...
Published 11/04/2015    Read More...
Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p =...
Published 04/23/2015    Read More...
Glioblastoma is the most prevalent primary brain tumor and is essentially universally fatal within 2 years of diagnosis. Glioblastomas contain cellular hierarchies with self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. GSCs express high amounts of repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST), which may contribute to their resistance to standard therapies. Telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) stablizes telomeres and REST...
Published 06/07/2014    Read More...
Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome seen in humans. Uniform features of the syndrome include early developmental delay and consequent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. The gene-rich nature of the chromosomal band, inconsistent deletion sizes and overlapping clinical features have complicated relevant genotype-phenotype correlations. We describe four patients with isolated chromosome 1p36 deletions. All patients...
Published 01/25/2014    Read More...
Aging continuously remodels the immune system, a process known as immunosenescence. Here, we review evidence of premature immunosenescence in younger individuals under conditions of chronic psychological stress, chronic inflammation, or exposure to certain persistent viral infections. Chronic stress may accelerate various features of immunosenescence by activating key allostatic systems, notably the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased cortisol levels. Chronic stress is associated...
Published 05/05/2015    Read More...
Human and chimpanzee genomes are 98.8% identical within comparable sequences. However, they differ structurally in nine pericentric inversions, one fusion that originated human chromosome 2, and content and localization of heterochromatin and lineage-specific segmental duplications. The possible functional consequences of these cytogenetic and structural differences are not fully understood and their possible involvement in speciation remains unclear. We show that subtelomeric regions--regions...
Published 06/10/2014    Read More...
In addition to its classical role as a regulator of telomere length, recent reports suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression such as β-catenin-responsive pathways. Silencing or over-expression of TERT in cultured NPCs demonstrated that TERT induced glutamatergic neuronal differentiation. During embryonic brain development, expression of transcription factors involved in glutamatergic neuronal differentiation was...
Published 12/22/2015    Read More...
Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic...
Published 01/19/2015    Read More...
Authors: Sanjeet S. Bagcchi Published: 12/16/2014, The Lancet. Oncology PubMed Full Text...
Published 12/16/2014    Read More...
Psychological stress contributes to numerous diseases and may do so in part through damage to telomeres, protective non-coding segments on the ends of chromosomes....
Published 02/04/2016    Read More...
Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral...
Published 11/10/2015    Read More...
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterized by symptom profiles consisting of positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and a plethora of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic biomarkers. Assorted animal models of these disorders and clinical neurodevelopmental indicators have implicated neurodegeneration as an element in the underlying pathophysiology. Physical exercise or activity regimes--whether aerobic, resistance, or endurance--ameliorate regional brain and functional...
Published 07/15/2015    Read More...
PinX1, a conserved nuclear protein, could maintain telomere integrity and plays an important role in regulating telomerase activity. It has been reported that the expression of PinX1 is down-regulated in some cancer and associated with cancer prognosis. However, the value of PinX1 in gliomas has not been studied. In this study, two independent retrospective gliomas cohorts with the corresponding gliomas tissue microarrays (TMAs) were established to detect the expression level of PinX1 and the...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
TRF1, a telomere-binding protein, is important for telomere protection and homeostasis. PinX1 interacts with TRF1, but the physiological consequences of their interaction in telomere protection are not yet understood. Here we investigated PinX1 function on TRF1 stability in HeLa cells. PinX1 overexpression stabilized TRF1, but PinX1 depletion by siRNA led to TRF1 degradation, TRF1 ubiquitination, and less TRF1 telomere association. The depletion also induced DNA damage responses at telomeres and...
Published 01/10/2014    Read More...
Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, followed by suppression of the colony forming ability of the brain...
Published 06/09/2015    Read More...
Genome stability is essential for neural development and the prevention of neurological disease. Here we determined how DNA damage signaling from dysfunctional telomeres affects neurogenesis. We found that telomere uncapping by Pot1a inactivation resulted in an Atm-dependent loss of cerebellar interneurons and granule neuron precursors in the mouse nervous system. The activation of Atm by Pot1a loss occurred in an Atr-dependent manner, revealing an Atr to Atm signaling axis in the nervous system...
Published 06/06/2014    Read More...
Children with high-grade glioma, including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), have a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy. Identifying novel therapeutic targets is critical to improve their outcome. We evaluated prognostic roles of telomere maintenance mechanisms in children with HGG, including DIPG. A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted involving 50 flash-frozen HGG (35 non-brainstem; 15 DIPG) tumors from 45 children (30 non-brainstem; 15 DIPG). Telomerase activity,...
Published 01/30/2014    Read More...
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays an important role in modulating mood and behavior by regulating 5-HTT expression and thereby controlling the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) in brain synapses: The homozygous shorter allele (S/S) in 5-HTTLPR results in lower 5-HTT expression coupled with stronger psycho-pathological reactions to stressful experiences compared to the homozygous long (L/L) and heterozygous (S/L) alleles. Psychological insults and...
Published 04/07/2014    Read More...
Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a...
Published 05/18/2015    Read More...
Authors: Justin G JG. Cooke Published: 06/16/2015, Journal of the National Cancer Institute PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
Telomeric 3' overhangs can fold into a four-stranded DNA structure termed G-quadruplex (G4), a formation which inhibits telomerase. As telomerase activation is crucial for telomere maintenance in most cancer cells, several classes of G4 ligands have been designed to directly disrupt telomeric structure....
Published 01/15/2014    Read More...
Several somatic mutation hotspots were recently identified in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter region in human cancers. Large scale studies of these mutations in multiple tumour types are limited, in particular in Asian populations. This study aimed to: analyse TERT promoter mutations in multiple tumour types in a large Chinese patient cohort, investigate novel tumour types and assess the functional significance of the mutations....
Published 04/02/2015    Read More...
Authors: Emily G EG. Jacobs, Elissa S ES. Epel, Jue J. Lin, Elizabeth H EH. Blackburn, Natalie L NL. Rasgon Published: 07/15/2014, JAMA neurology PubMed Full Text...
Published 07/15/2014    Read More...
Authors: Matthew M. Bainbridge, Melissa L ML. Bondy Published: 06/16/2015, Journal of the National Cancer Institute PubMed Full Text...
Published 06/16/2015    Read More...
The purpose of this study is to build a biological age (BA) equation combining telomere length with chronological age (CA) and associated aging biomarkers. In total, 139 healthy volunteers were recruited from a Chinese Han cohort in Beijing. A genetic index, renal function indices, cardiovascular function indices, brain function indices, and oxidative stress and inflammation indices (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were measured and analyzed. A BA equation was proposed based on selected parameters,...
Published 08/13/2014    Read More...
Subtelomeric regions dynamically change their epigenetic pattern during development and progression of several malignancies and degenerative disorders. However, DNA methylation of human subtelomeres and their correlation to telomere length (TL) remain undetermined in glioma....
Published 10/07/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell populations (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) known to have different vulnerabilities to a key mediator of telomere shortening, oxidative...
Published 06/26/2014    Read More...
leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging....
Published 11/14/2013    Read More...
The most important risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is age. Aging is ascribed to different mechanisms, including telomere shortening. Telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequences and stabilize chromosome integrity. Currently, however, the data reported on telomere shortening in PD patients are inconsistent. We investigated the effect of telomere shortening in the MPTP mouse model of PD using late-generation telomerase-deficient mice (G3 Terc mice). G3 Terc mice showed a...
Published 03/05/2014    Read More...
Increasing evidences have implicated somatic gain-of-function mutations at the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter as one of the major mechanisms that promote transcriptional activation of TERT and subsequently maintain telomere length in human cancers including glioma. To investigate the prognostic value of these mutations and telomere length, individually and their coexistence, in gliomas, we analyzed two somatic mutations C228T and C250T in the TERT promoter, relative telomere...
Published 11/09/2015    Read More...
Patients suffering from brain tumours such as glioblastoma and medulloblastoma have poor prognosis with a median survival of less than a year. Identifying alternative molecular targets would enable us to develop different therapeutic strategies for better management of these tumours....
Published 10/13/2014    Read More...
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the...
Published 09/02/2014    Read More...
Telomeres are protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of each chromosome, maintained primarily by the enzyme telomerase. Shortening of the blood leukocyte telomeres is associated with aging, several chronic diseases, and stress, eg, major depression. Hippocampus is pivotal in the regulation of cognition and mood and the main brain region of telomerase activity. Whether there is telomere dysfunction in the hippocampus of depressed subjects is unknown. Lithium, used in the treatment and...
Published 01/24/2015    Read More...
Pediatric ependymomas are highly recurrent tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein critical in permitting limitless replication, has been found to be critically important for the maintenance of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). These TICs are chemoresistant, repopulate the tumor from which they are identified, and are drivers of recurrence in numerous cancers. In this study, telomerase enzymatic activity was directly measured and inhibited to assess the...
Published 08/06/2014    Read More...
Chromothripsis is a recently discovered form of genomic instability, characterized by tens to hundreds of clustered DNA rearrangements resulting from a single dramatic event. Telomere dysfunction has been suggested to play a role in the initiation of this phenomenon, which occurs in a large number of tumor entities. Here, we show that telomere attrition can indeed lead to catastrophic genomic events, and that telomere patterns differ between cells analyzed before and after such genomic...
Published 02/29/2016    Read More...
The susceptibility of the aging brain to neurodegenerative disease may in part be attributed to cellular aging of the microglial cells that survey it. We investigated the effect of cellular aging induced by telomere shortening on microglia by the use of mice lacking the telomerase RNA component (TERC) and design-based stereology. TERC knockout (KO) mice had a significantly reduced number of CD11b(+) microglia in the dentate gyrus. Because of an even greater reduction in dentate gyrus volume,...
Published 03/14/2015    Read More...
Telomere shortening, a biomarker of cellular aging, has been associated with aging-related diseases. While psychological stress has been implicated in the process of telomere shortening, associations with activity of physiological stress systems have remained elusive. We studied whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychosocial stress in elderly adults....
Published 01/06/2015    Read More...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and severe movement disorder. Differences in telomere length (TL) have been reported as possible risk factors for several neuropsychiatric disorders, including PD. Results from published studies for TL in PD are inconsistent, highlighting the need for a meta-analysis. In the current work, a meta-analysis of published studies for TL in PD was carried out. PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were used to identify relevant articles that reported...
Published 01/07/2016    Read More...
Authors: Quinn Q. Conklin, Brandon B. King, Anthony A. Zanesco, Jennifer J. Pokorny, Anahita A. Hamidi, Jue J. Lin, Elissa E. Epel, Elizabeth E. Blackburn, Clifford C. Saron Published: 08/08/2015, Psychoneuroendocrinology PubMed Full Text...
Published 08/08/2015    Read More...
Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high...
Published 11/23/2015    Read More...
Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and...
Published 03/31/2014    Read More...
Ilaria Chiodi and Chiara Mondello* Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia, Italy Telomerase canonical activity at telomeres prevents telomere shortening, allowing chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. To perform this task, the catalytic subunit (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT) of the enzyme works as a reverse transcriptase together...
Published     Read More...
Telomeres are structures of tandem TTAGGG repeats that are found at the ends of chromosomes and preserve genomic DNA by serving as a disposable buffer to protect DNA termini during chromosome replication. In this process, the telomere itself shortens with each cell division and can consequently be thought of as a cellular 'clock', reflecting the age of a cell and the time until senescence. Telomere shortening and changes in the levels of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, occur in...
Published 03/30/2015    Read More...
Ken-Ichi Nakamura, Kaiyo Takubo, Naotaka Izumiyama-Shimomura, Motoji Sawabe, Tomio Arai, Hiroshi Kishimoto, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Motonobu Kato, Mitsuo Oshimura, Akio Ishii, Naoshi Ishikawa. Experimental Gerontology, 2007. Many studies have demonstrated the association between telomere length in mitotic cells and carcinogenesis and mortality, but little attention has been focused...
Published     Read More...
Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in...
Published 11/02/2015    Read More...
Chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is related to worse somatic health. This association applies both to stressors early in life, such as childhood adversities, and more recent life stress, such as stressful life events. This study examined whether accelerated telomere shortening, as an indicator of cellular aging, might be an explanatory mechanism....
Published 10/10/2015    Read More...
The immunosuppressant drug rapamycin was reported to have an antiaging activity, which was attributed to the TORC1 inhibition that inhibits cell proliferation and increases autophagy. However, rapamycin also exhibits a number of harmful adverse effects. Whether rapamycin can be developed into an antiaging agent remains unclear....
Published 10/20/2014    Read More...
Apart from therapeutic discovery, the study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been focused on two challenges: why do a majority of individuals recover with little concern, while a considerable proportion suffer with persistent and often debilitating symptomology; and, how do mild injuries significantly increase risk for an early-onset neurodegeneration? Owing to a lack of observable damage following mTBI, this study was designed to determine if there were changes in neuronal morphology,...
Published 12/30/2014    Read More...
Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
The telomerase reverse transcriptase protein TERT has recently been demonstrated to have a variety of functions both in vitro and in vivo, which are distinct from its canonical role in telomere extension. In different cellular systems, TERT protein has been shown to be protective through its interaction with mitochondria. TERT has previously been found in rodent neurons, and we hypothesize that it might have a protective function in adult human brain. Here, we investigated the expression of TERT...
Published 01/29/2015    Read More...
Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been conceptualized as both a cyclic and a progressive disorder. Mechanisms involved in neuroprogression in BD remain largely unknown although several non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed as explanatory frameworks. In the present paper, we propose that the pathophysiological changes observed in BD (e.g. brain structural alterations, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress imbalance, amyloid metabolism, immunological deregulation, immunosenescence, neurotrophic...
Published 02/15/2014    Read More...
Telomeres were originally believed to be passive players in cellular replication, but recent research has highlighted their more active role in epigenetic patterning and promotion of cellular growth and survival. Furthermore, literature demonstrates that telomere length (TL) is responsive to environmental manipulations such as prenatal stress and dietary programming. As the search for a prognostic biomarker of concussion has had limited success, this study sought to examine whether or not...
Published 12/17/2015    Read More...
Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied...
Published 12/20/2014    Read More...
Telomere dysfunction-induced loss of genome integrity and its associated DNA damage signaling and checkpoint responses are well-established drivers that cause tissue degeneration during ageing. Cancer, with incidence rates greatly increasing with age, is characterized by short telomere lengths and high telomerase activity. To study the roles of telomere dysfunction and telomerase reactivation in ageing and cancer, the protocol shows how to generate two murine inducible telomerase knock-in...
Published 04/13/2015    Read More...
Stress can be a predisposing factor to psychiatric disorders and has been associated with decreased neurogenesis and reduced hippocampal volume especially in depression. Similarly, in white blood cells chronic psychological stress has been associated with telomere shortening and with mood disorders and schizophrenia (SZ). However, in previous post-mortem brain studies from occipital cortex and cerebellum, no difference in telomere length was observed in depression. We hypothesized that in...
Published 09/15/2015    Read More...
Coats plus syndrome is an autosomal recessive, pleiotropic, multisystem disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudates, intracranial calcification with leukoencephalopathy and brain cysts, osteopenia with predisposition to fractures, bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal bleeding and portal hypertension. It is caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the CTC1 gene....
Published 02/10/2015    Read More...
With advancing age the left ventricle (LV) undergoes structural and functional changes, thereby creating the substrate for the development of diseases. One possible mechanism of the ageing of the heart is cellular senescence. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of replicative ageing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diastolic function of LV and level of NT-proBNP in people of different ages free of cardiovascular diseases and to assess their relationship with LTL. Our data...
Published 11/30/2015    Read More...
Authors: K K. Toriumi, M M. Miyashita, T T. Ichikawa, A A. Kobori, I I. Nohara, M M. Arai, N N. Obata, M M. Itokawa Published: 06/01/2015, Nihon shinkei seishin yakurigaku zasshi = Japanese journal of psychopharmacology PubMed...
Published 06/01/2015    Read More...
Neurodegenerative disease is common and frequently occurs in elderly patients. Previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 was able to inhibit senescent of brain, but the mechanism on the brain during the treatment remains elucidated. To study the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in the process of anti-aging of brain, forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Rg1 normal group, brain aging model group and Rg1 brain aging model group, each group with 10 rats (brain aging model...
Published 04/08/2015    Read More...
The roles of p53 as "guardian of the genome" are extensive, encompassing regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis, cellular metabolism, and senescence - ultimately steering cells through a balance of death and proliferation. The majority of sporadic cancers exhibit loss of p53 activity due to mutations or deletions of TP53, and alterations in its signaling pathway. Germline TP53 mutations have been identified in a group of families exhibiting a rare but highly penetrant familial...
Published 09/09/2014    Read More...